Hypertension – what it is, causes, symptoms,signs, treatment and complications

Hypertension is a disease in which there is sustained
high blood pressure. The signs of this disease may
be present in women and in men, but in the latter the arterial
hypertension appears much more often.

With high blood pressure indicators develops
deadly pathology of the cardiovascular system. Characteristic
jumps are dangerous to health, and in the absence of timely treatment
Doctors do not exclude hypertensive crisis. With such a problem
30% of all patients face, and the symptom is constantly younger.

AT этой статье, мы рассмотрим: что это такое за заболевание, в
what age occurs most often and what becomes the cause, and
also the first signs and treatments in adults.

What is hypertension?


Hypertension is a disease characterized by elevated
blood pressure. In a person not suffering from hypertension,
normal pressure is approximately 120/80 mm mercury
post, taking into account minor deviations.

Hypertension has a negative effect on
vessels of the patient, which in a short time are narrowed and damaged.
With too powerful blood flow, the walls of the vessels do not stand up and
burst, causing hemorrhage in patients.

To “catch” the disease at the initial stage, when changes
reversible, you need to regularly measure blood pressure. If in progress
periodic measurements often reveal numbers that exceed
normal performance, necessary correction of blood pressure.

Normal numbers are:

  • for people in the age of 16-20 years – 100/70 – 120/80 mm. Hg v .;
  • between 20 and 40 years old – 120/70 – 130/80;
  • 40-60 – not higher than 135/85;
  • 60 years and more – no higher than 140/90.

Who is hypertensive?

Hypertension is a person with a chronically elevated arterial
pressure. This is a dangerous condition, as with high blood pressure
significantly increases the risk of serious cardiovascular

Hypertension can be called a person with a pressure above 140/90 mm
Hg Art.

According to statistics in recent years, 25% of all adults
страдают повышенным pressure. And among the elderly
the percentage of hypertensive patients is even higher – 57%.

So how do you reveal true hypertension? Should produce
pressure measurement in the supine position and during exercise. Have
a healthy person, the difference will not be too noticeable, but hypertonic
will begin to experience difficulties and his pressure may jump to
220/120 millimeters of mercury. Simply put: in the present
hypertensive reaction to the load is very acute.

If a person has a pressure surge only once, then
This does not mean that you need to forget about it. Even a single case
I must force the one with whom he happened to be on his guard.


ATлияние гипертонии на органы человека

To ensure a long remission period, it is important to examine
etiology of the pathological process. Main reasons
hypertension are impaired blood circulation
through vessels, limited admission to the left ventricle of the heart. AT
modern medicine has a logical explanation for this –
structural changes in blood vessels with age, the formation of blood clots and
atherosclerotic plaques in their cavities.

The essence of the development of hypertension – the lack of normal reactions
(expansion of blood vessels) after the elimination of stressful situations. Such
states are characteristic of the following individuals:

  • Abusing salty foods – salt intake over
    norms (15 g per day) leads to fluid retention, increased load
    на сердце, что может вызывать спазм артериальных vessels;
  • Alcohol lovers and smokers;
  • Persons whose work involves permanent night shifts,
    emergency situations physical and intellectual
    activities, severe stressful situations, frequent
    negative emotions;
  • Patients with chronic kidney diseases, diseases
    thyroid, diabetes;
  • People whose relatives suffered from hypertension,
    suffered a stroke or myocardial infarction.

ATажно: у мужчин от 35 до 50 лет и among women в климактерическом
period of the likelihood of developing hypertension increases.

  • Sedentary lifestyle,
  • obesity,
  • excessive salt intake.
Teenagers The same as in children, as well as:

  • hormonal imbalance
  • associated with puberty (this reason is temporary, then
    pressure is normalized)
  • smoking, drinking alcohol.
Young people (under 40)
  • Smoking,
  • alcoholism (including frequent drinking of beer and other
    low alcohol drinks – do not think that they
  • sedentary lifestyle, frequent stress, lack of sleep.
People over 40
  • Excess weight,
  • acquired heart defects,
  • atherosclerosis,
  • kidney disease
  • stresses.

The predisposition to hypertension is genetically determined.
Symptoms occurring in the nearest blood relatives –
quite a clear signal of the need to carefully consider
to your health.

Stages and degrees

ATрачам для правильной постановки диагноза гипертония нужно для
began to determine the degree or stage of hypertension in
patient and make, so to speak, an appropriate entry in his
medical record. If the diagnosis of the disease occurred late
stages, second or third, the consequences for the body can
be more serious than the first stage of the disease.

  • Stage 1 hypertension is blood pressure 140–159 / 90–99
    мм Hg Art. Pressure may return from time to time to
    normal performance, then rise again;
  • Stage 2 is blood pressure, which varies in
    пределах 160–179/100–109 мм Hg Art. Pressure is often understood and
    very rarely returns to normal;
  • 3-я стадия – когда давление поднимается до 180 и выше/110
    мм Hg Art. The pressure is almost always high, and
    a decrease may be a sign of heart failure.

1 degree

The first degree of hypertension – primary. Pressure is not here
exceeds the 140/158 by 90/97, and rises
hopping and periodically, for no apparent reason. After,
pressure may suddenly return to normal. Present:

  • headache,
  • dizziness,
  • feeling of “fly” before the eyes,
  • sometimes tinnitus occurs.

Second degree hypertension

In the second stage of hypertension, the pressure rises to 180/100 mm.
Even if the patient takes a rest, it does not go down to normal.
level In addition to increasing blood pressure may be noted:

  • retinal artery narrowing,
  • left ventricular hypertrophy of the heart,
  • protein appears in the urine during the analysis and a slight increase
    creatine in the blood plasma.

May be:

  • headache,
  • dizziness,
  • disturbed sleep
  • angina,
  • dyspnea.

With this stage can come such misfortunes as heart attacks,

3 degree of hypertension

The clinical picture with 3 degrees of hypertension is burdened
following symptoms:

  • Gait change;
  • Persistent blurred vision;
  • Hemoptysis;
  • Persistent arrhythmia;
  • Movement coordination disorders;
  • Hypertensive seizure of considerable duration with
    visual impairment and speech, sharp heart pains, turbidity
  • Limiting the ability to move independently and manage
    without help.

Symptoms of hypertension in adults

The primary symptom of hypertension, and sometimes the main, is considered
persistent excess of 140/90 mm Hg. Other
signs of hypertension are directly related to the parameters of blood pressure. If a
the pressure rises slightly, the person just feels
malaise, weakness, pain in the head.

The latent course of hypertension or the initial stage of the disease can
suspect if periodically noted:

  • headaches;
  • unmotivated feeling of anxiety;
  • hyperhidrosis (increased sweating);
  • chilliness;
  • hyperemia (redness) of the skin of the facial area;
  • small spots before eyes;
  • memory impairment;
  • low performance;
  • irritability for no reason;
  • отечность век и лица в утренние часы;
  • rapid heartbeat at rest;
  • numbness of fingers.

Symptoms of hypertension manifest themselves in different combinations, not all
immediately and as the disease progresses. Headaches
may develop at the end of the day, coinciding in time with
physiological peak of blood pressure. Not uncommon and headache right away
after waking up.

Signs of high blood pressure with the development of severe
diseases are accompanied by complications of the heart and blood vessels:

  • heart failure
  • arrhythmia,
  • angina pectoris
  • myocardial infarction.
Hypertension Signs of
among women
  • spontaneous headache at different times of the day;
  • landing view
  • loss of sharpness with sharp corners of the body and head;
  • swelling of the lower extremities;
  • excessive irritability;
  • plump face in the morning.
у мужчин
  • reduced potency, problems in sex;
  • decline in concentration;
  • increased shortness of breath;
  • depressed state;
  • syndrome “flies before the eyes” with sudden movements.

The great danger of hypertension is that it can
for a long time asymptomatic and the person does not even realize
about the beginning and developing disease. ATозникающие иногда
dizziness, слабость, дурноту, «мушки в глазах» списывают на
overwork or meteorological factors instead
measure pressure.

Although these symptoms indicate a violation of cerebral circulation and
urgently require consultation with a cardiologist.


One of the most important manifestations of hypertension is
damage to target organs, which include:

  • Heart (left ventricular hypertrophy, infarction
    myocardium, development of heart failure);
  • brain (dyscirculatory encephalopathy, hemorrhagic
    and ischemic strokes,
  • transient ischemic attack);
  • kidneys (nephrosclerosis, renal failure);
  • сосуды (расслаивающая аневризма аорты и др.).

The most dangerous manifestation of hypertension is a crisis – condition
with a sharp increase, jump in blood pressure. Critical state is fraught with
stroke or heart attack and manifested such symptoms:

  • Sharp, sudden or rapidly growing headache
  • Indicators of blood pressure up to 260/120 mm Hg.
  • Pressure in the heart, aching pain.
  • Сильная dyspnea.
  • Vomiting, starting with nausea.
  • Haveчащение пульса, тахикардия.
  • Haveтрата consciousness, convulsions, paralysis.


When detecting increased blood pressure
The doctor pays attention to the following factors:

  • the reasons why this condition occurs;
  • frequency of blood pressure rise;
  • the presence of pathologies of internal organs – the kidneys, the brain,
    a heart.

You must also take at least three measurements of indicators.
HELL within a month. Required laboratory tests
to identify:

  • risk factors for other diseases of the heart and blood vessels;
  • establish the degree of damage to target organs;
  • diagnose possible symptomatic hypertension.

For signs typical of high pressure and
developmental hypertension, indicates abnormal heart function
muscle. For her research using the following methods:

  • auscultation – using a phonendoscope, sounds are heard,
    produced by the body, there is a rhythm of his work;
  • ECG – transcript of the electrocardiogram taken from the patient
    allows you to assess in detail the function of the heart for a certain time
  • ultrasound and echocardiographic diagnostic methods
    identify defects in the myocardium and valves, allow us to correlate the dimensions
    atria, ventricles;
  • Doppler study provides an opportunity to assess the state
  • arteriography – monitoring result informs about changes
    artery walls, their damage, the location of cholesterol

How to treat hypertension?

Treatment of hypertension depends on the stage of the disease. The main
the goal of treatment is to minimize the risk of development
cardiovascular complications and prevent the threat of a lethal
the outcome.

The goal of drug therapy is to reduce arterial
pressure, namely the elimination of the causes of this state of the vessels. AT
Mono and combination therapy is appropriate for treatment. With her
inefficiencies apply low doses of antihypertensive combinations

ATо время лечения больным следует вести спокойный образ жизни, в
which does not contain stress or emotional overload.
Patients need to spend more time outdoors,
best to take long walks in the woods, in the park, near
the reservoir. AT обязательном порядке нужно соблюдать диету, так как
proper nutrition is the key to successful treatment of arterial

The main groups of drugs for hypertension:

  1. Diuretics help unload
    blood circulation, removing excess fluid. But along with the liquid
    such a heart-friendly element as potassium is derived, therefore
    the use of these tools is strictly metered, requires correction
    potassium preparations (asparkam, panangin). Diuretic examples
    drugs: gipotiazid, indapamid.
  2. Drugs that can affect the power of cardiac output
    muscle contractions of the heart (beta-blockers and blockers
    calcium channel). These include bisoprolol, carvedilol,
    metoprolol, amlodipine.
  3. Medicines acting in different ways on vascular tone.
    Examples of drugs: lisinopril, monopril, losartan, valsartan.

A sharp increase in blood pressure, not accompanied by
the appearance of symptoms from other organs, can be stopped
oral or sublingual (under the tongue) medication with
relatively fast action. These include

  • Anaprilin (a group of β-blockers, usually if the rise
    blood pressure is accompanied by tachycardia),
  • Nifedipine (its analogues – Corinfar, Cordaflex, Cordipin)
    (a group of calcium antagonists),
  • Captopril (a group of angiotensin-converting inhibitors
  • Clonidine (its analogue is Clofellin) and others.

Medications for the relief of hypertonic

  • Captopril on 10-50 mg inside. Duration of action
    lasts up to 5 hours;
  • Nifedipine – taken under the tongue. Duration of action
    means about 5 hours.
  • Beta-blockers (atenolol, esmolol) is used when
    hypertension to normalize the tone of the sympathetic nervous system.
    They are used when the rise in blood pressure
    combined with a decrease in the frequency of contractions of the heart;
  • ATазодилятаторы (натрия нитропруссид, гидралазин);
  • Diuretics (furosemide).

Non-pharmacological treatment includes:

  • decrease in body weight due to a decrease in the diet of fat and
  • limiting the consumption of salt (4-5 g per day, while
    tendency to delay sodium and water 3 g per day;
  • the total amount of fluid consumed – 1.2-1.5 liters per day),
    spa treatment, methods of physiotherapy and physical therapy,
  • psychotherapeutic effects.


Dieting is one of the important points when
hypertension. Below, we have compiled a list of recommendations that you need.
to adhere to while eating:

  • There should be as little animal fat as possible: fatty meat, in
    features, pork, butter, fatty dairy products.
    The only exception is fish, because its fat reduces the level
    bad cholesterol in the blood.
  • The amount of salt in the diet should be as low as possible, since
    it retains fluid in the body, which is highly undesirable.
  • It is very important that the diet is present fresh fruits,
    vegetables, greens, juices.
  • It is advisable to establish fractional meals with small portions, but
    frequent meals.
  • Strong tea and coffee should be excluded from the diet. They should
    replace compote, herbal drinks, morsom.

Recommendations for hypertensive patients

Doctors give such advice to hypertensive patients:

  • balance the diet, eat at a certain time
    at least 4 times a day, give preference to healthy and fresh
  • avoid stress;
  • get enough sleep;
  • improve emotional mood;
  • use the norm of fluid daily;
  • exercise – every morning is important to charge, after work
    day you can visit the pool or gym;
  • it is forbidden to sit for a long time in a sitting or lying position
    computer – you need to constantly warm up and do not forget about
  • monitor changes in atmospheric pressure every day and
    analyze your blood pressure. At the slightest indisposition,
    It is necessary to consult a doctor and undergo a course of therapy;
  • to refuse from bad habits;
  • control weight.

ATопреки распространенному заблуждению, при этом заболевании
not all physical exercises are useful. ATам не стоит выполнять
strength exercises.

  • The most effective gymnastics for you will be stretching, then
    there is a complex of stretching exercises as well as muscle relaxation like
    in the yoga system.
  • To better treat hypertension, pay enough attention.
    fresh air and water treatments.

Folk remedies

Before you apply folk remedies for hypertension,
Be sure to check with your doctor. Because can be
contraindications for use.

  1. Black currants and strawberries in combination with honey and beets
    You can take a tablespoon 4 times daily;
  2. A teaspoon of lingonberry leaves diluted with 2 cups
    water, and cooked for 15 minutes. The solution should be drunk for
  3. People with hypertension need to chop the head of garlic, mix with
    two glasses of fresh cranberries and a glass of honey. Better to use
    blender or meat grinder to get a homogeneous mass. Means
    You must take 3 large spoons daily immediately after
  4. Grind in a blender three lemons with skins and a quarter
    glasses of hazelnut kernels. Add half a cup of honey to the mixture.
    Take a monthly course of 2 spoons daily.
  5. ATместо чая, когда идет лечение гипертонии без лекарств,
    hypertensive patients are advised to use broths of hips,
  6. Take a honeycomb spoon of cranberries, half a tablespoon of fresh and
    chopped rosehip, and mix with a tablespoon of grated
    lemon. To this mixture add one cup of honey. Consume this
    Ingredients need one tablespoon every morning and evening.


The best cure for hypertension is prevention. With her
it is possible to prevent the development of hypertension or weaken the existing one

  1. Keep yourself in hand. Try to protect yourself from the nervous
    shocks, stresses. Relax more often, relax, do not strain
    nerves are constant thoughts about the unpleasant. You can sign up for courses
    yoga or spending time on walks with the family.
  2. Normalize the diet. Add more vegetables, fruits, nuts.
    Reduce the amount consumed fatty, spicy or salty
  3. Get rid of bad habits. The time has come once and for all
    forget about cigarettes and excessive amounts of alcohol.
  4. Rational nutrition (limiting food intake with
    a large amount of animal fat, not more than 50-60 g per day, and
    легкоусвояемых углеводов).При гипертонии необходимо включение
    in the daily diet of foods rich in potassium, magnesium and calcium
    (dried apricots, prunes, raisins, baked potatoes, beans, parsley,
    low-fat cottage cheese, yolks of chicken eggs).
  5. Fighting hypodynamia (exercise in the fresh air and
    daily physical therapy classes).
  6. Fighting obesity (trying to lose weight is not recommended sharply:
    weight loss can be no more than 5-10% per month).
  7. Normalization of sleep (at least 8 hours a day). Clear
    day regimen with a constant rise and bedtime.

Hypertension must be treated in an orderly manner so that it does not arise.
dangerous complications. At the first signs, be sure to
consult a cardiologist or neuropathologist. Be healthy!

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