Hygroma – what is it, symptoms, treatment,photos, types of disease

Hygroma is a cyst that forms in the tissues of the body when
prolonged exposure to the same area. AT связи с этим
hygroma is considered an occupational disease, since this
pathology often suffer pianists and laundresses. ATозникает заболевание,
usually in the area of ​​the wrist joint and on the palms.

Hygroma: what is it?

What is hygroma? This cystic formation is benign.
nature, consisting of a dense connective tissue wall and a viscous
content. The latter looks like a transparent jelly, and
nature – serous fluid with mucus impurities.

Hygromas are connected directly to the joints and are located near
with them. The disease has no age limit, so it can
occur in both adult and child.

Develop more often in young women. Make up about 50% of
all benign tumors of the wrist joint. Forecast при
hygromas favorable, however, the risk of recurrence is sufficient
high compared with other types of benign tumors.


AT настоящее время не установлена четкая причинно-следственная
the relationship between certain prerequisites and the development of the hygroma. None
however, there are several theories in the scientific world about
the etiology and pathogenesis of these tumor formations, however,
one of them is not complete and cannot describe everything
existing cases.

It is practically observed that hygromas are a frequent consequence
tendovaginitis, and the latter develop in people who are forced by
professional activities perform repetitive
similar movements. Withмером таких профессий является программист,
pianist, packer of goods and so on.

The exact cause of the hygroma joint has not been established.
Experts point to factors that contribute to the development

  • genetic predisposition;
  • most often the disease occurs in blood relatives;
  • joint injury;
  • re-injury of the joints;
  • constant large load on the joint or tendon;
  • hygroma brush is quite common in people
    professional activities related to work for
    computer, typewriter, pianists.

ATиды гигромы

Hygroma is of two types – single-chamber and multi-chamber.
Hygroma, like any other cyst, contains fluid inside
mucin. Egg of a single-chamber hygroma inelastic. Multi chambers
cysts are able to expand into tissues due to their lateral

Location How proceeds: frequent symptoms and signs
Hygroma on the head Subdural form – resulting from craniocerebral
injuries accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid, compressing the head
brain. A hygroma subdural neoplasm can be acute,
subacute and chronic. Chronic is a “bump” for a period of 2
Hygroma of the back of the hand and wrist The most common type of disease can
manifest on the fingers. Hygroma of finger joint causes strong
discomfort, as it interferes with the work and does not allow to conduct the usual
Lifestyle. Wrist neoplasm makes it very difficult
flexion and extension of the joints. The patient can not engage
habitual affairs and complains that hygroma hurts. Often sensations
become intolerable and immediate surgical treatment is required.
 Hygroma of the wrist joint  Hygroma of the wrist joint – доброкачественное
the formation consisting of a capsule mixed with fibrin. Main
the symptom is a round tumor under the skin up to 6 cm in size.
ATначале боли нет, но со временем она может сдавливать сосуды и
impede the functioning of the hand. To surgical intervention
remove the “bumps” resorted to if it develops a strong pain
 Foot hygroma  This species is quite a rare disease:
hygroma is formed in the ankle area or on the outside
phalangeal bones. With этом недуге больные жалуется на неудобства
when wearing shoes and walking. There are cases when a patient is accidentally
injures the feet. AT основном это передавливание нервных окончаний
and vessels located in the affected area.
 Hygroma of the knee  Tumor develops due to fluid accumulation
directly into the cavity of the synovial sac. At risk
include athletes, as well as people who spend a lot of time on
legs (couriers, postmen, sellers).
 Tendon hygroma  It develops from the tissue of the articular synovial membrane.
and tendons. Cone, which was formed on the site received
injuries will continuously hurt. Increased pain can
when moving a damaged limb or when it touches
any subject.

Symptoms and photo hygromas

фото гигромы

Clinical manifestations of hygroma depend on its size. Than
less hygroma, so invisible to the patient of its manifestation. how
As a rule, it reaches a diameter of 2-5 centimeters. With увеличении
the synovial sac begins to stretch strongly, which can
cause a feeling of pain and discomfort.

If the hygroma squeezes the nerve trunks and small vessels, it can
The following symptoms occur:

  1. Numbness, tingling of the skin;
  2. Neurological pain;
  3. Blood stasis

Gigroma looks like a ball of various sizes, located under
skin To the touch this rounded formation is dense, inside is
jelly-like transparent contents.

Running hygromas can lead to impaired venous outflow
from the affected area, as large veins are squeezed. Also
Symptoms of squeezing of nerve trunks may also occur. First
The situation is manifested by the following features:

  • Puffiness below the site of injury
  • Discoloration of the skin, as a rule, it becomes bluish
  • Increasing pains
  • Sharp limitation of mobility of an arm or leg.

Experts note that hygroma can occur in 35% of cases
generally asymptomatic. This is possible if education is under
bundle and is detected only after increasing in size, when
begin to disturb pain.

Possible complications

With the spontaneous opening of the hygrome or opening it in
the result of an external traumatic effect is observed
prolonged flow of the contents of the hygroma through the resulting


In case of adverse developments in the area,
Injured hygroma may cause inflammatory
reaction, up to development of suppuration at accession of an infection.
At the same time, the clinical picture is characterized by classic local
and common signs of inflammation.


The traumatologist is engaged in the treatment of hygroma. Diagnose
the disease is possible only after a preliminary detailed history and
examination of the patient. The symptoms of the disease are so typical that you can
confused with other diseases.

Differential diagnosis of hygroma with other diseases
produced using such instrumental methods

  • radiography;
  • Ultrasound (ultrasound);
  • CT scan;
  • puncture with biopsy.

Hygromy is only diagnosed when all
other studies have excluded heavier pathologies, and in
biopsy did not occur the growth of bacteria, which means sterility
the contents of the tumor formation.

How to treat hygroma

The treatment of hygroma depends on its size. So, on the initial
stages when it is small enough can be applied
conservative methods that are quite effective. With
large ganglion can be cured only by
surgical intervention.

Hygromic treatment methods:

Консервативный метод — выполняется при помощи
physiotherapeutic methods (electrophoresis, warming procedures)
with prolonged bandaging of the affected joint and restriction
movements in it. The effectiveness of such procedures is questionable, and even
при кажущемся исчезновении — высока вероятность повторного её

Also назначают профессиональный массаж. It normalizes the outflow
synovial fluid from the tumor in the direction of the joint space,
reverse movement is usually limited;

Пункция — содержимое гигромы тщательно удаляют через
puncture, and in the remaining cavity enter sclerosing substance,
which glues the walls of the capsule and prevents re-
education. After that, apply a pressure bandage for more
reliable adhesion of the walls and plaster to immobilize the joint and
reduce the production of intraarticular fluid;

Surgical treatment – excision of hygroma. Indications for
surgical treatment:

  • Pain when moving or at rest.
  • Limiting the range of motion in the joint.
  • Unaesthetic appearance.
  • The rapid growth of education.

Especially recommended surgical intervention for fast
the growth of hygroma, since the excision of a large formation is associated with
a number of difficulties.

For better and faster wound healing is necessary on
several days after the operation, immobilize the part of the body on which
there was a hygroma.

The recovery period depends largely on the amount of operation and
septic complications in the postoperative period. With наиболее
a favorable outcome of the removal of sutures is carried out on 5 – 7 days.

With развитии покраснения и отека в области швов и просачивании
nodules or pus is high risk of teething with suture material and
divergence of the wound edges. If this happens, it is necessary
re-removal surgery
dead tissue and sanitation of the inflammatory focus. Recovery
health comes at the end of the second week.


With своевременном обращении за медицинской помощью, и
surgical removal of the tumor, the prognosis is positive.  AT
the relation of labor activity, the forecast is relatively favorable,
limb usually continues 100% normal

Folk remedies for hygrome

Hygroma can be treated at home. Most often patients
use for this copper coin, which is applied to
formation and tightly tied. As a rule, in a few days
the capsule resolves.

Hygroma treatment with folk remedies includes:

  1. Physalis plant with hygrome. Mince the fruits in a meat grinder
    physalis and The resulting composition is applied to the sore spot. Over the top
    it is cotton fabric, cellophane on top. ATсе это фиксируют
    bandage. Keep such a compress until the morning. ATечером процедуру повторяют
    – hygroma is first washed with warm water and soap, and then applied
    compress. Two weeks later, the disease passes, and on the site of hygromas
    a small footprint appears, which will soon disappear completely.
  2. Compress. Well proven in the treatment of synovial
    cysts compresses from sea salt solution. Should take half a liter
    hot water and dissolve salt in it (at least 100 grams). AT этом
    the solution before bed moisten gauze and carefully wipe the patient
    plot. A clean cloth of 100% wool and paper is applied on top.
    for compresses. ATсе плотно фиксируют bandage. Such compresses
    should be done within a week. After a three day break
    treatment is resumed.
  3. Decoction of pine. ATетки молодой сосны необходимо залить теплой
    water and boil for 20 minutes. Then on flour, water,
    yeast and soda need to knead the dough, make a cake of it and
    bake in the oven. Covering the tumor with a bandage, you need to pour hot on it.
    (but not boiling water!) decoction until it ends. Next you need
    remove the bandage, cut the cake and crumb put it on a lump. It is better
    just carry out such a procedure at night.
  4. Red clay Mix three tablespoons of red clay and
    One and a half tablespoons of warm salty water. With необходимости
    add some more water, but as a result you should have
    very thick, homogeneous mass. Spread it on the hygroma, put
    on top of a piece of polyethylene, and secure it with a bandage. This
    A compress can be held for up to twelve hours in a row. Do it in
    within one to two weeks, and the result will not take long
    to wait.
  5. Wormwood is an effective natural remedy for hygrome.
    Fresh plant stems are ground to a mushy look. Mass
    spread on thick cloth or paper for compresses and
    impose on the growth. Leave a sore spot, as in
    previous recipe.
  6. Hot paraffin. It is proven that heat exposure can
    positively affect the resorption process of education. Paraffin
    melted with a steam bath and with a brush quickly
    applied to the sore spot, covered with cellophane and get out
    warm cloth for heat saving.
  7. Compress of cabbage leaves. Cabbage leaf is slightly kneaded,
    smeared with honey, applied to the hygrome, and fixed elastic
    bandage. It is necessary to hold a compress for a long time – in total, not less
    eight hours a day, replacing cabbage leaves once every two
  8. Mix bee honey, rye flour and aloe fleshy part
    equal proportions to obtain a mushy consistency. Such
    the cake should be applied to the affected area for the whole night,
    covered with cling film.

Before using any folk remedies, consult with your
by the attending physician.


Prevention гигром сводится к осуществлению мероприятий,
позволяющих исключить регулярную травматизацию суставов во
the time of employment, as well as the treatment of diseases,
capable of causing hygromas (chronic bursitis,
chronic tendovaginitis).

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