Update: December 2018 GHA – hysterosalpingography, this
procedure examining the patency of the fallopian tubes, which
produce for the diagnosis of infertility. Fallopian tubes are narrow
channels, 10 cm long and 0.1-1 cm in diameter, extending from the uterus and
reaching the ovaries, they are promoted fertilized
ovum to uterus. Therefore, when obstruction of the fallopian tubes
the occurrence of pregnancy is impossible. Also often the cases
partial obstruction, in which ectopic can occur
pregnancy (symptoms), in which case the egg stops at
tube and embryo development occurs inside it. For determining
the pipe is used several methods:
- HSG fallopian tubes
- Ultrasound hydrosonography, echo sterrosalpingoscopy
- Fertilloscopy and Transvaginal Hydrolaparoscopy
- Diagnostic laparoscopy of the fallopian tubes
The GHA method or hysterosalpingoscopy is to analyze
x-ray, which is obtained after the introduction of a contrast agent and
radiography of the fallopian tubes. Contrast most often
iodine-containing drugs, they are the most low-toxic when
interaction with radiation.
Variants of the procedure, their benefits and
- Ultrasonic GHA or sonographic, sonographic,
This ultrasound, only with the additional introduction of fluid into the uterus –
glucose, furatsilina solution, saline. Disadvantage of this method
is a little information and the possibility of inspection only
at the same time one doctor producing ultrasound, that is, the impossibility
consider the result by other doctors over time because
No pictures are taken. The advantage is that this method
fast, minimally invasive, less painful, without
- X-ray GHA
In this case, the introduction of urostrat, verografin,
урографина в полость матки при помощи специального катетера
и проведение серии рентгеновских снимков. Worth such
The procedure is visibility to be studied by other doctors and
сравнение снимков в динамике, что невозможно при UZGSS. Disadvantage
– exposure, possible aggravation of the inflammatory process in
appendages after the study, a slight
soreness during and after the procedure. And although the radiation load
while minimal, should in this menstrual cycle
prevent pregnancy because there may be negative
implications for the embryo.
Как происходит HSG fallopian tubes?
How do HSG fallopian tubes? To carry out the procedure after
pelvic examination of the woman in the mirrors, local
anesthesia, the doctor inserts a cannula (small tube) into the cervix.
Using a syringe, a contrast fluid is injected through the cannula.
which is capable of delaying x-rays. Liquid should
fill the cavity of the uterus and penetrate the tubes, while this is done
4-6 shots, then the instrument is removed from the neck, and the fluid,
Injected during the procedure is absorbed into the blood and then excreted.
При HSG fallopian tubes больно или нет? Since the procedure can
to be painful, most often a local anesthetic is administered – lidocaine.
Also, after the procedure, some women may have aching pains.
lower abdomen for several days after the study.
The painfulness of the procedure for each woman can be different in
depending on the individual pain threshold, as well as the state
uterus and appendages. In some cases, even with anesthesia for women
experiencing significant pain as during administration
substances, and after the procedure, and in other cases felt
slight lower abdominal pains worse after
the beginning of the introduction of fluid and passing through 30 minutes after
When can not do GHA?
- When allergic to a contrast agent, sometimes women are allergic
on iodine-containing drugs. Other active substances with
unstable electrons are more toxic and cause
- During pregnancy – therefore a prerequisite is
pregnancy test before the GHA
- Any inflammatory processes in the vagina, on the cervix, or
appendages of the uterus, because of the high risk of recurrence of chronic infections
and spontaneous inflammation after the procedure in
connection with the activity of contrast fluid. Therefore obligatory
The condition is a gynecological examination and a smear from
How to prepare for hysterosalpingography, on what day its
Подготовка к HSG fallopian tubes не сложная, просто перед
The procedure should follow the following rules:
- Exclude sexual intercourse 1-2 days before the study.
- A week before the procedure can not use intimate means
hygiene and douching (see douching hazard)
- Also for a week you can not use vaginal tablets,
candles, any vaginal means, tampons.
As a rule, hysterosalpingography is performed after menstruation.
for 2 weeks, this is because the lining of the uterus in this
time yet small thickness, can not block the entrances to the pipes and
a woman can not yet be pregnant.
What could be the results?
On X-ray images in the absence of adhesions is clearly visible
uterus filled with fluid, narrow channels of the tubes and fluid
flowing into the abdominal cavity. In this case, the doctor may conclude that
patency of the fallopian tubes. If a contrast agent
stops at some part of the pipe – hence
there is an assumption about its obstruction. According to the GHA result
it is possible to determine not only the patency of the fallopian tubes, but also
establish diseases such as polyps in the uterus, uterine myoma,
hydrosalpinx, adhesions pressing on the outside of the pipe or adhesions in
Even a well-performed procedure may not give accurate
results. Studies conducted to determine the ability
effectively identify violations of the state of the uterus and fallopian tubes
is 65%, and the specificity is 80%, that is, the definition
of a specific disease of the possible. To check the status
The uterine cavity additionally shows hysteroscopy.
Complications and consequences after GHA
This procedure is considered safe and in most cases not
causes consequences and complications. Sometimes, rarely enough, can
be severe allergic reaction to iodine-containing contrast
substance, especially should be careful women with bronchial
asthma and those prone to allergic reactions already allergic to
some chemicals. Very rarely when failed
GHA, when the doctor is not very experienced, perhaps perforation of the uterus and
the development of bleeding, also often with chronic
infections, relapse and inflammation may occur
appendages or endometritis.