Update: October 2018
Hypertension is one of the most
common diseases of our time. Frequency of occurrence
this pathology on the population of mankind is very high, each
the fourth inhabitant of the planet suffers from elevated arterial
pressure. In old age this problem occurs in everyone.
In recent decades, there has been a steady increase in
incidence absolutely in all age categories, but at the same time
more people contribute to disease statistics before
30 years old and children. This is why the urgency of the problem is high, just like
and the ongoing development of new improved drugs
for the treatment of this dangerous pathology.
Causes of high blood pressure
The first organ that regulates blood pressure is the heart.
Systolic or cardiac pressure increases with strength
contractions of the heart muscle.
Acceleration of heart contraction can be triggered by:
- stress, anxiety
- strong physical exertion, sports activities
- drinking strong tea and coffee, energy and other
- alcohol use
- excess salt in the diet
Thus, the stronger the contraction of the heart, the higher the
systolic pressure indices (first digit before fraction).
The contraction of the muscular layer of the arteries leads to a narrowing of their lumen
и повышению pressure. The main culprit of the narrowing of the lumen of the arteries –
swelling of their walls as a result of the implementation of hereditary
predisposition to sodium retention, which pulls water.
Related mechanisms for narrowing the lumen:
- age-related changes in muscle tissue and its loss
- various diseases (kidney – polycystic, glomerulonephritis;
endocrine glands – Itsenko-Cushing syndrome, toxic
goiter, gonadal dysfunction, adrenal gland tumor);
- an excess of liquid blood substance;
- lumen obstruction with atherosclerotic plaques;
- neurogenic causes (stress, emotional overload,
encephalitis, brain tumor).
First aid for hypertensive crisis
Hypertensive crisis is the most dangerous condition that can
lead to severe consequences such as heart muscle infarction
and acute brain ischemia. When hypertensive crisis occurs, a sharp
a jump in blood pressure indicators above 140 by 90.
The condition is dangerous because a person is not always able to adequately
assess the complexity of the situation. Some people suffer extremely
high blood pressure without any symptoms. Some,
faced with the manifestations of hypertensive crisis for the first time,
perceive them as fatigue, pre-marrow and not
take the necessary measures. Especially dangerous if hypertensive
crisis caught a man alone, away from hospitals.
Causes of hypertensive crisis:
- Severe emotional stress, nervous tension.
- Climate change, weather changes (especially high temperatures
- Alcohol abuse, coffee.
- Skipping or refusing to take an antihypertensive drug that
appointed by the doctor for a lifetime reception.
- Chronic diseases (diabetes, nodular
polyarteritis, nephroptosis, thyroid disease, nephropathy
pregnant women, arterial hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus,
arteriosclerotic aorta, vascular disease).
- Excess salt in the diet.
- Hormonal disorders, especially menopause in women.
- Physical overload.
Symptoms of hypertensive crisis
- The main symptom is a sharp increase in blood pressure indicators with
increasing numbers with increasing go decreasing pulse
- There is a sharp headache with a tendency to increase,
permanent or paroxysmal character, localized in
mainly in the back of the head, but maybe in the forehead with a ripple in
- Probably the occurrence of disorientation on the ground,
discoordination, dizziness, vagueness in the eyes and noise in
- Visual impairment develops up to its complete loss.
- Pain pressing or stitching in the region of the heart or behind the sternum.
- Red spots appear on the body.
- Nausea and vomiting, lack of air, chills,
tremor of hands, tingling in limbs.
- A person experiences panic fear, which is replaced
drowsiness or progressive excitement.
If you or your loved ones have a high arterial
- The first is to call an ambulance or go to the doctors. Linger in
this case is impossible.
- The victim should assume a half-sitting position by placing
under the head a pillow or improvised material.
- Buttons need to be unbuttoned, and clothes that compress chest
cage – remove.
- Cover your legs and apply a heating pad to your calf muscle.
- It is important to calm the person, do not give him nervous, constantly
talk to him in a calm tone. Should give any
sedative (tincture of valerian, motherwort, heart drops or
6 tab. glycine under the tongue).
- If you feel pain in the sternum should take a pill
- Kapoten under the tongue, Moxonidine 0.04 or Nifedipine 10 mg.
As a rule, compliance All of these recommendations will allow
reduce pressure on several dozen. Further
The help should be carried out by doctors. The fact is that
independent reduction of high blood pressure with the help of the usual
antihypertensive drugs can lead to a sharp decrease in its
How to lower blood pressure at home?
If the pressure does not rise to critical values, you can
- Exclusion from the diet of harmful foods and liquids. Strong
tea, coffee, alcohol and fatty foods should be on the list
- Significant limitation of salt in the diet. Daily consumption
salt should be reduced to half a teaspoon, and it’s better
to exclude. The amount of salt required for life
man gets with groceries. Dietary enrichment with champignons
also helps to remove excess salt from the body.
- To give up smoking. Absolutely all cigarettes, even light and super
lungs, contraindicated hypertensive.
- Normalization of the nervous system. If work and life
full of stress and emotional overload should be taken
soothing as in the form of natural one-component tinctures
valerian, peony, lemon balm, motherwort, and in the form of drugs,
such as Novopassit, Persen, Barboval. What exactly is shown
the patient is prompted by the doctor, since most of the sedatives
can not be taken while driving a car or performing dangerous and accurate
works Ideally, you should relax in a sanatorium or the sea, but without
abrupt climate change.
- The expansion of the vascular wall with antispasmodics (drotaverin,
- Cleansing the vessels of atherosclerotic deposits (see how
lower cholesterol without drugs). This event is held
- drugs from the group of statins (Vasilip, Lovastatin,
Pravastatin, Cerivastatin, drugs of a new generation with
resistance to other statins – Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin),
who are prescribed only by a doctor (see statins at high
cholesterol-drink or not to drink?);
- aerobic exercise (running, aerobics, walking
- use 1 clove of garlic every day for 6
- use 1 tbsp. flaxseed oil daily for 3-6
- enriching the diet with cholesterol –
celery, beets, greens, apples, cucumbers, sweet peppers,
corn, barley, nonfat milk.
- drugs from the group of statins (Vasilip, Lovastatin,
- Removal of excess fluid from the body. Diuretic drugs
without control and without a doctor’s prescription can not be taken. Infusions of
diuretic herbs: bearberry, birch buds, seeds
dill, knotweed and diuretic drugs can not be combined with
medication licorice, since the development is likely
dehydration. Hot baths for legs (knees) and hands also help
(up to the elbow).
- Normalization of weight. Every extra 10 kg per 10 mm Hg.
increase blood pressure.
- Sufficient daily exercise.
- Regular, without skipping, taking medications prescribed
doctor, to control blood pressure and prevent its rise.
So how to reduce the pressure at home? Required
adhere to all the above recommendations for life and not
allow yourself to “relax” because the slightest error in
diet or lifestyle will negate all the efforts and achievements
Groups of drugs for the treatment of high blood pressure
Selection of necessary medicines, their dosages and combinations
performed by a doctor. Today there are 6 main groups
drugs used in the treatment of hypertension:
- ACE inhibitors
(angiotensin-converting enzyme): enalapril (Enap, Renitec,
Enam), ramipril (Tritatse, Amprilan), lisinopril (Diroton, Lizatar),
fosinopril (Monopril, Fozikard) and others. Contraindications: high
blood potassium, pregnancy, renal stenosis, angioedema
- ARB blockers
These are angiotensin-1 receptor blockers: valsartan (Valsacor,
Diovan), irbesartan (Aprovel), losartan (Lozap, Cozaar, Lorista),
candesartan (atakand). Contraindications are similar to inhibitors.
- β-АБ (β-adrenoblockers)
bisoprolol (Concor), nebivolol (Nebilet), metoprolol (Egilok,
Betalok). Contraindications: 2 and 3 tbsp. atrioventricular block,
- AK (Ca antagonists)
Dihydropyridine: Nifedipine (Cordaflex, Cordipin, Nifecard),
Amlodipine (Amtolop, Norvask, Normodipin). Non-dihydropyridine:
Diltiazem, Verapamil. Contraindications to receive
non-dihydropyridine AK: chronic heart failure, 2 and
3 tbsp. atrioventricular block.
- Diuretics or diuretics
Thiazide: indapamide (Indap, Arifon), hydrochlorothiazide
(Hypothiazide). Loop: spironolactone (Veroshpiron).
Contraindications to receive петлевых диуретиков: ХПН, высокий калий
- Renin inhibitors: aliskiren (Rasilez).
It is advisable to combine the following groups of drugs:
IAPP + AK, IAPP + diuretic; ARB + diuretic, ARB + AK; AK + diuretic, AK
dihydropyridine) + β-AB; β-АБ + diuretic, β-АБ + α-АБ.
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог