How to get rid of age spots on the face,causes of appearance, types of pigmentation

Update: October 2018

Pigment spots are called skin hypermelanosis, caused by
increased formation of melanin in the skin. This pathology
includes many varieties.

Pigmentation areas may have a light and dark color (from
pale brown to dark, almost black) be
congenital or acquired, evenly and unevenly
located on different parts of the body, etc.

Pigment spots are a cosmetic defect, most often in
areas of these spots skin becomes rough, dry, more
prone to wrinkle formation.

Causes of age spots on face and body

Among the causes of pigmentation in human skin,
distinguish the following:

  • pathology of the thyroid gland, accompanied by a violation of its
    functions;
  • disruption of the hepato-biliary system (gallbladder,
    liver);
  • aggressive exposure to ultraviolet rays (excessive
    sunburn abuse);
  • genetic inheritance
    predisposition to the formation of sites of pigmentation;
  • dysfunctions in the ovaries;
  • the presence in the body of hormonal imbalance – pregnancy,
    taking oral hormonal contraceptives;
  • the effects of injuries and burns;
  • specific skin conditions (vitiligo) that are associated with
    lack of melanin in certain areas of the skin;
  • prolonged contact with synthetic clothing or products
    rubber;
  • salon procedures, accompanied by integrity
    epidermis (peeling, photo, laser hair removal and other her
    kinds);
  • neurogenic causes – psychosis, prolonged depression, neurasthenia
    (symptoms);
  • abuse of certain medications and certain types
    cosmetic products.

Types of pigmentation

There are several different types of pigmentation:

  • Freckles

Freckles – часто встречающаяся разновидностей пигментных пятен —
localized areas of melanin. Most often freckles are noted in
people with fair skin, they are located on the face, chest, hands.
When these people are in the sun, freckles become more
intense and visible, and in the cold season they can
become invisible (see how to get rid of freckles).

  • Birthmarks (nevi)

Nevi (birthmarks, moles) – this is the most common type
pigment spots. They look like small areas of a cluster.
melanin in the skin with relatively smooth edges. Moles
are available on the body of any person and are considered a variation of the norm,
exceptions are cases when the moles are maligned
(reborn into malignant neoplasms). Then moles
change their color and structure, begin to grow actively, causing
patient inconvenience.

  • Melasma (chloasma)

Melasma (chloasma) – крупные пигментные пятна с неправильными и
uneven boundaries, most often occurring on the skin of young women.
Their appearance is associated with hormonal imbalances in the female body.
(menstruation, pregnancy, hormonal drugs). Melasma
may increase in size with active exposure
sun rays. They often have a drain character, completely cover
face and neck.

  • Lentigo

Lentigo – это возрастная пигментация кожи, возникающая у людей в
old age. As a rule, its occurrence is due to
excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight. Lentigo
located on the face, skin of the hands (forearms, hands), such spots
artificially aging face and add man years. Sometimes
such pigmentation occurs at the site of freckles.

  • Albinism (vitiligo)

Vitiligo (albinism) is the rarest type of pigmentation.
The etiology of the disease has not been studied enough, so this
pathology is difficult to treat. In people suffering
albinism, melanocytes are completely or partially absent.

On the body of such people there are bleached pigment spots,
which do not contain pigment, for this reason it is harmful for a long time
stay in the sun. When exposed to sunlight on the skin of such
patients they not only have burns, but may also
malignant cell degeneration. People with albinism
wearing contact lenses that protect their eyes from
ultraviolet rays.

How to remove age spots on the face and other parts of the body?

Pigment spots are always to one degree or another.
cosmetic defect, therefore, is particularly painful to its presence
include women and girls. The presence of pigmentation on the face,
neck, arms and other visible parts of the body – this is a reason to hike to
beautician.

If things are more serious, you will need a consultation.
endocrinologist and oncologist. You may have to take tests, including
including the level of hormones in the blood. Sometimes pigmentation is
just a consequence of some disease and if not cured,
pigmentation will not disappear, but will only increase.

How to remove age spots? Most often the answer to this one is
The question gives a beautician. There are many cosmetology
procedures to get rid of age spots on the face.

  • The simplest ones are special ones. whitening masks
    and creams
  • More sophisticated methods of struggle – hardware saloon
    procedures

Отлично отбеливают кожу гликолевые и фруктовые маски and creams, а
also fruit peels, laser whitening, cryotherapy.

  • Masks, face cream

You can whiten your face from pigment spots with the help of fruit and
glycol masks, creams and peels, which include
natural, vegetable acids (grape, malic, citric,
wine, milk) which, acting on the skin, peel off
the upper layer of the epidermis, remove old, dead skin cells and
expose young, healthy cells. With the help of these drugs
uniform skin color is restored, skin pores are narrowed, skin
becomes elastic, soft, acquires a smooth relief.

Some cosmetics with a whitening effect:

KORA freckle cream Snow White Perfect Whitening – Night Cream White flax from Floresan Amanita from LLC NPK “Triniti M”

Products containing fruit and glycolic acids are suitable
for all skin types (an exception is the individual
intolerance). Fruit peels can be superficial and
deep. It is recommended to remove pigmentation sites.
several sessions. Fruit peels can be done at any time.
years, and glycolic – in the autumn-winter period, when the sun has
reduced activity.

Крем, Ретин А гель, лосьоны и растворы Ретин А — используется при
acne vulgaris, with the formation of pustules, papules, as well as
hyperpigmentation. The active ingredient of the cream is trans-retinoic
acid. Before use should be carefully examined
instructions, because the drug has a number of side effects and
has contraindications. Do not use cream for wounds,
burns, and for a long time, during application to avoid
sunburn, with tanning use after it
weakening. Apply 1 p / day, remove after 6 hours, a course of therapy
no more than 1 month.

As for the widely advertised cream Ahromin
(Bulgaria), Hydroquinone used to be part of this cream, with a powerful
whitening effect. Now this substance is banned in the EU and the USA,
therefore, it is not in the composition of Akhromin and, accordingly, there is no effect,
Moreover, it is a greasy cream with an unpleasant smell, use it
Not recommended.

In some cases, any gel or cream with badagia, to
example, Badyaga Forte gel pigment spots and bruises, as well as
Express bruise – cream with sponge extract (see bruise ointment,
bruises).

  • Laser skin rejuvenation

It is possible to remove the pigment spots by laser removal (laser
skin rejuvenation). For this purpose, a special diode laser is used,
having various nozzles for processing sites of pigmentation.
The surface of the pigment spot is treated with a tip
laser pulse device. The patient feels light.
tingling or feeling of warmth.

После данной procedures поверхность кожи охлаждается при помощи
another nozzle that prevents burns. On
the final stage is applied to the skin special
restoring balm. In the following days on the skin areas
subject to laser exposure, be sure to apply
sunscreen.

Number of laser pigmentation removal procedures directly
depends on the depth and degree of intensity of the pigment spot.
The average number of sessions – from 1 to 4, the interval between treatments
– at least 2 weeks.

  • Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy (воздействие на кожу жидким азотом) – метод,
allowing to remove pigmentation from the skin surface,
warts and moles are absolutely painless and safe. On
the cleaned surface of the pigmentation site by spraying or
application is applied liquid nitrogen. When this defect is frozen,
beneath it forms a blister, which after a while
exfoliates along with dead soft tissue.

A cryotherapy session lasts a second (rarely a minute), which reduces
aggressive effects of liquid nitrogen on the skin. However itself
cryotherapy procedure can cause pain, therefore
до и после procedures рекомендуется употреблять обезболивающие
drugs. If necessary, the cryotherapy session can be repeated
time.

  • Photo removal

Photo removal – это особая методика ликвидации участков
pigmentation using high-intensity pulsed light.
Phototherapy is based on the removal of pigmented areas with
using selective absorption of light waves by melanin (range
400-1200 nm), while melanocytes are destroyed, and the skin
cover retains its integrity.

Phototherapy is an individual procedure that allows
carefully monitor all parameters of the impact of pulses, and
also their number and time of exposure. For removing
поверхностных участков пигментации достаточно 1 — 2 procedures, для
deep – about 6 sessions (the interval is 10 – 15 days).
This method of exposure to areas of pigmentation is one of
most effective – pigment spots disappear completely, color
surrounding skin becomes monophonic.

  • Mesotherapy

Mesotherapy является омолаживающей procedure by which
Special chemical mezokokteyli are used, which
whiten the skin and even out its color. These cocktails
treat the skin of the face, neck, outer surface of the hands
(sites exposed to the aggressive rays of the sun). AT
The composition of mezokokteyly usually include:

  • vitamin c (ascorbic acid) which is potent
    antioxidant;
  • phytic acid, whitening the skin (it is obtained from grains
    wheat), it has anti-inflammatory effect and
    pyruvic acid, stimulating the synthesis of fibers
    collagen.

Mezokokteyl applied to the skin and after some time removed.
Обычно несколько procedures мезотерапии достаточно для того, чтобы
areas of hyperpigmentation have become less intense or even
disappeared.

How to remove freckles, moles, deep pigmentation?

  • Tanning

People suffering from age spots need to sunbathe with
caution. Of course, tanning is fashionable and beautiful, but is it helpful?
this is for you? Remember – light skin looks much younger than
tanned With the onset of spring and summer, all suffering
increased pigmentation is necessary to use sunscreen
means not to leave the house without a headdress and glasses from
the sun

  • Freckles

Innocent at first glance pigment spots in the form of freckles often
are the cause of discontent of their owners. Freckles бледнеют
после проведения procedures химического пилинга, содержащего
lactic or fruit acids. They affect areas
clusters of melanocytes and discolor areas like this
pigmentation. However, the procedure helps only for a while.
After it is necessary to use sun protection.
means, otherwise freckles will appear again.

  • Moles

Moles если они являются выраженным косметическим дефектом,
can be derived using diathermocoagulation, laser correction and
liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy). After these procedures, scars on
surface of the skin does not remain.

  • Difficult stains on the face

Deep, difficult to remove pigment spots, remove with
skin surface using laser peeling, mesotherapy and
photo removal Sometimes врач назначает пациенту параллельный прием
depigmenting drugs.

Depigmenting agents are drugs outdoor
applications that are used to remove pigmentation sites
skin. To depigmenting drugs include: Как избавиться от пигментных пятен на лице

  • hydroquinone and all its derivatives, which are well peeled
    top layer of skin (monomethyl and monobenzyl esters)
  • as well as hydrogen peroxide
  • lavender oil
  • ascorbic, acetic, citric acid, salicylic
    acid
  • resorcinol
  • молочную acid
  • tincture of horseradish on vinegar

These drugs have a pronounced keratolytic effect and
хорошо отшелушивают роговой слой skin.

Onродные средства в лечении пигментных пятен

For removing пигментных пятен используют и народные методы:

  • Lemon juice

Perfectly discolor the skin by wiping freshly squeezed lemon
juice (ratio with water – 1/10), and also – drawing on the face,
neck masks containing vitamin C (if the patient does not have on him
allergies).

  • Cucumber and parsley juice

Long since our grandmothers used other whitening
means – parsley juice and cucumber. Parsley finely chopped,
then poured boiling water over it and insisted. Filtered solution
rubbed areas of pigmentation several times a day.

Fresh cucumber must be grated and put on his face
gruel for 20 minutes, after which the mask should be washed off. Cucumber not only
relieves pigmentation, but also makes the skin silky and
softness.

  • Grapefruit juice, curd mask

Discolorate age spots help rubbing fresh juice
grapefruit and cottage cheese mask, to which is added: peroxide
hydrogen (15 drops) and ammonia (15 drops). After 15 minutes
the mask needs to be washed off. Skin well whitens and kefir, which
It is recommended to wash several times a day.

  • Cosmetic clay

AT борьбе с пигментацией хорошо помогает косметическая глина. Of
it is prepared masks, which add soda, hydrogen peroxide and
talc. The mask is kept on the face for no more than 20 minutes.

If the patient does not help popular methods of breeding sites
pigmentation, it is necessary to turn to traditional medicine or
cosmetology. ATозможно, пигментированные участки располагаются
too deep, and folk remedies affect the skin more
superficially.

Автор: Мельникова Светлана Георгиевна врач-дерматолог

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