Update: October 2018
ATопрос о том, как научить ребенка ходить на горшок, когда это
should be done, very relevant. Every parent gives them early
or later, unfortunately, many are too early.
AT этой статье мы подробно вам расскажем о том, когда следует
start potty training why should you do it in this
time and at this age how to do it how to respond to
failures in this process, why they are other important information
on the subject.
Parents use different ways to teach a child to
pot, but often these methods are wrong, lead to
stress for the child and for the parents, a lot of time is spent, and
the result may or may not be, and if it does, it will be unstable and
based on the wrong base.
Previously, the schooling method was spread during the first year.
many mothers and grandmothers are fighting for him, unfortunately, and
some illiterate pediatricians in this matter. Early schooling
has long been recognized as non-physiological and incorrect. AT данном случае
neither the child’s psychological readiness, nor
Moreover, physical maturation.
Because of this, the learning process was long and unproductive.
Moreover, since the child in this period is not really
ready to be trained, the method was based on pressure from
adults. What could not entail any positive
reactions, it caused:
- child stress
- not rarely ended with the appearance of psychosomatic and
- например, заit’s timeми, недержанием кала и (или) мочи
- surprisingly, but also logoneuroses, nervous tics
- in later life, this stress often gave such
problems like enuresis, encopresis, overactive bladder.
How often do parents have to deal with such
manifestations, but how rarely did they manage to understand the true cause
These outdated methods were based on the creation of conditional
reflexes, but not on the development of a correct and informed
skill. Thus, the wrong chain of actions was created,
parents encouraged the baby to empty the bladder with sounds
the murmur of water or the “letter”, after which the child could pee.
The child could learn how to empty by constant repetition.
bladder after these sounds, while prompting for this
There should be a filling bladder. Acquired so
way skill unstable and can easily be lost, as based
on an absolutely wrong base.
It can be lost as a result of any stress (changing places
residence, quarrels of parents, going to kindergarten), as well as
when the child reaches the age when the innervation of the body has matured
pelvic when, really had only to start the process
schooling Then get the right skill for the child.
it becomes much more difficult.
To accustom to the pot should be after 1.5 years
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics physiological
children reach maturity between the ages of 18 and 24 months. Which means
any attempts to master the pot should begin only after 18
Now let’s talk about what method you can teach
child this skill easily and correctly. To quickly accustom
ребенка пользоваться горшком, нужно использовать метод,
который будет ориентирован на baby it значит, что будет
take into account the degree of maturity of the nervous system. ATедь именно это
определяет готовность ребенка к приобретению данного skill. With
This training model does not require parental pressure on the child,
no stress because the child is physically ready as well
psychologically. He becomes the central figure in this process,
he wants and can learn this, he realizes what he does and what
they want him
The physiological potty training method is based on three
- Physical maturity – strengthening the muscles of the sphincter of the rectum and
urethra, the development of the innervation of the rectum and
- Psychological maturity – the child is ready to follow the instructions
understands why and what is asked of him.
- Emotional readiness is a positive attitude towards learning.
Notмного об анатомии и физиологии
To better understand why schooling should not begin
previously 1.5 years, a little touch this section. Conscious walking
per pot is only possible when forming neuromuscular connections
between the pelvic organs and the brain. These connections are formed
after 18 months.
it представляет собой нервные волокна, которые формируют
plexuses around the bladder and rectum that serve
the impulse about filling the organ first into the spinal cord and then the signal
transmitted to the brain so it is prompting
к походу в restroom. The right skill can only be formed when
the presence of these connections. And they are formed after 1.5 years and not
related to how soon you start introducing a child to
ATы можете хоть с рождения мучить себя и ребенка попытками
to accustom to pot but neuromuscular transmission will be formed in
anyway after 1.5 years! If you start potty training
when the child’s body is fully prepared for this, then all
It will be much easier and faster.
Early successes, and successes?
Probably almost any mommy, reading this article, can
recall the stories of girlfriends, relatives or neighbors, how
almost every 7-8 months old child knows how to write a pot on the team
�”Pispis” or cocoa after their hysterical “aaaaa”. Such stories
walk on various forums, on playgrounds and, of course,
among mothers and grandmothers, who often consider diapers universal
evil, and the diaper and the pot from birth – the best that can be in
As already mentioned, at this age and this way you can
make the child go to the pot, but it will be only conditional
reflex, don’t blame me like Pavlov’s dogs. Multiple
the repetition of sounds (or the emergence of another stimulus,
turning on the water, for example) and holding the child on the pot while
he will not make you (!) the intended work, you will certainly achieve
the appearance of a conditioned reflex.
But the collapse awaits such parents after 1.5 years. Just
when the innervation of the pelvic organs is formed. The child has
the bladder is not filled, there is no signal about it, certain
brain centers are not irritated, but the child at the same time
seated on a pot and pestered with his “letter”. To that
time he can resist and be aware of his actions and
understands what they want from him. So it turns out that the old method
no longer works, and no one teaches him new things, hence the blunders,
wet pants and bewilderment of ignorant parents.
Medically, this skill is superficial.
Schooling up to 18 months
Schooling after 18 months
|Persistence skill||Skill not resistant, easily lost||Skill resistant, not lost|
|What is the basis of skill||Skill based on conditioned reflexes||Brain controlled conscious action|
|Duration of training||Long-term and unproductive skill training||Learning is quick and easy.|
|Blunder frequency||Frequent misses, stress for the child and parents||Misses are rare, for the child the learning process is simpler and
without negative evaluation
How to determine when a child is ready for schooling?
Not all children are exactly 1.5 years old ready to master this skill, this
all very individual. And I must say that a steady skill
formed at the age of 22-36 months.
There are a number of signs by which you can cook that
the child can begin to teach the pot, as they
indicate psychological and physical readiness
- The presence of a mode of defecation in a child. Defecation occurs
at about the same time of day
- Urination no more than once every 2 hours. That is a diaper
must remain dry for at least 2 hours
- The child knows and shows parts of the body and various objects.
- Knows and understands the meaning of the words “write” and “crap”
- Feels discomfort and shows negative emotions when
being in a dirty diaper
- The child has есть стремление подражать взрослым
- The kid is trying to dress himself
- The child is interested in the toilet
- Age over 1.5 years
If all these criteria are available, then we can say that
potty training will be as simple and easy as for mom,
так и для baby
If you try to seat the child on the pot, and he screams,
crying, running away, you should not force him to sit on the pot,
most likely, the child simply does not want to use the toilet. If this
repeats constantly, then the child may simply not be ready for
mastering this skill, do not force it or scold, you need to
just pause. Stop trying to teach for 3-4 weeks
then try again, it is likely that the process will only go to
2 years, this is absolutely normal.
If a child is afraid of a pot, do not make him sit on it,
but look for the cause of this fear. Maybe someone scolded him when
he did not pee on the pot, maybe the pot was not comfortable, maybe in
family some stress?
Skill development process
It is important to understand what the process should be, how to teach a child to
pot, what to do for this?
Show your child that you can sit on the pot
First you just need to show the child that you can pot
sit, you can just seat the child on the pot, without demanding
use it for its intended purpose. But do not let play
with it, otherwise the child will perceive the pot as a toy.
Sit on the pot when he wants to go to the toilet.
If the child does not resist sitting on it, start planting.
him on the pot in those moments when the child is most likely
wants to pee. For example, after sleep, after eating.
The behavior of the baby sometimes tells him that he wants to
Watch the baby, often babies before the process
urination or bowel movements may subside as if
think, someone is trying to take off his pants, sometimes it happens that they can
startle. Let it be a signal to you that it’s time
plant the child on the pot.
Do not scold and do not be discouraged in case of a miss and praise,
if you managed to go to the pot
If mistakes happen – do not worry, for a while they
will and that’s fine. Someone teaches a child to write on the pot for
week, someone takes more time and these are all variants of the norm.
If the child did everything right, and he was able to go on
pot, be sure to praise it.
Fix skill repetitions
If you miss, ask the child where to write or
Kakat, if he does not answer you and does not show the pot, take
to his pot and show it yourself, repeat “You need to write on the pot,
over here. “
Going to the pot should be something akin to ritual
All actions must be consistent and performed by the child.
if possible, he should get used to it. If he is not something
can do, then an adult helps him, explaining what he does.
For example, remove the panties, then sit on the pot, after
successful completion of the process, put on panties, take out the pot,
wash the water in the toilet, wash the pot, wash the handle. Baby must
get used to the fact that there is a certain procedure.
Basic rules to help you quickly master with your child.
- Not only the child should be ready, but also the parents. You
will have to give the child more attention, you will need
watch him, and also at first often eliminate
consequences of blunders. You can not teach the child only on weekends
or in the evenings. If we already started the process, then it goes every day.
Otherwise there is no point, you will only confuse the child.
- You can not accustom to the pot at night, if the child has not yet mastered this
process by day.
- A new pot should be a familiar object for the child,
put it in a prominent place in the bathroom, do not put it in the locker
or under the bathroom, the child should see it and, if necessary, immediately
- If successful, we must praise the child and repeat to him that
he did, for example, “Vanya, well done, pee on the pot!”. AT
In the event of a miss, we are not upset and in no way blame
- Do not forget about teaching the child not only to the pot, but also to
the ritual itself, we ask it to perform all successive actions
related to this, or themselves show him how to take off his pants, how
take out the contents of the pot and so on.
- Gradually we begin to divert to the pot before
it is imperative to empty the bladder to avoid
incidents, for example, before a walk, before a trip, before
- Diapers should be removed during the day, but at first you can
even you need to leave them at the time of sleep, walk. Gradually when
you will notice that at night or during a walk the diaper always remains
dry, you give them up in these situations.
- Do not let your child play with the pot, explain why
- The pot should be comfortable. ATозможно, вам придется сменить
a couple of pots to find the one on which exactly your baby
will be convenient.
- The form must be anatomical. For boys fit
oval pots with a ledge in front, for girls better round.
- The pot must be stable, not rolling on the floor.
- Most conveniently, if there is a back at the pot.
- The presence of the cover is not necessary, everyone chooses, is necessary
whether she is to him or not.
- Better if it is just a pot, no frills, no ears,
peephole and music. Many pots decorated under a toy or
musical pots distract the child from the process itself, such
pots are often perceived as toys and then can be long and
безуспешно объяснять ребенку, для чего на самом деле он need
Remember that there are no children who have not learned this skill. Not
make an idea to teach a child to the pot a supervaluable idea. Much
More importantly, the child was healthy, developed, and he mastered the pot
someday. And it will happen no earlier and no later than his
the body and mind will be ready. This is exactly the question where very
the phrase “everything has its time” is appropriate.
ATажно понимать, что навык может быть окончательно усвоен в
age 22-36 months and nothing terrible is that even 2.5
years can happen sometime a little bobble. This is not the one
a question for which it is worth scolding a child, to use force. it
just a pot. The time will come, the child will master it, do not demand
him more than he is willing to commit. And certainly not worth it
it’s too early to torture a child. The sooner you start,
the more energy, nerves and time you waste.
Автор: Ревус Олеся Григорьевна врач-невролог