Update: November 2018
Phlegm is a pathological secret that is formed in
bronchi in various diseases (pneumonia, bronchitis, tuberculosis,
рак, бронхоэктатическая болезнь, гангрена легких). She is
irritates cough receptors and comes out with a cough. Analysis of her
very important for establishing the correct diagnosis, cause and type
pathogen. It is important to pass sputum so that it does not join.
saliva or discharge from the nasopharynx, water.
Why is this analysis important?
This analysis can provide answers to questions that cannot
get with other studies:
- Identify the causative agent of the disease.
- Determine which antibiotic it is more sensitive to.
- See if cells in the sputum are suspicious for
- Receive confirmation of an allergic nature
- Evaluation of the treatment
- Detection of pulmonary tuberculosis and bronchus.
Cough is often the first and only symptom of such
terrible diseases like tuberculosis and central cancer of the bronchi.
Radiographic signs appear later, and bronchoscopy –
The survey is not easy and not always available. Properly assembled
sputum is simple, cheap and informative enough
method of early diagnosis.
Therefore, if a doctor prescribes this examination, it’s not just important
�”Spit in a jar”, and try to properly pass the sputum on
What a sputum might look like
- When coughing lasts more than 2-3 weeks.
- With pneumonia and any blackouts in the lungs.
- With chronic bronchitis annually.
- With suspected tuberculosis.
- If a bronchial tumor is suspected.
- In lying and sedentary patients with inability to hold
x-ray of the lungs once a year.
Different types of sputum tests
- Общий (общеклинический) analysis. Under a conventional microscope,
character, cellular composition, presence of microbes without
clarify their appearance.
- Analysis of atypical cells (cytology). Being in the sample
atypical cells suggests the presence of a malignant tumor.
- Bacterial seeding. Sowing on different nutrient media
allows you to identify the specific causative agent of the disease, as well as
determine its sensitivity to antibiotics.
- Analysis for tuberculosis. Sputum examined for bacilli
Koch – the causative agents of tuberculosis. Another name for this study
– analysis on BC. It is carried out both by a microscopy method, and
How to pass sputum
- Если анализ сдается в поликлинике. it
происходит в отдельном кабинете, специально оборудованном для
collection of sputum. Nurse tells each patient how to
take the phlegm and monitor the process, then signs the container
and sends to the study.
- At home. Better to do it in front of an open window,
collection technique – deep breaths and subsequent coughing.
How to pass sputum expectoration
If a sputum test is scheduled, the patient is always instructed,
how to pass it. When productive coughing (with expectoration and
spitting) to collect it is not difficult:
- The patient is issued in a hospital or purchased independently.
special jar. She is должна быть с широким горлышком и
screw cap. Capacity is pre-signed (name,
date of collection).
- Sputum is surrendered in the morning on an empty stomach. 30 minutes to collect need
brush your teeth. And just before handing over – rinse your mouth.
boiled water to clear the mouth from
- It is necessary to take two slow breaths and exhalations. After the third
inhalation to cough up sputum into the container. It is necessary to hit it
cough discharge, not saliva.
- If the mucus clears little, you need to repeat it again.
The amount of material for analysis should be at least 5 ml.
- Capacity should be tightly closed with a lid.
- Sputum should be sent to the laboratory within 2
- In some urgent situations, sputum collection may
be carried out at any time of the day.
When passing on bacposev there are some features. Highly
It is important to get sputum without impurities. Therefore:
- It is highly advisable to have phlegm on bakposev before taking
- The container for such an analysis is issued in a medical institution;
must be sterile.
- Open the container just before the immediate
- Mouth rinse with antiseptic before expectoration.
(chlorhequidine, miramistin, furatsilina solution) to
microorganisms from the mouth did not fall and did not prevent
- The container with sputum is immediately delivered to the laboratory,
where it is sown on cups with a nutrient medium.
- In specialized institutions the patient is supervised.
the medical staff can immediately cough up on a petri dish.
- The answer from the laboratory will be received only in 5-6 days, in
some cases 10-14 days.
Sputum is placed on the culture medium and create favorable
conditions under which there is an increased reproduction of bacteria,
fungi and the growth of their colonies. A few days later lab technicians
estimate the growth of colonies, determine the type of pathogen and its
sensitivity to the most popular antibiotics.
Excess содержания коринебактерий, ниссерий,
Streptococcus, Staphylococcus more than 10 6 CFU / ml says
prevalence of pathogenic flora. They may be present in the composition
normal microflora, but increasing their concentration indicates
infectious and inflammatory process.
To pathogenic bacteria that can be found in
respiratory tract include:
клебсиелла, легионелла, золотистый
стафилококк, моракселла, синегнойная
палочка, палочка инфлюэнцы, микоплазма, палочка
Sputum collection for tuberculosis
Indications (see how tuberculosis is transmitted):
- low-grade fever for a long time;
- prolonged cough;
- weakness, increased sweating;
- detection of blackouts on x-rays, suspicion
Features of the delivery of sputum on BC following:
- The analysis is done 3 times.
- The first portion is collected in the morning in the clinic (specially
- The second portion is collected at home, the container is closed and
placed in the fridge.
- The third portion is rented the next morning at the clinic.
Sputum smears are stained with special dyes to
microscopic examination and detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Then the sputum is placed in special conditions, as much as possible
favorable for the growth of mycobacteria and for 2-2.5 months
estimated whether there is a growth of colonies or not.
If mycobacterium tuberculosis is detected,
detection of susceptibility to major anti-tuberculosis
drugs and reserve drugs (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones),
so that the treatment is as effective as possible.
If sputum does not cough
How to pass a sputum test if there is no cough? If a person is not at all
cough, most likely, the analysis will not work. Another variant,
when there is a cough, but it is dry or unproductive. Here you can
try to improve sputum discharge in various ways.
- Накануне сдачи анализа – обильное питье
- За несколько дней – прием разжижающих мокроту
and expectorant drugs (ambrobene, bromhexin, liquorice decoction,
Thermopsis herbs, see all expectorants).
- Принять дренажное положение. Drainage is
improved churn. For better discharge of mucus from the bronchi most
recommended position with the torso: in the morning hang down with
bed upside down.
- Постукивание по грудной клетке. Can
knock yourself on the sternum, or ask someone to knock a little
on the back.
- Ингаляция солевым раствором. Best of all is
do through a nebulizer: the pharmacy saline is poured into the container
or alkaline mineral water. Breathe 10 – 15 minutes after that
coughing usually occurs. If there is no nebulizer, you can
dissolve 1 teaspoon of salt in a glass of hot (55-60 degrees)
water, pour into a cup and breathe over it through a paper cone.
Исследование методом бронхоскопии
Bronchoscopy is an invasive and not very pleasant method.
research. It is often prescribed for diagnosis.
bronchopulmonary diseases. It is also suitable for collecting sputum in those
cases where the usual way to pass it fails.
The mucus from the bronchial lumen is sucked off with an aspirator, or in
the bronchi is filled with saline and then it is sucked away. In this case
they speak not about sputum, but about the washing waters of the bronchi.