Hepatitis – symptoms, signs, causes, treatment andprevention of viral hepatitis

Hepatitis is an inflammatory disease of the liver. The nature
currents distinguish acute and chronic hepatitis. Sharp leaks with
severe symptoms and have two outcomes: complete
cure, or transition to the chronic form.

Different types of hepatitis differ in different ways.
of infection, rate of progression, severity of clinical
manifestations, methods of treatment and prognosis for the patient. For
hepatitis is characterized by a specific complex of symptoms, which, in
depending on the type of disease, may appear stronger

What is hepatitis?


Hepatitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory disease.
liver, which occurs due to infection with specific
viruses or effects on the parenchyma of the organ of toxic substances
(for example, alcohol, drugs, drugs, poisons).

Viral hepatitis is a group of common and dangerous for
human infectious diseases that are quite significant
differ among themselves, caused by different viruses, but still
have a common trait – a disease that primarily affects
human liver and its inflammation.

Основными признаками гепатитов является – боль в животе,
loss of appetite with frequent nausea and vomiting, headache, general
weakness and fever up to 38.8 ° WITH, and in severe
случаях — пожелтение кожи и глаз.

Way of infection
View A source
A, E Water and food with faeces, dirty hands
AT Blood, sexual contact and mother to child
WITH Blood and other fluids (saliva, semen) from mother to
to kid
D WITHопутствующий вирус к гепатиту AT
G Blood and other fluids (saliva sperm)

Viewы вирусных гепатитов

Hepatitis classified:

  • by reason of development –
    вирусные, алкогольные, лекарственные, аутоиммунный
    specific hepatitis (tuberculosis, opisthorchosis, echinococcal
    and others), secondary hepatitis (as a complication of other pathologies),
    cryptogenic (of unknown etiology);
  • with the flow (acute, chronic);
  • on clinical grounds (icteric, anicteric,
    subclinical forms).

By the mechanism and ways of infection are divided into two groups:

  • Having an oral-fecal transmission mechanism (A and E);
  • Hepatitis, for which the blood-contact (hemopuretic), and
    говоря проще – проложенный через кровь путь, является основным (AT,
    WITH, D, G – группа парентеральных гепатитов).

AT зависимости от формы гепатита, болезнь может длительное время
disturb the patient, while in 45–55% of cases complete
recovery. Chronic (persistent) form of viral hepatitis
may disturb the patient throughout life.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A или болезнь Боткина — это наиболее распространенная
form of viral hepatitis. Its incubation period (from the moment
infection before the first signs of disease) is from
7 to 50 days.

AT этот период человек может заразить others. Most
symptoms usually disappear after a few days or weeks, but
tiredness may drag on for months as
the liver returns to normal. For a complete recovery takes a few

ATирусный гепатит B

ATирус гепатита Б попадает в организм с кровью, спермой, водой и
other HBV contaminated fluids. The most common infection occurs.
при переливаниях крови и продуктов крови, kind ofх, стоматологических
procedures, injections, household cuts and other contacts.
Warned by vaccination.

Гепатит WITH

The third type of viral hepatitis, spreads, mainly
through blood (transfusions, needles, sexual contact,
etc.). WITHимптомы обычно проявляются от 1 до 10 недель после
infections, but they can be practically not expressed (jaundice can
not to be). Опасность гепатита WITH связана с тем, что он может привести
to severe chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver.

Гепатиты D, E и G

  1. Гепатит D. ATызывается дельта-вирусом. For него характерно
    extensive liver damage with developed clinical symptoms,
    severe and prolonged treatment. Infection occurs when
    getting the virus into the blood. Most often occurs in acute form
    the probability of the transition process in chronic – less than 3%.
  2. Hepatitis E – signs of infection are similar to those of hepatitis A, but
    in case of severe disease, not only damage occurs.
    liver, but also kidney. The treatment prognosis is almost always
    favorable. The exception is pregnant women in the third
    trimester, when the risk of losing a child approaches 100%
  3. ATирус гепатита G также попадает в организм с зараженными
    продуктами power supply и водой, при контакте с зараженным медицинским
    equipment. It is almost asymptomatic. Clinical
    проявления схожи с гепатитом WITH.

Особенно опасны для здоровья человека вирусы гепатитов AT и WITH.
WITHпособность долгое время существовать в организме без заметных
manifestations leads to severe complications due to the gradual
destruction of liver cells.

The reasons

A sourceами вируса являются различные факторы. To the most
�“Typical” reasons include:

  • prolonged effects on the body of various kind of
    toxic substances;
  • long-term use of drugs – antibiotics,
    sedatives and narcotic drugs
  • other drugs;
  • metabolic disorders and autoimmune system;
  • transfusion of infected donor blood;
  • repeated use of one, usually infected,
    needles by a group of individuals;
  • unprotected sex;
  • �”Vertical” (intrauterine) route of infection of a child from
  • comorbidities such as HIV conducive to
    легкому проникновению вируса в организм;
  • tattooing is not a sterile instrument;
  • acupuncture;
  • poorly sterilized dental equipment;
  • direct contact with a sick person.

Hepatitis can also occur as a result of autoimmune
conditions in which abnormally targeted immune factors attack
the body’s own cells through the liver. Inflammation of the liver can
also occur as a result of health problems, from drugs,
alcoholism, chemicals and environmental toxins.

Acute Hepatitis

What is it? The acute form of the disease develops rapidly over
a few days or weeks. This type of hepatitis can last up to 6.
months. This species occurs as a result of:

  • hepatitis virus infection;
  • poisoning with drugs or toxins.

The acute form is characterized by a sharp start. Such a disease
characteristic of hepatitis B, which has a viral nature. In some
In cases of a person who is poisoned by potent poisons,
acute hepatitis. The patient’s condition is deteriorating due to
diseases. There may be signs of general intoxication of the body.

The acute form of the disease is most typical for all viral
hepatitis. Patients noted:

  • deterioration of health;
  • severe intoxication of the body;
  • abnormal liver function;
  • jaundice development;
  • increase in the amount of bilirubin and transaminase in the blood.

Chronic hepatitis

What it is? Under chronic hepatitis understand
diffuse-dystrophic inflammatory process,
localized in the hepatobiliary system and caused by various
etiological factors (viral or other origin).

If hepatitis is not cured in 6 months, then it is considered
chronic. Chronic forms occur over a long period of time.
of time. Doctors usually classify chronic hepatitis by
severity readings:

  • persistent hepatitis is usually a mild form,
    which does not develop or develops slowly as a result
    limited liver damage occurs;
  • active – includes progressive and often extensive
    liver damage and cell damage.

Chronic hepatitis is asymptomatic much more often than
sharp. Patients often learn about the disease in the process of
planned surveys. If there are symptoms, they are usually
unexpressed and non-specific. So, sick can

  • The feeling of heaviness and distention in the right side, aggravated after
  • Tendency to bloating.
  • Periodic nausea.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Increased fatigue.

If symptoms occur, refer to
a therapist, an infectious disease specialist or a hepatologist.

Ways of transmission

Ways of transmission вирусных гепатитов могут быть такими:

  • blood transfusion – with blood transfusions and her
  • injection – through syringes and needles that contain residues
    hepatitis infected with blood;
  • sexual intercourse – during intercourse without using
  • вертикальный – от больной матери к to kid при kind ofх или уходе
    behind him;
  • when performing tattoos, acupuncture, piercing
    non-sterile needles;
  • for manicure, pedicure, shaving, epilation, permanent make-up,
    if tools are not treated with decontamination solutions.

Symptoms of Hepatitis in Adults

Depending on the form and stage of disease progression,
Hepatitis may be accompanied by a variety of symptoms.
organism, the main ones are:

  • periodic or constant aching pains in the right
  • general weakness, dizziness, headache;
  • constant feeling of bitterness in the mouth;
  • increase in body temperature to 37 – 38 degrees (typical for
    moderate and severe, exacerbated form of viral hepatitis);
  • local yellowness of the upper skin, as well as ocular
  • decreased appetite;
  • unpleasant smell from the mouth;
  • dark urine;
  • dyspeptic disorders (diarrhea, vomiting, intermittent
  • frequent pruritus.

I would like to draw attention to the yellowness of the skin.
If the virus has infected the liver, then excessive bile flow into the blood
causes the epithelium to stain with characteristic yellow

But with hepatitis C, jaundice develops very rarely, therefore
skin may not have icteric cover. Here is a characteristic feature
– increased body temperature, which is maintained at the mark,
from about 37.5 to 38 degrees. Woman feels bad her
the body aches, the state of general malaise feels, which reminds
is a cold, ARVI or flu.

Jaundice occurs as a result of metabolic bilirubin,
toxic to the body. In violation of the functions of the liver, he
accumulates in the blood, spreads throughout the body, postponing
in the skin and слизистых оболочках и придавая им желтоватый Colour.

Most often as a result of violations of the outflow from the liver of bile, part
which enters the bloodstream and spreads through the body, itching appears:
bile acids, deposited in the skin, strongly irritate it.

In some случаях у больных развивается так называемый
fulminant acute hepatitis. It is an extremely severe form of the disease, with
which is observed massive tissue death and extremely fast
development of symptoms. If untreated, such acute hepatitis
ends with the death of man.

Forms of development

During viral hepatitis, there are 4 forms:

  1. Mild, often characteristic of hepatitis C: jaundice is often
    no, subfebrile or normal temperature, heaviness in
    правом подреберье, decreased appetite;
  2. Moderate: the above symptoms are more pronounced,
    joint pain appears, nausea and vomiting, appetite practically
  3. Heavy. All symptoms present in a pronounced
  4. Молниеносную (фулминантную), не встречаемую при гепатите
    C, but very characteristic of hepatitis B, especially in the case of
    co-infections (HBV / HBV), that is, combinations of two viruses B and D,
    that cause superinfection.

Complications and consequences for the body

Both acute and chronic hepatitis can lead to very
serious consequences. Among them it is worth noting:

  • inflammatory diseases of the biliary tract;
  • hepatic coma (ends with death in 90% of cases);
  • liver cirrhosis – occurs in 20% of patients with viral hepatitis.
    Hepatitis B and its derivatives most commonly cause cirrhosis.
  • liver cancer;
  • dilation of blood vessels and subsequent internal
  • accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity – ascites.

Hepatitis treatment

Treatment of hepatitis depends on the etiological factor that caused
inflammatory process in the liver. Of course, alcoholic hepatitis
or autoimmune origin usually requires only
symptomatic, detoxification and hepatoprotective

Standard tactics for treating hepatitis involves:

  • eliminating the cause of the disease by killing the virus and
    detoxification of the body;
  • treatment of associated diseases;
  • restoration of the liver;
  • maintaining the normal functioning of the body;
  • following a special diet and certain
    sanitary and hygienic protection measures.

Treatment of acute hepatitis

Treatment is necessarily carried out in the hospital. Besides:

  • Diet # 5A is prescribed, half-bed mode (with severe
    flow – bed);
  • in all forms of hepatitis, alcohol is contraindicated and
    hepatotoxic drugs;
  • an intensive detoxification infusion is performed
    therapy to compensate for this
  • liver function;
  • prescribe hepatoprotective drugs (essential
    phospholipids, silymarin, milk thistle extract);
  • prescribed daily high enema;
  • produce metabolic correction – preparations of potassium, calcium and
    manganese, vitamin complexes.


In addition to drug therapy, the patient should always
follow a diet. Power should be based on the following.

  • complete elimination of alcohol (including beer);
  • ban on marinades, smoked meat, spicy and fatty;
  • lean meat and fish is recommended;
  • You can use low-fat dairy products.

Antiviral therapy in tandem with diet and bed rest
may lead to full recovery. However, it should be noted
что соблюдение диетического power supply и проведение терапии требуется
and after recovery. Otherwise, almost no
recurrence and transition of the disease to chronic viral

What to eat:

  • various teas based on herbs and berries, juices and compotes with a little
    sugar content;
  • ground, well cooked porridge;
  • various soups and vegetable purees;
  • low-fat dairy products;
  • meat and fish should be low-fat varieties cooked on
    a couple;
  • steam omelette;
  • bran bread, rye, galetny cookies.

From sweets you can eat dried fruit, not too sweet
jam, honey Useful baked apples, in small quantities
bananas and berries.

What can not:

  • very strong tea, chocolate, coffee;
  • beans, mushrooms;
  • sour, salty, too sweet;
  • muffins, puff pastry, pancakes, patties;
  • sausages and canned meat;
  • pork;
  • eggs steep and fried.


Prevention нужна, чтобы вирусный гепатит не вернулся, а в
case of chronic manifestation – not aggravated, not complicated.
Prevention заключается в соблюдении следующих правил:

  • exclusion from the diet of alcohol (completely);
  • compliance with all recommendations of the doctor (not to miss receptions,
    correct prescription medication);
  • dieting (exclude fried and fatty, salty and
    spicy, preserved and canned);
  • use caution when in contact with contaminated biomaterials
    (applies to health workers), namely to use PPE (means

How to protect against hepatitis?

Viral hepatitis often lead to serious and dangerous
complications, and their treatment is not only long, but expensive.

Prevention заключается в следующем:

  • Wash hands before eating
  • Boil water before drinking
  • Always wash fruits and vegetables, heat treat products
    power supply
  • Avoid contact with biological fluids of other people, in
    including blood
  • To be protected during sexual intercourse (including oral)
  • To make piercings and tattoos only with sterile devices
    proven centers
  • Get vaccinated against hepatitis.

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