How to reduce the pressure at home

Update: October 2018

Hypertension is one of the most
common diseases of our time. Frequency of occurrence
this pathology on the population of mankind is very high, each
the fourth inhabitant of the planet suffers from elevated arterial
pressure. In old age this problem occurs in everyone.
the second.

In recent decades, there has been a steady increase in
incidence absolutely in all age categories, but at the same time
more people contribute to disease statistics before
30 years old and children. This is why the urgency of the problem is high, just like
and the ongoing development of new improved drugs
for the treatment of this dangerous pathology.

Causes of high blood pressure

The first organ that regulates blood pressure is the heart.
Systolic or cardiac pressure increases with strength
contractions of the heart muscle.

Acceleration of heart contraction can be triggered by:

  • stress, anxiety
  • strong physical exertion, sports activities
  • drinking strong tea and coffee, energy and other
    caffeine-containing beverages
  • alcohol use
  • excess salt in the diet
  • overweight
  • smoking

Thus, the stronger the contraction of the heart, the higher the
systolic pressure indices (first digit before fraction).

The contraction of the muscular layer of the arteries leads to a narrowing of their lumen
и повышению pressure. The main culprit of the narrowing of the lumen of the arteries –
swelling of their walls as a result of the implementation of hereditary
predisposition to sodium retention, which pulls water.
Related mechanisms for narrowing the lumen:

  • age-related changes in muscle tissue and its loss
    elasticity;
  • various diseases (kidney – polycystic, glomerulonephritis;
    endocrine glands – Itsenko-Cushing syndrome, toxic
    goiter, gonadal dysfunction, adrenal gland tumor);
  • an excess of liquid blood substance;
  • lumen obstruction with atherosclerotic plaques;
  • neurogenic causes (stress, emotional overload,
    encephalitis, brain tumor).

First aid for hypertensive crisis

Hypertensive crisis is the most dangerous condition that can
lead to severe consequences such as heart muscle infarction
and acute brain ischemia. When hypertensive crisis occurs, a sharp
a jump in blood pressure indicators above 140 by 90.

The condition is dangerous because a person is not always able to adequately
assess the complexity of the situation. Some people suffer extremely
high blood pressure without any symptoms. Some,
faced with the manifestations of hypertensive crisis for the first time,
perceive them as fatigue, pre-marrow and not
take the necessary measures. Especially dangerous if hypertensive
crisis caught a man alone, away from hospitals.

Causes of hypertensive crisis: Высокое pressure

  • Severe emotional stress, nervous tension.
  • Climate change, weather changes (especially high temperatures
    outdoor air).
  • Alcohol abuse, coffee.
  • Smoking.
  • Skipping or refusing to take an antihypertensive drug that
    appointed by the doctor for a lifetime reception.
  • Chronic diseases (diabetes, nodular
    polyarteritis, nephroptosis, thyroid disease, nephropathy
    pregnant women, arterial hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus,
    arteriosclerotic aorta, vascular disease).
  • Excess salt in the diet.
  • Hormonal disorders, especially menopause in women.
  • Physical overload.

Symptoms of hypertensive crisis

  • The main symptom is a sharp increase in blood pressure indicators with
    increasing numbers with increasing go decreasing pulse
    pressure.
  • There is a sharp headache with a tendency to increase,
    permanent or paroxysmal character, localized in
    mainly in the back of the head, but maybe in the forehead with a ripple in
    temples.
  • Probably the occurrence of disorientation on the ground,
    discoordination, dizziness, vagueness in the eyes and noise in
    ears.
  • Visual impairment develops up to its complete loss.
  • Pain pressing or stitching in the region of the heart or behind the sternum.
  • Red spots appear on the body.
  • Nausea and vomiting, lack of air, chills,
    tremor of hands, tingling in limbs.
  • A person experiences panic fear, which is replaced
    drowsiness or progressive excitement.

If you or your loved ones have a high arterial
pressure

  • The first is to call an ambulance or go to the doctors. Linger in
    this case is impossible.
  • The victim should assume a half-sitting position by placing
    under the head a pillow or improvised material.
  • Buttons need to be unbuttoned, and clothes that compress chest
    cage – remove.
  • Cover your legs and apply a heating pad to your calf muscle.
  • It is important to calm the person, do not give him nervous, constantly
    talk to him in a calm tone. Should give any
    sedative (tincture of valerian, motherwort, heart drops or
    6 tab. glycine under the tongue).
  • If you feel pain in the sternum should take a pill
    nitroglycerin.
  • Kapoten under the tongue, Moxonidine 0.04 or Nifedipine 10 mg.

As a rule, compliance All of these recommendations will allow
reduce pressure on several dozen. Further
The help should be carried out by doctors. The fact is that
independent reduction of high blood pressure with the help of the usual
antihypertensive drugs can lead to a sharp decrease in its
extremely undesirable.

How to lower blood pressure at home?

If the pressure does not rise to critical values, you can
help yourself

  • Exclusion from the diet of harmful foods and liquids. Strong
    tea, coffee, alcohol and fatty foods should be on the list
    prohibited
  • Significant limitation of salt in the diet. Daily consumption
    salt should be reduced to half a teaspoon, and it’s better
    to exclude. The amount of salt required for life
    man gets with groceries. Dietary enrichment with champignons
    also helps to remove excess salt from the body.
  • To give up smoking. Absolutely all cigarettes, even light and super
    lungs, contraindicated hypertensive.
  • Normalization of the nervous system. If work and life
    full of stress and emotional overload should be taken
    soothing as in the form of natural one-component tinctures
    valerian, peony, lemon balm, motherwort, and in the form of drugs,
    such as Novopassit, Persen, Barboval. What exactly is shown
    the patient is prompted by the doctor, since most of the sedatives
    can not be taken while driving a car or performing dangerous and accurate
    works Ideally, you should relax in a sanatorium or the sea, but without
    abrupt climate change.
  • The expansion of the vascular wall with antispasmodics (drotaverin,
    papaverine).
  • Cleansing the vessels of atherosclerotic deposits (see how
    lower cholesterol without drugs). This event is held
    with help:

    • drugs from the group of statins (Vasilip, Lovastatin,
      Pravastatin, Cerivastatin, drugs of a new generation with
      resistance to other statins – Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin),
      who are prescribed only by a doctor (see statins at high
      cholesterol-drink or not to drink?);
    • aerobic exercise (running, aerobics, walking
      on foot);
    • use 1 clove of garlic every day for 6
      months;
    • use 1 tbsp. flaxseed oil daily for 3-6
      months;
    • enriching the diet with cholesterol –
      celery, beets, greens, apples, cucumbers, sweet peppers,
      corn, barley, nonfat milk.
  • Removal of excess fluid from the body. Diuretic drugs
    without control and without a doctor’s prescription can not be taken. Infusions of
    diuretic herbs: bearberry, birch buds, seeds
    dill, knotweed and diuretic drugs can not be combined with
    medication licorice, since the development is likely
    dehydration. Hot baths for legs (knees) and hands also help
    (up to the elbow).
  • Normalization of weight. Every extra 10 kg per 10 mm Hg.
    increase blood pressure.
  • Sufficient daily exercise.
  • Regular, without skipping, taking medications prescribed
    doctor, to control blood pressure and prevent its rise.

So how to reduce the pressure at home? Required
adhere to all the above recommendations for life and not
allow yourself to “relax” because the slightest error in
diet or lifestyle will negate all the efforts and achievements
results.

Groups of drugs for the treatment of high blood pressure

Selection of necessary medicines, their dosages and combinations
performed by a doctor. Today there are 6 main groups
drugs used in the treatment of hypertension:

  • ACE inhibitors

(angiotensin-converting enzyme): enalapril (Enap, Renitec,
Enam), ramipril (Tritatse, Amprilan), lisinopril (Diroton, Lizatar),
fosinopril (Monopril, Fozikard) and others. Contraindications: high
blood potassium, pregnancy, renal stenosis, angioedema
edema.

  • ARB blockers

These are angiotensin-1 receptor blockers: valsartan (Valsacor,
Diovan), irbesartan (Aprovel), losartan (Lozap, Cozaar, Lorista),
candesartan (atakand). Contraindications are similar to inhibitors.
APF.

  • β-АБ (β-adrenoblockers)

bisoprolol (Concor), nebivolol (Nebilet), metoprolol (Egilok,
Betalok). Contraindications: 2 and 3 tbsp. atrioventricular block,
bronchial asthma.

  • AK (Ca antagonists)

Dihydropyridine: Nifedipine (Cordaflex, Cordipin, Nifecard),
Amlodipine (Amtolop, Norvask, Normodipin). Non-dihydropyridine:
Diltiazem, Verapamil. Contraindications to receive
non-dihydropyridine AK: chronic heart failure, 2 and
3 tbsp. atrioventricular block.

  • Diuretics or diuretics

Thiazide: indapamide (Indap, Arifon), hydrochlorothiazide
(Hypothiazide). Loop: spironolactone (Veroshpiron).
Contraindications to receive петлевых диуретиков: ХПН, высокий калий
blood.

  • Renin inhibitors: aliskiren (Rasilez).

It is advisable to combine the following groups of drugs:

IAPP + AK, IAPP + diuretic; ARB + ​​diuretic, ARB + ​​AK; AK + diuretic, AK
dihydropyridine) + β-AB; β-АБ + diuretic, β-АБ + α-АБ.

Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог

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