Heart disease – what is it, types, causes, signs,symptoms, treatment and prognosis

Heart disease is a peculiar series of structural anomalies and
deformations of valves, partitions, holes between the heart
chambers and vessels that interfere with blood circulation
inner heart vessels and predispose to the formation
acute and chronic forms of insufficient blood circulation.

As a result, a condition is developed which is called in medicine
�”Hypoxia” or “oxygen hunger.” Will gradually
нарастать сердечная недостаточность. If not timely
provide qualified medical care then it will lead to
disability or even death.

What is a heart defect?

Порок сердца: что это такое

Heart disease is a group of diseases associated with congenital
or acquired dysfunction and anatomical structure
heart and coronary vessels (large vessels supplying
heart), due to which various deficiencies develop
hemodynamics (movement of blood through the vessels).

If the normal (normal) structure of the heart and its large vessels
broken – either before birth or after birth as
complication of the disease, then we can talk about vice. То есть порок
the heart is a deviation from the norm that interferes with blood flow, or
changing its filling with oxygen and carbon dioxide.

The degree of heart disease is different. In moderate cases may
there are no symptoms, while with marked development
heart disease can lead to congestive heart
insufficiency and other complications. Treatment зависит от
severity of the disease.

The reasons

Changes in the structure of the valves, atria,
ventricles or heart vessels causing movement disorders
blood on a large and small circle, as well as inside the heart, determine
as a vice. It is diagnosed in both adults and newborns.
This is a dangerous pathological process leading to the development of other
myocardial disorders, from which the patient may die. therefore
timely detection of defects provides a positive outcome
diseases.

In 90% of cases in adults and children, the acquired defects are
следствием перенесенной острой ревматической лихорадки
(rheumatism). It is a severe chronic illness that develops in
response to the introduction of hemolytic streptococcus group A
(в результате ангины, скарлатины, хронического
tonsillitis), and manifests itself by damage to the heart, joints, skin and
nervous system.

The etiology of the disease depends on the type of pathology:
congenital, or arising in the process of life.

The reasons появления приобретенных пороков:

  • Infectious or rheumatic endocarditis (75%);
  • Rheumatism;
  • Myocarditis (myocardial inflammation);
  • Atherosclerosis (5–7%);
  • Systemic diseases of the connective tissue (collagenosis);
  • Injuries;
  • Sepsis (general lesion of the body, purulent infection);
  • Инфекционные заболевания (сифилис)  и злокачественные
    neoplasms.

The reasons врожденного порока сердца:

  • external – poor environmental conditions, maternal illness during
    pregnancy (viral and other infections), the use of drugs
    drugs that have a toxic effect on the fetus;
  • internal – are associated with hereditary predisposition for
    lines of father and mother, hormonal changes.

Classification

Classification делит пороки сердца на две большие группы по
the mechanism of occurrence: acquired and congenital.

  • Приобретенные — возникают в любом возрасте. Cause more
    Rheumatism, syphilis, hypertensive and ischemic
    disease, marked atherosclerosis, cardiosclerosis, injury
    cardiac muscle.
  • Врожденные — формируются у плода в результате
    improper development of organs and systems at the stage of bookmarking groups
    cells.

According to the localization of defects, the following types of defects are distinguished:

  • Mitral – the most frequently diagnosed.
  • Aortic.
  • Tricuspid.

Also emit:

  • Isolated and combined – the changes are either single or
    multiple.
  • С цианозом (т.н.з «синий») – кожа меняет свой
    normal color on a cyanotic hue, or without cyanosis.
    Различают цианоз генерализованный (общий)
    и акроцианоз (пальцы рук и ног, губы и кончик носа,
    ears).

Congenital heart defects

Congenital defects are an abnormal development of the heart, a disorder
в формировании  магистральных кровеносных сосудов во
fetal period.

If it speaks of congenital defects, then most often among them
There are problems in the interventricular septum, in this case
blood from the left ventricle enters the right, and so
increases the load on the small circle. When conducting x-rays,
This pathology has the appearance of a ball, which is associated with an increase in muscle
walls.

If such a hole is small, then
no operation required. If the hole is large, then such a vice
sutured, after which patients live normally until old age,
disability in such cases usually do not give.

Acquired Heart Disease

Heart defects are acquired, while there are
violations of the structure of the heart and blood vessels, their effect is manifested
functional impairment abilities of the heart and blood circulation.
Among the acquired heart defects most often occurs
mitral valve and semilunar aortic valve.

Acquired heart defects are rarely subject to
timely diagnosis that distinguishes them from the CHD. Very often people
suffer many infectious diseases “on their feet”, and this can be
cause rheumatism or myocarditis. Heart defects with acquired
etiology may also be caused by improperly assigned
treatment.

This disease is the most common cause of disability and
mortality at a young age. For primary diseases, defects
distributed:

  • about 90% – rheumatism;
  • 5.7% – atherosclerosis;
  • about 5% – syphilitic lesions.

Other possible diseases leading to disruption of the structure
heart – prolonged sepsis, trauma, tumors.

Heart disease symptoms

The resulting defect in most cases may be a long period
time not to cause any irregularities on the part of the heart
vascular system. Patients can quite a long time.
engage in physical activity without feeling any complaints. Everything
it wakes up depends on which particular department of the heart has suffered in
the result of congenital or acquired disease.

The main first clinical sign of a developed defect
is the presence of abnormal noises in the tones of the heart.

The patient makes the following complaints in the initial stages:

  • shortness of breath;
  • constant weakness;
  • children are characterized by delayed development;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • decrease in resistance to physical activities;
  • heartbeat;
  • discomfort behind the sternum.

As the progression of vice (days, weeks, months, years)
Other symptoms join:

  • swelling of the legs, arms, face;
  • cough, sometimes streaked with blood;
  • heart rhythm disorders;
  • dizziness.

Signs of Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital abnormalities are characterized by the following symptoms:
may occur in both older children and
adults:

  • Persistent dyspnea.
  • Heart sounds are heard.
  • A person often loses consciousness.
  • There are atypically frequent ARVI.
  • No appetite.
  • Slow growth and weight gain (characteristic of
    children).
  • The appearance of such a sign as blueing of certain
    plots (ears, nose, mouth).
  • State of constant lethargy and exhaustion.

Symptoms of the acquired form

  • fatigue, fainting, headaches;
  • difficulty breathing, feeling short of breath, coughing, even
    pulmonary edema;
  • heart palpitations, rhythm disturbance and change of place
    pulsations;
  • pain in the heart – sharp or pressing;
  • blue skin due to blood stagnation;
  • enlarged carotid and subclavian arteries, vein swelling on
    neck;
  • development of hypertension;
  • swelling, enlarged liver and feeling of heaviness in the stomach.

Manifestations of vice will directly depend on the severity, and
also kind of affliction. Thus, the definition of symptoms will be
depend on the location of the lesion and the number of affected
valves. In addition, the symptom complex depends on the functional
forms of pathology (more on this in the table).

Functional form of vice Characteristic symptoms
Mitral stenosis Complaints to shortness of breath with a relatively small
stress, cough, hemoptysis. However sometimes enough
pronounced mitral stenosis is prolonged without complaints.

  • Patients often have cyanotic pink cheeks.
    (mitral blush).
  • The lungs show signs of stagnation: wet rales in the lower
    departments.
  • It is prone to cardiac asthma and even edema.
    easy
Mitral insufficiency As in the above case, shortness of breath in the initial stages
only upon loading, and after it is characteristic in a quiet condition.
Symptoms are as follows:

  • heartache;
  • weakness and lethargy;
  • dry cough;
  • heart murmurs
Aortic insufficiency  This defect often develops due to rheumatism.
However, other causes are possible: septic endocarditis, syphilis,
ревматоидный артрит и т.д.Одним из наиболее ранних симптомов
This blemish is:

  • feeling of increased contractions of the heart in the chest,
  • as well as peripheral pulse in the head, arms, along
    spine, especially when lying down.

In severe aortic insufficiency, the following are noted:

  • dizziness
  • addiction to fainting
  • increased heart rate at rest.

You may experience pain in the heart area, which
resemble angina.

Aortic stenosis The narrowing of the aortic valve (stenosis) is
the most common congenital defect. Defective blood
outflow or influx, low oxygen supply is caused when
aortic heart disease such symptoms:

  • сильное головокружение вплоть до обморока (например,
    if you sharply get up from a prone position);
  • in a position lying on the left side there is a feeling of pain, tremors
    in heart;
  • increased pulsation in the vessels;
  • annoying tinnitus, blurred vision;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • sleep is often accompanied by nightmares.
Tricuspid insufficiency This defect is expressed in venous blood stasis, which causes
such symptoms:

  • severe swelling;
  • fluid retention in the liver;
  • feeling of heaviness in the abdomen due blood vessels overflow
    abdominal cavity;
  • increased heart rate and lower blood pressure.

Of the signs common to all heart defects, it can be noted
Blue skin, shortness of breath and severe weakness.

Diagnostics

If, after reviewing the list of symptoms, you have found
coinciding with your own situation is better to be safe and
go to the clinic where the heart disease will reveal the exact
diagnostics.

Initial diagnosis can be determined by heart rate.
(measure at rest). Palpation method
examine the patient, listen to the heartbeat to identify
noise and tone changes. Also checked lungs determined
the size of the liver.

There are several effective techniques that allow
identify heart defects and, based on the data obtained, assign
appropriate treatment:

  • physical methods;
  • ECG is performed to diagnose blockade, arrhythmia, aortic
    failure;
  • Phonocardiography;
  • Roentgenogram of the heart;
  • Echocardiography;
  • MRI of the heart;
  • laboratory techniques: rheumatoid
    пробы, ОАК и ОАМ, определение уровня сахара в крови,
    as well as cholesterol.

Treatment

For heart defects, conservative treatment is
 prevention of complications. Also all the efforts of medical therapy
aimed at preventing the recurrence of the primary disease,
for example, rheumatism, infective endocarditis. Sure to
Correction of rhythm and heart failure
under the control of a cardiac surgeon. Coming from the shape of a heart defect,
treatment is prescribed.

Conservative methods are not effective in congenital
pathologies. The goal of treatment is to help the patient and
prevention of the onset of heart failure attacks.
Only a doctor determines what to drink tablets for heart disease.

The following medications are usually indicated:

  • cardiac glycosides;
  • diuretics;
  • to support immunity and antioxidant effect used
    vitamins D, C, E;
  • potassium and magnesium preparations;
  • anabolic hormones;
  • in the event of acute attacks conduct inhalation
    oxygen;
  • in some cases, antiarrhythmic drugs;
  • in some cases, may prescribe medications to reduce
    blood clotting.

Folk remedies

  1. Beet Juice In combination with honey 2: 1 allows
    support heart activity.
  2. A mixture of coltsfoot can be prepared, bay 20 g of leaves 1
    l of boiling water. Insist means you need a few days in a dry dark
    place Then the infusion is filtered and taken after meals 2 times a
    day. A single dose is from 10 to 20 ml. Whole course of treatment
    should last about a month.

Operation

Surgical treatment of congenital or acquired defects
hearts perform the same way. The difference is only in age
patients: most children with severe pathologies operate on
first year of life to prevent the development of deadly
complications.

Patients with acquired defects usually operate after 40 years,
during stages when the condition becomes threatening (valve stenosis
or through holes more than 50%).

Options for surgery for congenital and
acquired defects very much. These include:

  • plasticity of defects by patch;
  • prosthetic artificial valves;
  • excision of stenotic hole;
  • in severe cases – complex transplantation
    heart-lungs

What kind of surgery will be performed is decided by a heart surgeon in
individual order. Patient is observed after surgery.
interventions for 2-3 years.

After performing any surgery for heart disease
the patients are in rehabilitation centers until they pass all
a course of therapeutic rehabilitation therapy with the prevention of thrombosis,
improvement of myocardial nutrition and treatment of atherosclerosis.

Forecast

Despite the fact that the stage of compensation (without clinical
manifestations) of some heart defects is estimated in decades
overall life expectancy can be shortened as the heart
неминуемо «изнашивается», развивается сердечная
недостаточность с нарушением кровоснабжения и питания всех
organs and tissues, which is fatal.

With surgical correction of malformation the prognosis for life
favorable when taking medication
назначению врача и профилактики развития complications.

How many live with a heart defect?

Many people who hear such a terrible diagnosis immediately
ask the question – “How many live with such evils?”. Unambiguous
There is no answer to this question, since all people are different and different.
There are also clinical situations. They live as much as they can
work their heart after spent conservative or
surgical treatment.

If heart defects develop, prevention and rehabilitation
activities include a system of exercises that increase
level of the functional state of the body. System
recreational physical education is aimed at improving
the level of the physical condition of the patient to safe values. She is
appointed to prevent cardiovascular
diseases.

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