Hormones of happiness and joy: endorphins, serotonin,dopamine

Update: October 2018

When a pregnant woman walks and glows with happiness, everything
sighing intelligently: “Hormones, what do you want!” Did you know that
these substances “manage” all the emotions, even in the “non-pregnant”
condition?

And to feel a little (or much) more peaceful
or harmonious, you just need to know how to raise the level
desired hormone. What is the hormone of happiness? How to make him
stood out?

In fact, there are several such chemicals.
пять. Each of them has its effect on
different parts of the brain, resulting in different
positive emotions. Not all of them can be described as clean and
uncomplicated happiness, but associations with it arise.

Most of these substances are inherently not hormones,
and neurotransmitters. What makes them different from hormones is that they
not produced by the endocrine glands, but transformed by the body
from various amino acids. Their main effect is on the brain,
where they help transfer momentum from one neuron to
to another.

In total there are 5 neurotransmitters, which are called hormones.
joy and happiness:

  • serotonin;
  • dopamine;
  • endorphins;
  • oxytocin;
  • a group of other hormones.

Гормоны счастья

Serotonin is a pleasure hormone

This substance is called the hormone of pleasure and the hormone of happiness.
In structure, the hormone of pleasure and happiness is very similar to
narcotic substance LSD.

It is formed from an amino acid, the main amount of which
comes from food – tryptophan. It produces serotonin, a hormone
happiness, intestines, as well as the brain – its special neurons. For
the formation of this neurotransmitter need iron and substance
pteridine.

  • Serotonin is also a natural anesthetic: when
    too little, the slightest tactile stimulation responds strong
    pain.
  • This substance is released during allergies – along with histamine and
    prostaglandins.
  • Serotonin is released during chemotherapy – it provokes
    appearance of vomiting and diarrhea.
  • He also helps a woman to give birth, is involved in ovulation. If a
    increase serotonin concentration during sex, in men
    delayed ejaculation.

Melatonin is formed from serotonin in the epiphysis – a substance
which, by adjusting the daily rhythm, makes us wake up with
sun exposure. And to the neurotransmitter for
Education needs ultraviolet light as well as glucose.

There are at least 14 types of receptors in the brain,
that interact with serotonin. The main part of them
located in the brain stem – a structure that is transient
from brain to spinal.

Mostly because of this, a condition occurs in the brain,
which can be described as calm joy, feeling
harmony, pleasure. But some receptors bind to
mediator through “intermediaries”. One of them is itself
responsible for stress and anxiety.

Serotonin receptors have molecular similarity to receptors.
to norepinephrine – one of the stress hormones. Similar and transport
molecules that carry each of these neurotransmitters.
Therefore, they are competitors, and the more formed
the hormone norepinephrine, the less chance of serotonin to find free
receptor.

It produces endorphins – other neurotransmitters,
which we consider later.

Серотонин также связан с dopamineом: оба этих вещества передают
signals from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland, both improve mood, but in
only one hormone can act per unit of time.

The formation of serotonin, the hormone of happiness, is affected by:

  • the content of tryptophan in food;
  • glucose content in food;
  • ultraviolet light level;
  • change the depth and rhythm of breathing. So if you care
    question how to increase the hormone of happiness, take a breathing
    practices – yoga, Taoist, Buddhist, which suggest
    deep breathing and relaxation;
  • iron levels in the body;
  • taking drugs – antidepressants from the group of inhibitors
    serotonin reuptake.

Products that contain a large number
tryptophan:

  • caviar: red and black;
  • fermented milk products, especially cheese – hard and
    fused;
  • dark chocolate;
  • bananas;
  • soybean;
  • figs;
  • dates;
  • tomatoes;
  • plums;
  • meat and poultry;
  • salmon and cod;
  • peaches;
  • grapefruit;
  • cherry.

These products are strictly prohibited when taking antidepressants – and
serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and inhibitors
monoamine oxidase. Because of this, it can develop deadly
condition – serotonin syndrome. It is characterized by an increase
temperature, hallucinations, speech disorders, insomnia,
headaches.

In itself, overeating these products to serotonin
the syndrome can result when consumed in a very large
quantity.

Dopamine – reward hormone

В отличие от серотонина, dopamine называется не гормоном счастья,
and the hormone of reward: it is produced after some
pleasant events or positive experiences.

It is a hormone that is produced in the adrenal glands and in individual
nuclei of the brain. He is a precursor of hormones.
adrenaline and norepinephrine adrenal glands. And the joy of it
human discharge – not calm and quiet, as when working
serotonin, and stormy, with the desire to jump and scream.

Subsequently, even the memories of the promotion themselves activate
выработку dopamineа. So this hormone neurotransmitter
reinforces positive experience, stimulates a person to repeat
pleasant for him actions.

Dopamine is also needed so that a person can switch from
одного вида деятельности к to another. If a dopamineа мало, то
mental abilities slow down, a person repeats one and the same
same thought with the same words several times. This is especially
noticeable in Parkinson’s disease.

Dopamine is so important for good mood that
stimulating its secretion people resort to drug use.
For example, amphetamines accelerate the delivery of a hormone to its destination.
Психостимуляторы, алкоголь и кокаин – не дают dopamineу
disposed of, causing its concentration to increase.

But if you are looking for a way to train your brain to produce more
This hormone, then you will find disappointment: if excessively
to stimulate its production, then soon this system will be exhausted, and not
только dopamineа будет синтезироваться меньше, но и количество
receptors to it will decrease. Moreover, excessive stimulation
�”Hormone promotion” can cause serious damage to the parent
the brain.

Синтезируется dopamine из аминокислоты тирозин, которая, в свою
turn, comes from the amino acid phenylalanine. In people,
suffering from phenylketonuria, the conversion of “phenylalanine – tyrosine”
нарушено, поэтому для синтеза dopamineа и его «дочерних»
norepinephrine and adrenaline need “pure” tyrosine.

В плане создания настроения dopamine «конкурирует» с серотонином.
In addition, the hormone inhibits the production of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating
hormones, aldosterone growth hormone. It improves blood flow in the kidneys.
and the intestines, but in large doses, the opposite effect. Дорфамин гормон

Tyrosine-rich foods:

  • pumpkin seeds;
  • legumes;
  • wheat germ;
  • meat;
  • eggs;
  • dairy products;
  • seafood;
  • almond;
  • sesame;
  • avocado.

Please note: these products can not be eaten with phenylketonuria.
They should not drink black tea, coffee or alcohol.

Endorphins – anesthetic

So called natural neurotransmitters, which simultaneously
reduce pain, affect the work of the entire endocrine system,
reduce intestinal motility and improve mood.

Эндорфины

To produce endorphin, the hormone of happiness, should the neurons of the brain
the brain. They take beta-lipotrophin, which secretes the pituitary gland, and with
using biochemical reactions first convert it to one of
precursors, and then into the polypeptide molecules themselves.

In their chemical structure, endorphins are very similar to
morphine.

And, if you enter naloxone into the body of a happy person –
a drug that is used to neutralize the action of opiate
drugs, then endorphins also collapse and stop
act.

Endorphins are produced in response to stress or physical
workout. Their release of the hormone adrenaline starts: in this way
he is trying to “numb” the muscles that work at the limit of his abilities.
And when muscle pain is not so acutely felt, the person, according to
of nature, runs better and saves faster.

In addition, endorphins themselves start the production of serotonin, and
адреналин – выработку dopamineа и пролактина, и такой сложный
�”Cocktail” and causes a feeling of happiness or euphoria. Exactly this
a pleasant feeling makes the athlete to continue to constantly
training, while the development of his body endorphins are not
exhausted. To a disruption of the system lead to a state in
the result of which a person experiences chronic pain.

Increase the production of endorphins in natural ways with
using:

  • listening to popular music;
  • playing sports;
  • modeling situations that bring pleasant
    sensations;
  • having sex.

These methods can only work if the neurons
endorphins are not depleted by chronic pain
syndrome. If a у человека постоянно что-то болит, ему придется
resort to the introduction of painkillers – differently
the level of endorphins will not increase.

Oxytocin – a hormone of trust

This is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus. Maximum
its concentration is observed in women during childbirth and subsequent
breastfeeding. Standing out during nipple stimulation, the hormone
promotes uterine contractions and secretion of breast milk.

  • Non-pregnant women and men also have oxytocin levels.
    increases with sexual arousal, but its peak is noted when
    orgasm.
  • Hormone is important for relationships: it increases confidence,
    reduces anxiety and fear, gives a feeling of calm next to
    like you man. Therefore, oxytocin is also called
    hormone of trust.

Thanks to oxytocin, a woman in labor feels anxious feelings for
newborn: why still recommend as soon as possible
start breastfeeding. Hormone affects the formation of love and
increases the level of trust in the words of the person who you
cuteОкситоцин

To increase oxytocin, you need:

  • communicate more with nice people
  • hugging with your loved one
  • stroking each other (about 40 strokes per minute
    increases the level of oxytocin in both people)
  • have sex.

Food does not affect oxytocin.

Other hormones

Each person calls his “cocktail” of emotions for happiness: for
someone is the joy of victory, for someone – it is an embrace with
beloved one Someone feels happy when they admire
and someone – when he is busy with an interesting thing alone. Therefore, in
the formation of “happiness” involved not only the four described
hormone, but also:Гормоны радости

  • prolactin;
  • adrenalin;
  • phenylethylamine;
  • норadrenalin;
  • gamma-aminobutyric acid;
  • vasopressin.

In women, estradiol and luteinizing hormones are added here:
their peaks fall on ovulation – when a woman blossoms and catches
on his admiring glances. For мужчин очень важен тестостерон и
his derivatives: they give him a sense of strength, masculinity,
brutality.

Summing up, we can say: live a full life,
love and cuddle, indulge yourself with delicacies and practice
sports, read books and meditate – and happiness does not force itself
wait! No need to watch bad news or perform nasty
for you to work: it is not to banish any bananas or chocolate
the strength!

Автор: Кривега Мария Салаватовна врач-реаниматолог

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