Hemorrhoids – what is it, symptoms, signs ofadults, causes, stages, treatment and prevention

Hemorrhoids are a varicose vein plexus direct
guts, anus, leading to the appearance of characteristic
hemorrhoids prone to inflammation, bleeding and falling out
from the anus.

According to statistics, one fifth of the adult population of our planet
suffers from hemorrhoids. But not everyone acknowledges their problem and goes for
medical care, so the number of patients with this disease
much more than informed competent sources.

What is this disease, what are the symptoms and causes of hemorrhoids
in adults, and what is prescribed as a prophylactic, we
consider further in the article.

What is hemorrhoids?


Геморрой — это заболевание, возникающее в результате
circulatory disorders in the vessels of hemorrhoidal plexuses
lower rectum that is accompanied by varicose
expansion and thrombosis of the veins and often complicated by bleeding.

With геморрое происходит снижение венозного тонуса, и стенка
the vessels of the rectum relaxes under the pressure of the incoming blood.
Formed varicose veins of the rectum. So appears

В последующем, inside узла из-за нарушения циркуляции крови
thrombosis can form, which is an acute stage of hemorrhoids and
requires immediate medical attention since this
worsens the course of the disease, increases pain and inflammation.

Violation of blood circulation in the pelvic organs leads to loss
natural tone of vascular walls. These walls over the course of life
stretch from the blood pressure and push the intestine out
through the anus. Lack of severe pain symptoms or their
complete absence leads to the fact that people do not go to the doctor
at all.

With этом геморрой развивается, появляющиеся симптомы
ignored by the sick. Subsequently, external
hemorrhoids, and the disease is complicated.


Like all diseases, hemorrhoids are acute and chronic, however
it is formed in most cases gradually from the primary
dilatation of the cavernous veins of the rectum.

  • Chronic disease develops and progresses over
    a long time, carrying the danger at any time complicated
    acute hemorrhoids.
  • The acute form of the disease occurs when
    происходит тромбоз и воспаление геморроидальных
    узлов (острый геморроидальный тромбофлебит).

According to the mechanism of occurrence of hemorrhoids is divided into:

  • врожденный (наследственный);
  • acquired.

Withобретенный, в свою очередь, делится на:

  • первичный — возникший как самостоятельное
  • вторичный — являющийся симптомом или осложнением другого
    недуга (например, цирроза печени, аденомы предстательной

Выделяют внутренний геморрой, когда увеличены только
внутренние геморроидальные узлы, и наружный, когда увеличены
external nodes. There is also an increase at the same time
and outdoor nodes, then we can talk
о комбинированном геморрое.

  1. Internal hemorrhoids are hypertrophy of the venous plexus.
    rectum above its sphincters. So see
    self pathological changes impossible. На 3-four стадии
    diseases hemorrhoidal bumps fall out of the rectal canal
    out and can be seen. Main symptoms of hemorrhoids
    internal location – the presence of blood on the feces during a bowel movement,
    pain during bowel movements and constipation.
  2. With наружном геморрое узлы образуются в непосредственной
    proximity to the anus, in this regard, their sensitive
    the surface often breaks and bleeding occurs brightly scarlet
    by blood. Pain in external hemorrhoids is quite sharp and
    strong, but in terms of self-diagnosis this species is not
    presents no difficulty.
  3. Combined form.

Withчины возникновения

The basis of the occurrence of hemorrhoids is a violation of vascular function,
an increase in arterial blood flow and a decrease in blood outflow from
venous plexuses, which in turn leads to their expansion and
формированию геморроидальных  knots. Essentially, to true
reasons modern scientists have not yet arrived, but this theory
considered the most reliable.

Hemorrhoids are one of the most common vascular
diseases. По статистике им страдают каждые 7 из one0 человек.

This is due primarily to the inactive and mostly
sedentary lifestyle characteristic of modern man. With
the absence of the necessary motor activity occurs stagnation
venous blood in the pelvic region that serves as the main cause
hemorrhoids. That is why people sedentary occupations (drivers,
programmers, accountants, other office workers, etc.)
ranked as the main risk group.

Withчины возникновения геморроя:

  • hereditary predisposition to hemorrhoids;
  • frequent constipation;
  • diarrhea;
  • prolonged sitting in the toilet, straining during bowel movements;
  • беременность и роды;
  • excessive consumption of spicy, canned food,
    irritant in the anal area;
  • frequent use of strong coffee, tea, alcoholic beverages;
  • sedentary, often sedentary Lifestyle;
  • strong physical exertion;
  • weight lifting;
  • overweight;
  • anal sex;
  • stressful situations;
  • diseases of the pelvic organs.

First signs of hemorrhoids

When varicose cavernous veins of the rectum is important not
skip the initial symptoms of the disease. In the early stages of the disease
can be cured with conservative therapy. The first symptoms of hemorrhoids
manifest with discomfort in the anus. Sick like
usually complain of heaviness in this area that does not pass
even after defecation. In addition, pathology is accompanied by:

  • burning and itching in the anus;
  • discharge of caustic mucus;
  • hyperemia of the skin around the anus;
  • anal fissures;
  • flatulence.

Patients may experience the first symptoms of hemorrhoids, but do not give
This value or not recognize their problem. After all, the majority
patients do not go for medical care, feeling shame and

Exacerbations of hemorrhoids in the initial stages of short-term, and his
symptoms not pronounced.

Aggravation occurs when:

  • impaired stool
  • in the period of carrying a child
  • after diet or alcohol abuse

Stages of development

Hemorrhoids go through four stages of development, each of which has
its symptoms and requires an individual approach to treatment.


  • Stage one It is characterized by painless hemorrhoidal
    nodes with their slight protrusion to the lumen of the anus. Not
    the possibility of bleeding is not excluded
    accompanied by soreness. Anoscopic study
    determines the presence of nodes, inflammation of the mucous and advanced
    condition of capillaries. The act of defecation in some cases may
    accompanied by bleeding and discomfort.
  • Stage 2 Characterized by the loss of nodes, occurs only
    during the act of defecation, which is accompanied by their subsequent
    independent reposition. Bleeding and discomfort often
    accompanied by the appearance of itching and discharge.
  • Геморроидальные узлы требуют ручного вправления на третьей
    stages, since they themselves no longer leave, and at the beginning of this
    period, they appear with the act of defecation, and then begin to fall out
    when lifting weights and other actions that promote
    intra-abdominal pressure;
  • Для четвертой стадии характерны постоянные выпадения
    hemorrhoids, the impossibility of their reduction, the threat
    infringement, thrombosis and heavy bleeding.

Symptoms of hemorrhoids in adults

In most cases, hemorrhoids develop gradually. At first
there is a feeling of itching, burning, heaviness in the anus,
боли и запоры. Then the pain intensifies, arises
hemorrhoidal bleeding, hemorrhoidal loss occurs

The danger of the disease is that thrombosis can develop and even
hemorrhoidal necrosis characterized by severe clinical


Symptoms of hemorrhoids in adults:

  • Discomfort in the anus, expressed in the feeling in it
    foreign body. This symptom is coming, usually occurring at
    intestinal disorders (constipation or diarrhea), dietary disorders,
    alcohol abuse;
  • Scarlet bleeding after a bowel movement
    see, for example, on toilet paper or in feces
  • Выпадение геморроидальных knots. In the initial stage, they
    set themselves up, then require “manual” intervention;
  • Constant pain (especially during bowel movements), itching in the area
Hemorrhoids Symptoms
one Characteristic swelling of the nodes and recurrent bleeding.
2 Nodes increase in size.

More often fall out, but independently set

3 Nodes in the fallout can not be right
four Permanent loss of bleeding nodes

During remission, which can last long enough
the patient has no complaints. With external hemorrhoids hemorrhoidal
knots fall down, become empty and painless. With
the internal hemorrhoids of the patient does not leave the feeling of a foreign body and
slight itching of the anal area.

If any of the above symptoms occur, be sure to
show yourself to the proctologist. Because hemorrhoids can hide others
more dangerous diseases.

What does hemorrhoids look like in the photo?

Below in the photo, you can see different types of hemorrhoids from
initial and to the last stage.

фото one стадии

геморрой 2 степени

Hemorrhoids may fall out, but nodes can be self
to set right

геморрой на 3 и four стадии

Hemorrhoids, can be located both outside and


Complications of hemorrhoids, like any other pathology, can
Avoid if you seek medical help on time.
Своевременная терапия позволяет вылечить 9 из one0 пациентов.

Among the complications of hemorrhoids are the following states:

  • bleeding;
  • thrombosis of hemorrhoidal veins;
  • inflammation of the nodes;
  • anemia on the background of regular bleeding.


As a rule, the diagnosis of hemorrhoids is not associated with special
difficulty finding a diagnosis occurs as part of a survey
patient and conduct primary outpatient examination. Inspection
helps to determine:

  • the degree of prolapse of the anus nodes
  • to evaluate the possibility of reversing them,
  • skin condition,
  • as well as relevance and degree bleeding.

Symptoms при геморрое сходны с некоторыми другими заболеваниями.
Therefore, the diagnosis should be thorough, because there is a risk
prescribe the wrong treatment. Hemorrhoids can be confused with:

  • anal fissure, which is also accompanied by a minor
    bleeding, pain during stool;
  • cancer of the rectum (malignant tumors of the intestine occur
    with bleeding);
  • prolapse of the rectum;
  • colitis, polyps and warts.

If you have noticed the first signs of the disease, do not
postpone a long trip to the doctor. Early diagnosis will facilitate
treatment of hemorrhoids and will help to avoid not only complications, but also
surgical intervention.


Treatment tactics will be
определяться стадией хронического течения болезни:

  1. Для первой стадии показано: консервативное лечение
    vessel-strengthening drugs, infrared photocoagulation and
  2. Вторая стадия: инфракрасная фотокоагуляция, склеротерапия,
    ligation with latex rings.
  3. Ligation with latex rings and dysarter
    геморроидальных knots.
  4. Surgery.

This approach to the treatment of hemorrhoids allows you to get good
результаты у 98-one00% пациентов.

Conservative therapy

Conservative therapy состоит из:

  • The basis of general treatment, in addition to preventive measures, is
    the use of phlebotropic drugs (such as venoruton and
    detralex), affecting the increase in the tone of the veins, improving
    microcirculation in the cavernous bodies and normalization in them
    blood flow.
  • Topical treatment is aimed at eliminating pain,
    thrombosis or inflammation of hemorrhoids, accompanied by
    жжением и зудом, а также их bleeding.

Conservative treatment includes:

  1. With внутреннем геморрое назначают свечи с гепарином (Нигепан,
    Hepatrombin G, Hepazolone), anesthesin, belladonna extract,
    medicated enemas with chamomile, oak bark, alder seedlings,
    hunter rhizome of burnet.
  2. With внешнем — мазь от геморроя, например, тот же самый
    Hepatrombin G only in a different form of release. Although thanks
    a special nozzle that comes in the kit, this ointment can be
    use and in the treatment of internal hemorrhoids.

Minimally invasive methods

Minimally invasive procedures for hemorrhoids:

  • sclerotherapy;
  • cryotherapy;
  • ligation with latex rings;
  • electrocoagulation.

Minimally invasive treatment allows fast and without serious injuries.
get rid of such a delicate problem as hemorrhoids.
Therapeutic methods in most cases only muffle
symptoms of the disease delay the moment when it is necessary to apply
more radical techniques.

Minimally invasive procedures are contraindicated in:

  • exacerbation of the inflammatory process in the rectal area and
  • anal fissures, injuries;
  • тромбозе геморроидальных knots.

Для лечения пациентов one-й и 2-й стадий геморроя применяют
following methods:

  • склеротерапию (введение в узел вызывающего уплощение
    vessel sclerosing substance);
  • фокусную инфракрасную коагуляцию (воздействие тепловой
    energy per node causing the vessel to stick together due to evaporation
    insideклеточной воды);
  • лигирование геморроидальных узлов латексными
    кольцами (на основания узлов накидывается кольцо, вызывающее
    blood supply disturbance, due to which the nodes
  • криотерапию (замораживание узла на 2-3 мин., после чего
    the last one dies off).

Surgery for hemorrhoids

Surgical treatment of hemorrhoids is used mainly only in
рамках 3 и four стадий течения заболевания. Under a such
intervention involves a measure of hemorrhoid excision
at the subsequent flashing of their legs. Hemorrhoids after surgery
требует госпитализации на срок 7-one0 дней, в целом период
нетрудоспособности составляет порядка onefour дней.

With оперативном методе лечения геморроя могут быть

  • Transanal resection. With ее проведении удаляют только часть
    mucous membrane, and hemorrhoids themselves pull up. After
    operations are reduced and gradually replaced by connective
  • Hemorrhoidectomy. This is an operative removal of hemorrhoids, after
    which also carry out plasty of the anal canal, restoring
    its physiological structure and function. This technique is considered
    самой эффективной, и используется при 3 и four стадиях.


Prevention геморроя заключается главным образом в исключении
factors contributing to its development, and includes:

  • rational diet (avoid diarrhea and
    constipation, do not get carried away harmful – fatty, spicy, spicy –
  • inculcation starting from childhood, certain
    hygiene skills (careful toilet of the anus)
    after stool);
  • sports loads and gymnastics, which contributes to the normalization
    motor evacuation function of the colon and the prevention of stagnation
    blood in the pelvic organs.

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