How to take a spermogram, what is it for,transcript of the results

Спермограмма  представляет собой исследование эякулята,
the purpose of which is to assess the state of men’s health and
способность к зачатию, а also выявление в организме мужчины
urological diseases (prostatitis, varicocele, STIs, etc.).

Sperm analysis is an essential step in planning
беременности, а also проводится при бесплодном браке, когда как
for at least a year a couple cannot conceive a child.

Rapidly developing today subsidiary
репродуктивные технологии (ЭКО, ИКСИ) даже при самых плохих
sperm quality indicators help fertilize
ovum. Even if the cause of infertility couples is
проблемах у женщины, мужчине also требуется проведение диагностики
ejaculate

Подготовка и сдача spermograms

For delivery of the clinical analysis of the ejaculate, there are several
very important requirements on which the result will depend
research. These requirements include nuances:

  • Sperm should be collected solely by masturbation, so
    as ejaculate collected during intercourse, may contain traces
    female vaginal microflora. Пользоваться презервативом also
    It is strictly forbidden, since they are treated with spermicidal
    substances that affect sperm quality. Also prohibited
    use of various lubricants and saliva.
  • 2 weeks before the study should stop taking
    antibiotics and other drugs that may affect
    показатели spermograms.
  • The collection of sperm for research is best done in the laboratory;
    which will be analyzed. If the fence biomaterial
    carried out at home, it is imperative that
    rules of personal hygiene and the use of sterile plastic
    container for transporting the sample. Ejaculate must be collected.
    at room temperature, transport the material strictly.
    at a temperature of 37 degrees (in a special thermostat or just
    under the arm), the time from receipt to delivery of the sample to the laboratory
    should not be more than 60 minutes.
  • Must be abstinent for at least 2
    days and not more than a week. The best is a period of 3-4 days. AT
    этот период also необходимо отказаться от приема alcohol и
    thermal procedures (sauna, hot bath).
  • To get a reliable result, you need to pass the spermogram.
    at least 3 times, with a 10 day break, because the sperm has
    non-permanent composition, the quality of which is influenced by diet, reception
    drugs, psycho-emotional factors, general condition
    organism.

Нормальные значения результатов spermograms и их
transcript

Показатель spermograms Нормы ATОЗ What does this indicator mean
Sperm analysis
  • Period of abstinence
2-7 days The number of days of sexual abstinence before
analysis
  • Volume
2 ml or more, up to 6 ml. Volume спермы для analysis
  • PH Acidity
7.2 – 7.8 The ratio of positive and negative ions
  • Общее количество sperm
40 million or more, up to 500 million Плотность sperm, которая умножена на объем
  • ATремя разжижения
Up to 60 minutes ATремя разжижения эякулята до нормальной вязкости
  • Colour
Grayish grayish white Colour спермы
  • Consistency (viscosity)
The presence of small individual droplets (formation of filaments up to
2 cm)
ATязкость спермы, которая определяется при измерении длины нити,
which is formed by the use of a pipette or needle
  • Red blood cells
Absent Red corpuscles
  • White blood cells
1 * 10 ^ 6 in 1 ml ejaculate White blood cells
Анализ sperm
  • Плотность sperm

20 million or more, up to 120 million

Число sperm в 1 мл спермы
  • Подвижность sperm

Type A more than 25%

Type A + B more than 50%

Type C less than 50%

Type D less than 10%

One hour after ejaculation

  • Type A – active-motile sperm with straight
    movement.
  • Тип AT – малоподвижные сперматозоиды с прямолинейным
    movement.
  • Type C – sedentary sperm with rotational or
    колебательным movement.
  • Type D – immobile sperm.
  • Live sperm
More than ½ of the total Количество жизнеспособных sperm, то есть количество
патологических sperm не должно быть более 50%
  • Агглютинация sperm
AT норме не обнаруживается Процесс склеивания sperm друг с другом, что
interferes with normal movement

Результаты spermograms, которые вписываются в референсные
значения ATОЗ, позволяют сделать вывод, что мужчина имеет нормальную
fertility (fertility) and is able to bear children. Deviations
same from these indicators (when conducting more than 2 analyzes
spermograms) в большинстве случаев свидетельствуют о наличии
any pathological processes in the reproductive system
men 

Так, морфология sperm является практически важнейшим
criterion in the study of sperm.

With нормальной концентрации sperm и хорошем показателе
подвижности, наличие большого количества sperm с
irregular morphological structure may indicate
infertility ejaculate (inability to fertilize an egg
or pathological development of the fetus).

AT большинстве случаев беременность, которая наступила при плохих
sperm morphology indicators partner ends miscarriages
or by the sinking of the fetus. Increased leukocyte counts or
red blood cells requires a more detailed examination, as they can
to indicate infectious or pathological processes.

Withчины неподвижности sperm и прочих отклонений в
spermogram

Сперматогенез у здорового человека  является непрерывным
процессом, однако при различных нарушениях  в организме
men destabilize him. For reasons of reduced
spermatogenesis include:

Endocrine disorders
  • adrenal dysfunction
  • hypogonadism
  • hyperprolactinemia
  • violation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal regulation
  • hypothyroidism
  • diabetes
Genetic disorders:
  • microdeletion of the Y chromosome sections
  • Kleinfelter syndrome
  • gene mutation
Violations of the urogenital tract:
  • infectious diseases
  • injuries
  • orchitis (as complications after suffering mumps)
  • testicular atrophy
  • cryptorchism
  • varicocele

А also неврологические расстройства и врожденные дефекты
genitals

Use:
  • alcohol
  • use of sleeping pills
  • toxic substances
  • anabolic steroids
ATоздействие высоких температур:
  • influence of high temperature for the last 3
    months
  • feverish state

Такой показатель spermograms, как неподвижность sperm,
is a serious deviation in which the offensive
pregnancy is almost impossible. With выявлении неподвижности
или слабой подвижности sperm причинами этого явления могут
The following factors should be:

  • wearing tight underwear
  • alcohol consumption, smoking
  • stressful fear
  • avitaminosis
  • use of intimate lubricants
  • excess external heat (sauna, hot tubs) and internal
    (high body temperature)
  • electromagnetic waves and ionizing radiation
  • prolonged sitting position (office workers,
    cyclists, drivers)
  • hypothermia of the pelvic organs
  • toxic effects of drugs – cocaine,
    marijuana, hashish, etc.
  • antibiotic treatment with antimicrobials

Terms to explain violations

Withчинами нарушения нормальных показателей спермы могут быть как
an insufficient amount of sperm, and the complete absence
sperm в ejaculate, а also дефекты качества спермы, к
которым относится неподвижность sperm и неправильное их
morphological structure. To describe semen disorders exist
various terms:

АЗООСПЕРМИЯ — полное отсутствие sperm в ejaculate, но
presence of spermatogenesis

That is, there are not sperm cells in the sperm, but previous ones
they form the products of secretion of the seminal vesicles and prostate
glands. With азооспермии угнетена функция созревания и деления
sperm на различных стадиях spermatogenesis. This is one of
causes of infertility, to azoospermia leads to:

  • ATоспалительные заболевания мужских genitals, при которых
    нарушается  проходимость семявыносящих протоков
  • ATрожденные (генетические) нарушения
  • ATоздействие токсинов — алкоголь, лекарственные препараты,
    radiation, the effects of various harmful chemicals, some
    drugs, etc.
  • Прочие инфекционные и неinfectious diseases
    organism.
АСПЕРМИЯ — отсутствие sperm в сперме и клеток
spermatogenesis

With аспермии нет ни sperm, ни клеток spermatogenesis.
With этом ощущение оргазма сохраняется, но стерто или слабо
expressed, the release of fluid during intercourse consists of a secret
prostate and seminal vesicles, and the amount of sperm
very slightly. Withчинами аспермии считаются:

  • If aspermia is caused by blockage of the vas deferens –
    to restore fertility man requires plastic
    operation.
  • If aspermia is caused by genetic abnormalities when the testicles are not
    able to produce sperm (testicular aspermia), then
    any treatment is hopeless.
АКИНОСПЕРМИЯ — полная неподвижность sperm

Akinesia or Akinospermia is a complete inability to
fertilization due to complete immobility of the living
sperm. Why is this happening? Withчины данной патологии
изучены  недостаточно, предполагается, что неподвижность
sperm вызвана:

  • Hormonal disruption
  • ATоспалительными заболеваниями половых желез
  • Недостатки проведения analysis — переохлаждение спермы в
    laboratory conditions during storage, use a condom for
    collection of semen, direct sunlight or chemicals
    substances in a test tube with sperm and other violations of transportation and
    storage.

AT случае установления акиноспермии следует повторить анализ 2-3
times.

ASTENOSOOPERMIYA or asthenospermia – reducing the amount of
подвижных sperm или  снижение скорости движения

Reducing the number of mobile forms can lead to male
infertility, with asthenozoospermia, sedentary and completely
immobile sperm make up over 30%. With астеноспермии
should go full Examination to establish the cause:

  • Violation of spermatogenesis for all the above reasons, and
    also
  • Change chemical plasma sperm composition, decrease in it
    energy substances, carbohydrates
  • The disappearance or reduction of negative electric charge
    sperm
  • Subsidence on the surface of the sperm of various microorganisms
    (mycoplasma infection).

Violation of spermatogenesis leads to a decrease in the number
sperm и появлению ненормальных, патологических форм,
who are not capable of full movement.

HEMOSPERMIYA – detection of red blood cells in sperm

If there is blood in the semen, it gets rusty or red.
color, while the viability of sperm is preserved, but it
talks about genital diseases:

  • In most cases, this is due to inflammatory
    processes and blood comes from the prostate or seminal vesicles to
    sperm
  • Blood can also occur in cancer.
    genitals
  • With stones in the prostate gland, blood enters the ejaculate from
    urethra, epididymis or vas deferens
    duct
  • When breaking papillomas, small varicose veins, seed
    tubercle.
НЕКРОСПЕРМИЯ — наличие нежизнеспособных sperm в
ejaculate

Некроспермию по причине неподвижности sperm иногда
taken for akinospermiya. If the test tube with sperm during
studies randomly fall dyes, it may appear
нежизнеспособные спермии в ejaculate, в таких случаях требуется
retake analysis. Necrospermia happens:

  • False, that is, reversible, when recovery is possible
    sperm
  • Частичная некроспермия, когда живых sperm меньше 20%
  • True, that is irreversible – this is rare and can not be
    treatment with IVF with donor sperm
NORMOSPERMIYA or normozoospermia – normal indicators
spermograms

With этом все показатели spermograms в норме, то есть
сперматогенез нормальный и у sperm высокая
viability. Но даже при подвижности sperm выше 70% и
the amount of 60-150 million / ml, not guaranteed 100% offensive
pregnancy in a healthy woman. Since the reasons for the possible
infertility is sometimes psychological in nature, can be caused
immunological factors when in the female body
antibodies are produced against the sperm of a particular man.

ОЛИГОЗООСПЕРМИЯ — снижение количества sperm в
ejaculate

It is considered normal when there are 60-150 ppm in 1 ml.
sperm, олигозооспермию следует отличать от олигоспермии.
Существует несколько степеней низкого числа sperm:

  • 1 — 60-40 млн.
  • 2 – 40-20 million
  • 3 – 20-5 million
  • 4 – less than 5 million

The lower limit of the rate at which pregnancy is possible
makes 20 million in 1 ml. sperm, subject to their high
mobility, fertilizing ability. If nevertheless
gynecologically healthy woman pregnancy does not occur, then outside
Depending on the degree of oligozoospermia, this is considered a pathology.
Any fluctuations in one direction or another by 10-15% may be
absolutely healthy men. The causes of oligozoospermia can
be:

  • starvation, vitamin deficiency
  • chronic mercury, lead poisoning, radiation, radiation,
    carbon dioxide poisoning
  • hormonal deficiency disrupting spermatogenesis
  • smoking, alcoholism
  • chronic sexually transmitted infections (especially chlamydia in men,
    mycoplasmosis, etc.)
  • constant stress, physical and mental
    overload
  • frequent ejaculation, both natural and frequent onanism,
    pollutions
ОЛИГОСПЕРМИЯ  гипоспермия, гиповолюмия — уменьшение объёма
ejaculate ejected during ejaculation

In this case, the volume at a rate of 2-5 ml decreases to 1-1.5 ml,
причинами могут be:

  • chronic prostatitis of various etiologies
  • hormonal deficiency
  • genetic diseases (Klinefelter syndrome)
  • stress, overwork
  • malnutrition, alcohol, smoking
  • aspermia and azoospermia
  • frequent masturbation and sexual intercourse

If a man abstained from any way
семяизвержения в течении 4-5 дней и собрал sperm без потерь в
laboratory glassware and at the same time reduced volume is true
oligospermia.

PYOSPERMIYA – the presence of pus in semen

This is a clear sign of an inflammatory process in the male genitalia,
requiring careful examination and treatment. In semen present
microorganisms, leukocytes, cell decomposition products, it has
offensive odor and yellow-green color. Pyospermia usually
combined with oligospermia, hemospermia, teratozoospermia. Pus
may be released from the urethra, epididymis (especially when
tuberculous process in the male genital organs), the prostate
glands, seminal vesicles. Since the toxins excreted in
the process of vital activity of bacteria, damage spermatozoa,
their mobility decreases, pathological forms appear and
снижается способность sperm к оплодотворению.

ПОЛИСПЕРМИЯ или мультисемия, мультиполюция —  стойкое
выделение при семяизвержении повышенного количества sperm в
ejaculate (свыше 250-300 млн/мл)

Обычно все показатели spermograms при полиспермии в норме, но
impaired spermatogenesis because high semen activity
канальцев возникает высокий % sperm с низкой
fertilizing ability. Sometimes this term is called
a large amount of semen up to 8-10 ml. The couple often have
miscarriages or infertility. In this case, ICSI is shown.

TERATOOSOPHERMIA or teratospermia, anisozoospermia – presence in
сперме ненормальных, патологических форм sperm более
50%

The causes of teratozoospermia are the same as with
oligozoospermia and asthenozoospermia, that is, adverse factors
environment, pathological conditions that violate spermatogenesis. With
большом количестве дегенеративных sperm при инсеминации
artificial sperm (according to research) 50-60% of cases
leads to miscarriages, miscarriage, that is, to 
severe fetal development disorders. Therefore, with this result
spermograms паре следует воздержаться от попыток зачатия, а
a man to be treated by an andrologist.

Как увеличить подвижность sperm?

Известно, что подвижность sperm зависит от температуры.
So, during ejaculation, the male body temperature rises,
вследствие чего увеличивается и подвижность sperm.

That is why for the study of ejaculate use special
heated tables that maintain body temperature (approximately
37 degrees). If the spermogram is performed at a lower
temperature, the poor mobility of “male cells” can
be observed even in healthy young men.

Accordingly, with asthenozoospermia (immobility
sperm) возможность наступления беременности значительно
going down. However, it does not mean at all that with an increase in mobility
sperm беременность наступит в 100% случаев, поскольку не
rarely reduced mobility combined with other abnormalities.

Поскольку малая подвижность sperm может быть обусловлена
age, serious pathologies, chronic diseases:

  • obesity, diabetes, arterial hypertension (increased
    arterial pressure)
  • varicocele, hypoplasia of the testes, not the descent of the testicles into the scrotum,
    violation of the patency of the seminal paths
  • infectious diseases of the urogenital tract, etc.

you should find out the reason after a thorough examination, and
treat the underlying disease.

  • English scientists suggest that in order to increase
    активность sperm, мужчине необходимо включить в рацион
    increased intake of vitamins and antioxidants that
    able to excrete free radicals from the body
    queue should lead to increased mobility
    sperm.
  • Для улучшения показателей спермы also необходимо отказаться от
    bad habits and eat properly.
  • Healthy sleep is equally important (see how to fall asleep quickly)
    and good rest.
  • Supplements Spermaktin recommended for men as a source
    carnitine (vitamin B11), in preparation for IVF, ICSI, PE, for
    the correction of oligoasthenozoospermia stage 3-4, to improve the quality
    sperm during cryopreservation, donation.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that the results are only one
spermograms еще не являются поводом для постановления диагноза.
To confirm any deviation from normal
indicators men need to pass sperm at least 3 times.
With этом во внимание берется результат с наилучшими
indicators.

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