Heart tachycardia – what it is, causes,signs, symptoms, treatment, seizures, and prophylaxistachycardia

Tachycardia is a pathological increase in heart rate.
cuts of ninety beats per minute. As a sign of disease
tachycardia is considered when occurring at rest. AT
the basis of development is the increased automatism of the sinus node, in
the rate setting rhythm and rhythm of the heart, or
ectopic centers of automatism.

ATрачи рассматривают тахикардию как симптом, причиной которого
most often become strong emotional experiences, increased
human physical activity, use of certain products
nutrition and drugs, as well as a number
заболеваний сердечно-сосудистой, эндокринной и
other systems.

What is heart tachycardia?

Tachycardia

Tachycardia сердца – это не отдельная
a disease but a symptom or condition in which it is possible
the occurrence of additional unpleasant manifestations from
organism, except heart palpitations.

Tachycardia usually refers to such abnormalities
как аритмия или нарушение сердечного ритма. Most often have
больных во время приступов насчитывается более 90 ударов в
minute, at the same time the person can feel the strengthened pushes of heart,
throbbing in the temples, dizziness. Less common fainting can
there is a ripple in the vessels of the neck.

A person’s feeling of his heartbeat (increase and increase
heart rate) does not always indicate a disease.

Tachycardia occurs in healthy people during exercise,
stressful situations and nervous excitability, with a lack of
oxygen and increased air temperature, influenced by some
drugs, alcohol, coffee, with a sharp change of body position from
horizontal to vertical, etc.

ICD Code:

  • МКБ-10: I47-I49, R00.0;
  • МКБ-9: 427, 785.0.

Classification

By reason of:

  • physiological – sources that stimulate an increase in heart rate,
    processes in the body and reactions to external
    irritants;
  • патологическая – когда причинами для tachycardia выступают
    diseases of organs and systems; is negative enough
    condition.

For the duration of symptoms:

  • acute – this form of arrhythmia occurs from time to time,
    paroxysmal, can last for both a few moments and
    several days;
  • chronic – enhanced heartbeat accompanies a person
    constantly.

AT зависимости от характеристики патологически ускоренного ритма
heart rate, tachycardia can be divided into sinus,
paroxysmal and ventricular fibrillation.

Sinus tachycardia

This is a condition in which the increase in heart rate occurs
due to external manifestations. Так, это может быть сильный стресс,
физические нагрузки и др. AT данном случае очень важно знать, какова
the cause of this condition.

Is a normal response to stress. She appears
when walking fast, climbing stairs and other physical
load. Причиной tachycardia могут быть сильные отрицательные и
positive emotions. After the cessation of stress such
tachycardia quickly (within a few minutes) passes.

Sinus tachycardia характеризуется постепенными началом и
the end. A decrease in cardiac output is accompanied by a violation
blood supply to tissues and various organs.

Ectopic (paroxysmal) tachycardia

What it is? The rhythm generator is outside sinus
node, in the ventricles or atria. Most often the disease occurs in
form of beginning and terminating seizures, continuing from
several minutes to several days at a constant high level
heartbeat.

Paroxysmal tachycardia includes 3 forms:

  • Atrial (supraventricular, or supraventricular)
    тахикардия — чаще всего, причиной учащенного сердцебиения
    is the revitalization of the sympathetic nervous system,
    what usually happens when – fears, stresses, shock and
    etc .;
  • Ventricular tachycardia (VT) – the most common cause
    являются дистрофические изменения сердечной мышцы, например —
    about 85-95% of this form of heart rate is observed in patients
    с ишемической болезнью сердца или миокардитом;
  • Nodal. This type of increased heart rate refers to
    physiological. ATозникает она при физических нагрузках и сильных
    psycho-emotional outbursts.

Normal heart condition on ECG

Sinus tachycardia на ЭКГ

Supraventricular heart tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia

The reasons

Sinus tachycardia встречается в разных возрастных группах,
more often in healthy people as well as in patients with heart and
other diseases. ATозникновению способствуют интракардиальные
(cardiac), or extracardiac (extracardiac) etiological
factors.

In about 30% of patients with rapid heart rate, this
the disease was caused by panic attacks and other
psychopathological reasons.

Причинами tachycardia становятся:

  • psycho-emotional stress;
  • physical arousal;
  • medication;
  • a sharp change in body position;
  • use caffeinated beverages;
  • use алкоголя;
  • smoking;
  • deficiency of potassium and magnesium.

The reasons tachycardia позволяют выделить 2 формы заболевания:

  • Physiological;
  • Pathological.

Physiological acceleration of heart rate occurs in
young people with hormonal adjustment.

Pathological tachycardia is a dangerous syndrome leading to
disruption of the heart. Nosology leads to acceleration
hemodynamics, an increase in cardiac output, the weakening of the flow to
blood to the tissues. Against the background of pathology, internal organs do not receive
oxygen. Poor blood supply causes ischemic
heart disease, cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction.

Симптомы tachycardia

Чаще всего приступ tachycardia развивается очень быстро и без
precursors. A person may not even notice him until
heart rate will not reach extremely high numbers. Have
overwhelming majority of people a certain ailment is felt
already at 110 beats per minute.

The feeling of a frightening heartbeat does not allow to concentrate on
work, and at the slightest exertion, there is a strong shortness of breath
and dizziness.

Other common symptoms characteristic of different
видов tachycardia, считается:

  • dizziness, loss of motor coordination, faint
    fainting;
  • shortness of breath, feeling short of breath, inability to do
    full deep breath;
  • general feeling of nausea and weakness;
  • increased sweating;
  • pain in the heart, as well as behind the sternum; heaviness
    in the chest;
  • nausea;
  • problems with appetite;
  • insomnia;
  • flatulence and other problems with the gastrointestinal tract;
  • mood swings.
Tachycardia Symptoms in adults
Sinus The main symptom of the disease is the lack of air. Other
возможные признаки tachycardia синусового типа:

  • loss of appetite;
  • dizziness (symptom often occurs);
  • increased fatigue, decreased performance;
  • sleep disorders;
  • dyspnea;
  • permanent high heart rhythm.

ATыраженность симптоматики зависит от чувствительности нервной
system and the main human disease.

Paroxysmal
  • A sharp start (“push” in the heart) and the end of an attack,
    allowing to outline its time frame
  • ATариативная длительность – от нескольких секунд до нескольких
    days
  • ATысокая частота сокращений сердца – до 220-250 уд/мин
  • ATегетативные нарушения: тошнота, перевозбуждение,
    sweating
  • Increase in body temperature to 38 ° C.
Supraventricular As a rule, the patient can clearly indicate the beginning and end
attack manifested by a strong feeling:

  • heartbeat
  • pain and discomfort in the heart,
  • difficulty breathing
  • dizziness
  • anxiety or panic,
  • low blood pressure.
Ventricular Symptoms include:

  • chest pressure;
  • feeling of heaviness in the heart;
  • dizziness;
  • loss of consciousness after a few seconds after the start
    an attack.

Complications

In addition to fatigue, unpleasant, sometimes painful
sensations any tachycardia becomes the cause of the heart
failure – the heart wears out. In addition to violations
conduction, heart rhythm tachycardia can give such complications
as:

  • cardiac asthma,
  • arrhythmic shock,
  • pulmonary edema,
  • cerebral thromboembolism,
  • acute circulatory failure of the brain,
  • pulmonary embolism.

Ventricular tachycardia в сочетании с острым инфарктом миокарда
can cause death.

Tachycardia у беременных женщин

Tachycardia — это одна из наиболее часто встречающихся патологий
in pregnant women. The main cause of this condition is
changes in the cardiovascular system.

In addition, there are a number of main reasons
occurrence:

  • overweight;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • diseases associated with changes in the composition of the blood
    (anemia);
  • overdose of vitamin and mineral complexes;
  • infections in the pulmonary tract;
  • abnormalities in the thyroid gland;
  • dehydration;
  • heart failure;
  • ectopic pregnancy;
  • placental abruption;
  • sepsis;
  • various injuries;
  • profuse bleeding.

Симптомы tachycardia у женщин в положении, кроме общего
malaise, sleep disturbances, pain in the sternum and dizziness,
include a disorder of the digestive tract, numbness of different parts of the body,
increased nervousness / anxiety.

Haveчащение ЧСС беременных женщин считается физиологической нормой,
but you should consult a doctor with the following symptoms:

  • pain in the heart or chest;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • frequent dizziness, fainting;
  • unreasonable fatigue;
  • excessive anxiety.

Numbness of parts of the body may also occur.

In the absence of organic causes of the disease, pregnant
woman is recommended respect for peace. Physical limitation
load taking herbal sedatives as well
preparations containing potassium and magnesium.

Diagnostics

When diagnosing it is important to start working with the patient with his
a thorough survey. ATрач обязательно прослушивает пациента с
using a stethoscope to determine if it has a heart murmur. For
It is important for a specialist to determine the correct diagnosis;
connection arises tachycardia, how long does the attack last,
whether suddenly it manifests itself.

For обнаружения сердечной патологии, вызывающей тахикардию,
An in-depth diagnosis is carried out, which includes:

  • echocardiography
  • MRI of the heart
  • electrophysiological study of the migration of impulses by
    heart muscle
  • load test.

Since tachycardia is not necessarily the result of cardiac
pathology, in the presence of uncertainty in the formulation of the diagnosis
additional research is being conducted, including:

  • Blood test
  • Thyroid hormone analysis
  • Electroencephalogram of the brain.

AT каком случае нужно обратиться к врачу?

  • One or more episodes of unconsciousness (fainting)
  • Chest pain
  • Bouts of dizziness, darkening of the eyes
  • If rapid heartbeat appears for no apparent reason and does not
    passes within 5 minutes
  • If tachycardia occurs due to other existing diseases
    hearts.

An individual examination plan will be appointed by the attending physician.
on full-time admission, self-diagnosis in the presence of complaints of rapid
heartbeat can not be engaged.

Лечение tachycardia у взрослых

При лечении tachycardia важно учесть причины, по которым
развивается данное состояние, а также тип tachycardia. There is a whole
a series of conditions in which treatment is not required at all. To
to normalize the heartbeat, you need a good rest, change the image
life on the more correct. Often a person just needs
calm down.

The main methods of struggle are:

  • maintaining a diet;
  • abstaining from smoking and drinking alcohol;
  • visiting a specialist and taking sedatives
    actions;
  • taking medication;
  • conducting a massage in the form of pressing movements on the eye
    apples;
  • surgical intervention.

При возникновении желудочковой tachycardia больному требуется
immediate hospitalization and quality medical care.
Prophylactic measures include diagnosing the disease on
early stages and timely treatment of pathology.

The following drugs are used in the treatment
tachycardia:

  1. Haveспокоительные лекарства на основе трав (Ново-пассит,
    valerian, persen, etc.) and synthetic agents (diazepam,
    Фенобарбитал и др.) применяются для лечения tachycardia при
    вегето-сосудистой дистонии (ATСД) These средства нормализуют работу
    nervous system, reducing the frequency of seizures.
  2. Антиаритмические средства  — это большая группа
    лекарственных средств,  включающая медикаменты с различными
    mechanisms of action. Purpose of one or another
    antiarrhythmic agent is carried out only by the attending physician
    based on his data.

Medications perform the following functions:

  • restore normal heart rhythm;
  • control the heart rate;
  • restore normal heart rhythm;
  • control heart rate.

ATыбор антиаритмического препарата для лечения tachycardia зависит
from the following factors:

  • типа tachycardia;
  • other diseases of the patient;
  • side effects of the selected drug; patient response to
    treatment.

AT некоторых случаях показан прием нескольких антиаритмических
drugs.

Lifestyle

Любой тип tachycardia, особенно желудочковая, в сочетании с
heart disease requires a more careful approach to
lifestyle organizations. AT это понятие входят:

  • observance of the principles of balanced nutrition – the exception of fat,
    соленой, острой пищи, use крупяных и злаковых продуктов,
    lactic products, low-fat varieties of meat, fish and poultry,
    natural juices, vegetables and fruits.
  • adherence to work and rest with limited significant
    psycho-emotional and physical stress, long stay on
    fresh air.
  • adherence to treatment is the key to preventing frequent
    seizures and complications.

It is necessary to visit the doctor in time with
additional research methods regularly take
antiarrhythmic drugs and other drugs prescribed by a doctor for
other heart diseases.

Surgery

Surgical intervention is indicated for frequently occurring
ventricular tachycardias (more than 2 paroxysms per month), as well as in
all other cases where conservative treatment is not
proved to be effective. The purpose of the surgery is
destruction of closed paths of impulse in the heart –
achieved by resection of myocardial scar and cavity reconstruction
left ventricle. AT некоторых случаях локализации рубца требуется
протезирование митрального клапана hearts.

Приступ tachycardia сердца: в чем опасность и что делать?

Приступ tachycardia всегда начинается неожиданно. Recognize it
явление можно по резкому увеличению числа сокращений hearts.
The duration of the attack varies from minutes to hours.

Приступы tachycardia негативно сказываются на работе
cardiovascular system because of the increase in speed
heartbeat, it is not provided with blood supply in the necessary
volume. AT результате этого снижается кровенаполнение желудочков,
which in turn negatively affects
functioning of the heart muscle and can lead to heart attack
myocardium.

Exists a few simple tricks that help
normalize heart contractions, reducing their intensity. These
receptions can be done independently.

  • Start coughing hard, clearing your throat.
  • Haveмыть лицо и руки очень холодной водой.
  • Gently press on the eyeballs and massage them.
  • Hold your breath and exhale with an effort.
  • Try to strain all the muscles of the body, then relax them.
    Repeat the exercise several times. When you try it is desirable
    hold your breath.
  • ATызов рвоты может снизить количество сердечных сокращений.

Folk remedies

  1. Целебная смесь от tachycardia. Crush 2 walnuts,
    mix with 1 tbsp. l honey, add lemon zest. Eat a portion
    such a slurry before bedtime every day for a month after
    take a 10-day break and repeat the course.
  2. A decoction of lemon balm and mint is also recommended for seizures.
    tachycardia. For его приготовления 2 ст. l dry herbs are poured
    boiling water and infused for several hours. Thereafter
    необходимо отвар процедить, можно добавить 1 ч. l honey Drink by
    half a cup of 2-3 per day.
  3. Haveспокоительные препарат, готовится из следующих трав: пустырник
    – 50 grams; peppermint – 100 grams; лаванда – 50 grams;
    lemon balm – 100 grams. Mix all the ingredients. Pour collection cold
    water (liter of liquid per tablespoon of raw materials). To put on
    slow fire and let stand 8 minutes after boiling. Strain
    after cooling. AT день необходимо выпить три стакана отвара.
    Herbalists say that such folk remedies
    really for a few months to cure tachycardia.
  4. We take a teaspoon of motherwort herb, a tablespoon of fruit
    hawthorn and a tablespoon of rosehips. teaspoon green
    Large leaf tea. ATысыпаем траву в термос, заливаем в термос
    500 milliliters of boiling water, insist about 30 minutes. Then
    we filter, we drink such tea in two steps, morning and evening, dividing
    number in half. Принимают 20 days ,затем 10 days перерыв.
  5. It is necessary to chop the roots of chicory and pour a tablespoon with
    chopped product glass of boiling water. After he
    infuse one hour, you can take it three times a day after meals
    on a tablespoon.

Folk remedies могут стать эффективным дополнением к
drug therapy, accelerating the healing process.

Forecast

For здорового организма возникновение физиологической tachycardia
does not represent a serious threat to the life of the patient. Have людей с
heart disease prognosis can be serious because
the sinus form of the disease can worsen the course of chronic
heart failure.

Prevention

  1. To сохранить здоровье нужно правильно питаться. Useful
    food provides the body with important elements and substances that
    good effect on the work of all organs, especially the digestive
    and the cardiovascular system.
  2. Excess weight provokes the development of many dangerous diseases
    especially affected vessels.
  3. Smoking triggers vasospasm and adversely affects performance.
    many organs. Very often, tachycardia is a consequence of this.
    bad habits.
  4. Self-medication with various drugs can provoke
    increase heart rate.

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