How HIV infection is transmitted – ways of infectiona virus

The number of HIV-infected people is constantly increasing, and the vaccine against
this virus has not yet been created. There is also no drug
able to cure this disease.

Modern medicines can only significantly delay
the onset of AIDS and make the infected not contagious (see
symptoms of HIV infection). Therefore, so far the only way
escaping from HIV is prevention.

The fact that HIV is transmitted sexually and through the blood is known
probably everyone, from a first grader to a pensioner, but people have everything
equally there are a lot of questions about this. Let’s try
answer some of them.

Ways of contracting HIV
  • Sexual path – everything is clear, the virus is transmitted when
    unprotected intercourse, with the chance of becoming infected with HIV
    Anal contact is much higher than with traditional (regardless of
  • Parenteral – through the blood during transfusion, as well as
    using non-disinfected medical instruments such as
  • Vertical – from mother to baby.

Statistics of all reported cases
infection depending on the method of infection:

transmission paths % infected
infection honey. staff 0.01%
contaminated blood transfusion 3-5%
injection drugs (in Russia in the 90s this indicator
accounted for about 70%)
from mother to fetus during pregnancy, childbirth, feeding
sexually 70-80%
What factors increase the risk of transmission?
  • virus titer in an infected person – the higher the viral load, the
    higher risk of transmission
  • injuries, microcracks, ulcers, and cervical erosion in
    of women
  • the presence of STDs, secondary infection in the body
  • у of women риск инфицирования при половом контакте в 3 раза выше,
    than men
  • anal intercourse for the receiving partner
Under what sexual intercourse is the maximum risk of infection?
  • Как передается ВИЧ, пути зараженияHigh risk of transmission
    virus during anal intercourse with homosexuals or with
    anal sex in heterosexual couples due to the fact that
    since there is no natural secretion of mucous secretion,
    injury to the rectum and mucous membranes, increasing the risk
  • It is also known that during vaginal intercourse in the absence of
    ulcers and microtraumas of the mucous membrane, the absence of genital infections in
    partners, and with minimal viral load in
    HIV-infected – the risk of infection is only a few
How can HIV get infected through blood?
  • When conducting various medical procedures in honey.
    institutions (dentistry, surgery, gynecological procedures,
    surgeries, pedicure rooms, tattoo parlors), in
    which strictly follow the rules for sterilizing instruments, no
    gross violations of sanitary norms – virtually eliminated
    infection. However, when using tools in tattoo parlors,
    during piercing, such rules and regulations may be violated.
  • Today, untested blood transfusions are almost
    precluded the donor blood test is under hard
    control, which also minimizes possible risk.
  • Sharing a common syringe among drug addicts (in this case, very
    high risk of transmission of the virus) – this was one of the most frequent
    ways of infection 15-20 years ago. However, low prices and availability
    disposable syringes today reduces this risk.
  • Незащищенный половой акт во время менструации у of women или
    harsh anal sex leads to injury, increases the risk
    virus transmission.

How is HIV transmitted in everyday life?

No The virus is very unstable in the environment, especially to
drying and heating. No case has yet been described.
domestic HIV infection.

Is HIV transmitted through saliva?

Not. The virus is contained in saliva, but its concentration is so
it is small that infection is unlikely. It is impossible even with a bite,
when a healthy person is bitten by an infected person.

Is HIV transmitted through kiss?

Not. HIV-infected saliva is practically non-infectious,
accordingly, the kiss is considered safe. But the risk increases,
if both partners have injuries in the mouth, ulcers bleeding
раны, а также  герпетические высыпания (см. как быстро
cure herpes on the lip).

Is HIV transmitted through oral sex?

When oral caresses, the risk is only at the receiving party, then
there is when the mucous of one partner erupts the seed of another
partner, but the risk is rather theoretical. In the world
only a few cases of infection have been reported.
in a way.

How can you get HIV from lesbian caresses?

Lesbian sex is considered the safest in terms of
infection. There is a purely theoretical probability of transmission.
virus with the joint use of vibrators. Therefore, when
using these practices it is better to wash the vibrator with soap or
put a condom on him.

Is HIV transmitted through a condom?

Not. There is a mass of literature that states that
The pore diameter of the condom is larger than the virus size. Even if the virus
penetrates through latex, its quantity is so insignificant that
infection is impossible. If the condom during sex is not slipped and not
torn then you absolutely protected.

What are the chances of contracting HIV when sweat gets on your skin,
Tears or urine infected?

Zero. Infection through intact skin is impossible, even
if you have been flooded with the blood of an infected person. In addition, sweat, tears and
The urine of an infected person is absolutely safe.


Is HIV transmitted through personal care products?

Not. HIV is not transmitted through towels, plates, washcloths, linen
etc. Even if these things get blood, sperm or breast
milk, infection cases are not described in this way.

How is HIV infected in a bath or pool?

No Water can not carry the virus, as it is in it quickly
dies, so it can only be infected in a bath, sauna or swimming pool
having sex there without a condom.

Is it possible for insect bites?

Not. HIV can live and multiply only in the human body.
Insects and pets cannot carry the virus.

Can HIV get infected through the air?

Not. HIV is not the flu, not the plague, not tuberculosis – airborne
way is not transmitted.

Is HIV transmitted through handshakes or hugs?

Not. HIV is not transmitted through intact skin. Even if
you have cuts or abrasions in your arms – the risk is minimal.
A theoretical probability exists if you press fresh,
bleeding wound to the same fresh and bleeding but imagine
handshake and hugs in such a situation is extremely difficult.

Is there a risk of being infected by HIV through
a razor or a toothbrush?

Household items that come in contact with blood, such as a toothbrush,
razor, nail accessories are only at risk
theoretical. No cases of infection have been described yet.
подобным in a way.

Is HIV transmitted to a child?

Беременная of womenа может заразить своего малыша тремя путями, в
the average probability of transmission is 25-30%:

  • Through the placenta – intrauterine risk of transmission is 5-11%,
    which depends on many factors. Firstly from the state of health
    mothers during pregnancy (viral load at this time,
    immune status, the presence of chronic diseases, pathological
    течения беременности), во-вторых принимает ли of womenа
    антиретровирусную терапию, в -третьих от количества родов у of womenы
    history – the more birth, the higher the risk of intrauterine
    fetal infection.
  • Directly in labor through the blood – the risk is 15%,
    Cesarean section slightly reduces this risk.
  • Through breast milk during breastfeeding (10%),
    because the virus is found in the breast milk of the mother, baby
    It is recommended to transfer to artificial baby food.

Исследования, проводимые у беременных of women показывают, что
the greatest risk of infection occurs during childbirth, as well as in 1
trimester when the placenta is not fully formed and very weak
placental barrier. That is, the fetus can be infected already by 8-12
week of pregnancy.

Поэтому если ВИЧ-позитивная of womenа забеременела, она должна
be sure to take the necessary preparations, and the baby was born
must be fed artificially. In this case, the risk of transmission
the virus is reduced to a minimum.

Can I get HIV by mouth?

It depends on how you use your mouth. Through kisses
toothbrushes, spoons, food, and even HIV bites are not transmitted. With
oral sex has some risk at the receiving party, therefore
use a condom in this case.

The myth of the “infected needles”

The tale of drug addicts leaving infected needles in
entrances, cinemas, prick them in transport or night clubs
only journalists inflate, damnable to cheap sensations.
If you leave aside the stories about offended by the whole world
HIV-infected, who are taking revenge “all-and-all”, then turn to
clean statistics.

There is a risk of becoming infected with an HIV-infected person only if
took a syringe from his vein and immediately pricked someone with it, and then this
risk is no more than 20%. If the needle is air dried, then
the probability of infection is not more than 0.3%. Described on the Internet
a lot of cases when a child injected with a drug needle in
sandbox or porch, but there is not a single episode that proves
that the child thus became infected with HIV.

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