Heart bradycardia – what it is, causes,symptoms and treatment, prevention

Bradycardia is the slowdown of work, the most important in our
body organ, heart. Different sources give different numbers lower
the boundaries of a normal rhythm. Mostly guided by the number 60
beats per minute this is an indicator of the center of automatism
first order, sinoauricular node.

The key to a good blood supply to the internal organs is
correct, rhythmic heartbeat with a frequency of at least 60 and
не более 90 ударов в a minute Heart rate characteristics
supported by a balanced influence of autonomic nervous
system on the contractile activity of the heart muscle.

For more information about what this disease is, what
causes and symptoms in adults with bradycardia, we will look further
in the article.

What is heart bradycardia?

Брадикардия

Bradycardia is a type of arrhythmia, with heart rate.
менее 60 ударов в a minute She can meet u absolutely
healthy people like sportsmen or healthy people
those who are in a state of sleep are physiological bradycardia,
due to good cardiac muscle training.

The heart is our dedicated engine that runs for life. Any
Interruptions and shutdowns can be catastrophic. Rhythm depends on
many reasons. First of all, it is set to adapt to any
human activity, to overcome stressful states and
diseases. The number of heart beats at rest in an adult healthy
человека колеблется от 60 до 90 в a minute

According to the number of heartbeats, bradycardia
is divided into:

  • Easy when the heart rate (HR) is from
    50 to 60 beats.
  • Moderate, if the heart works with a frequency of 40-50 beats.
  • Expressed when the heart rate is less than 40 beats.

Regardless of the cause, bradycardia is a violation of
the ability of the sinus node to generate electrical impulses with
frequency above 60 per minute or inadequate distribution
pathways.

Moderate bradycardia may not cause frustration.
hemodynamics. Rare heart rhythm leads to lack of
blood supply and oxygen starvation of organs and tissues, disrupting
their full functioning.

Classification

Left healthy heart, and right bradycardia

Depending on the developmental mechanism, bradycardia is subdivided.
The following varieties:

Sinus bradycardia due to decreased activity
sinus node of the heart. Most often occurs in chronic
(extracardiac) form. But she can have hot
(интракардиальное) течение, которое вызывают миокардиты,
постинфарктный кардиосклероз, острый инфаркт
myocardium.

Nonsinus bradycardia associated with blockade
electrical impulses between the nodes of the heart:

  • Impaired impulse conduction between sinus and sinoatrial
    nodes;
  • Impaired impulse conduction between sinoatrial and
    atrioventricular nodes.
Ageные norms ЧСС
Age Normal heart rate HR, which can be regarded as bradycardia
newborns about 140 beats per minute less than 110 beats per minute
up to 1 year 130-140 less than 100
1-6 years 105-130 less than 85
6-10 years 90-105 less than 70
10-16 years old 80-90 less than 65
adults 65-80 less than 55-60

Fetal bradycardia

Fetal bradycardia can occur at any stage of pregnancy.
In the first half of pregnancy, lack of oxygen can have
influence on the formation of organs of the baby, causing their underdevelopment. In
the second half, oxygen starvation leads to disturbances in
development of the central nervous system and the occurrence of problems in
childbirth time.

Bradycardia is dangerous because it can cause the death of a child not
only in the period of prenatal development, but also during childbirth
(asphyxia of the fetus), and even in the first hours after birth

Teenagers

Adolescent bradycardia occurs in age from 12 to
17 years and is due to hormonal surge and restructuring
organism, rapid growth, the rhythm of which adjusts the body.
Usually runs independently as puberty fades.
(transition) period.

Bradycardia of the heart in athletes

Athletes Bradycardia is a normal physiological
state, поскольку нагрузка на сердце велика, оно прокачивает
significantly more blood for 1 reduction, due to what he
Lacks a much smaller number of cuts per minute for a full
providing the body with oxygen.

The main causes of physiological bradycardia in
people involved in sports and leading an active lifestyle are connected
with increased functionality of their respiratory and cardiovascular
systems that provide the brain with enough
oxygen, even with rare heart rate.

The most common physiological bradycardia is observed in the following
athletes:

  • runners;
  • rowers;
  • cyclists;
  • football players;
  • swimmers.

In other words, those kinds of
sports in which a person performs a moderate load in
for a long time.

Withчины

Regardless of the reasons that provoked this state,
its basis is unchanged and is in violation
ability to generate a sinus node electrical impulses
standard for a normal state of the body frequency from 60
beats per minute, as well as in ensuring their inadequate distribution
along the pathways.

Causes that affect provoking slowdowns
Hearts allow us to divide bradycardia into three large groups:

  • Pharmacological (drug), which is caused by taking
    some pills or drugs.
  • Pathological. In this case, the disease develops due to
    some kind of deviation in the body.
  • Physiological, when the slow work of the heart does not cause
    troubles. A man with such a rhythm feels great.

К физилогической относят:

  • bradycardia registered with trained people
    athletes. Normal, household load is not something for them
    beyond, the body begins to signal the need for
    more frequency only under extreme loads, then
    increases the frequency of contractions of the heart;
  • here can be attributed to the sinus bradyarrhythmia of children and
    teenagers;
  • congenital complete AV block;
  • idiopathic bradycardia.

Pulse in bradycardia, in these cases, will increase when
physical exertion, and with sinus bradyarrhythmia will be at the same time
also correct.

Pathological bradycardia can be acute or chronic, in
depending on the specific causative factor.

  • The acute form develops sharply, simultaneously with different
    conditions that directly or indirectly traumatize the heart,
    например, отравлениях, миокардите или инфаркте.
  • Chronic bradycardia exists for many years and is associated with
    severe long-term heart disease or other
    organs and systems.

Symptoms of adult bradycardia

What is the need to reduce the heart with a certain frequency? purpose
one is to deliver nutrients and oxygen to the organs. it
possible only with blood that the heart pumps. If power
does not do enough, the bodies cease to perform their tasks or
go into a protective, economical mode of operation. Firstly
nutritional deficiencies affect brain cells.

Mild or moderate bradycardia generally does not break.
blood circulation and does not contribute to the emergence of a certain
symptoms of the disease. Explicit manifestations occur at frequency
heart rate below 40 beats or in the presence of organic
organ lesions. They recognize pronounced bradycardia due to
the following symptoms:

  • dizziness;
  • weakness;
  • fainting and fainting;
  • increased fatigue;
  • chest pains;
  • difficulty breathing;
  • violation of concentration, memory;
  • sharp change of blood pressure;
  • short-term vision problems;
  • cases of confused thinking;
  • hypoxia;
  • Morgagni-Edems-Stoke syndrome. Manifestation of this symptom
    requires immediate treatment. Ignore the syndrome can not be in
    in some cases, it leads to respiratory arrest.
Stage bradycardia Symptoms in adults
Easy (initial) This type of bradycardia often carries physiological
nature and does not require medical intervention. For cupping
attacks enough regimen and diet correction.

  • Symptoms for mild bradycardia are usually absent, therefore
    most patients do not even notice that their pulse has slowed, and
    Do not go to a cardiologist.
Moderate bradycardia The frequency of contractions of the heart is from 40 to 50 beats in
a minute This type is typical for older people and professional
athletes – for them, doctors consider this condition as an option
norms
Heavy (pronounced) Pulse slows to 40 beats per minute (sometimes lower)
characteristic symptoms appear.

  • At this stage, the treatment of pathology is a mandatory measure.
    to save the patient’s life

What is the danger to the body?

With bradycardia caused by heart disease (syndrome
weak sinus), increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest
and ischemic stroke, especially if among the symptoms are present
fainting.

In other cases, bradycardia is not dangerous per se, but
diseases that it may indicate (hypothyroidism,
brain tumors, etc.).

If during a thorough medical examination
experts did not detect any abnormalities, then by themselves
slow pulse is not considered dangerous and is considered an individual
feature of the body.

Most patients with bradycardia are faced with the following
problems:

  • heart failure;
  • blood clots;
  • chronic bouts of bradycardia.

Diagnostics

Characteristic of bradycardia symptoms are detected when collecting complaints
patient and objective examination. When viewed determined
a rare pulse, which with a sinus form has a regular rhythm,
warm tones of ordinary sonority are heard, often
respiratory arrhythmia is detected. Patients with revealed
брадикардией рекомендована консультация кардиолога.

Appointed instrumental examination, which includes:

  • electrocardiography (ECG) – detect signs
    atrioventricular or sinoatrial heart block, reduction
    heart rate. If necessary, appointed
    24-hour ECG monitoring (Holter monitoring);
  • ultrasound of the heart (EchoCG) – the method allows
    assess the size of the heart, the presence of degenerative and
    sclerotic changes in the heart muscle;
  • load cycle ergometry – allows you to assess the change
    heart rate under the influence of dosed physical
    loads;

Treatment of heart bradycardia

Treatment of the disease in question is strictly
individually, based on the specifically present
патологии, а также особенностей перенесения пациентом  данного
diseases.

  1. Functional as well as moderate bradycardia.
    manifestations that are not accompanied by this clinical
    symptomatic, do not require conservative treatment.
  2. Organic, toxic or extracardiac bradycardia
    genesis requires, above all, the treatment of the main
    diseases.
  3. Drug bradycardia requires the abolition of drugs that
    caused symptoms (or correction of their reception)

What pills prescribed for bradycardia?

In addition to the treatment of the underlying disease that provoked
bradycardia, symptomatic increase in frequency
palpitations with the following medications:

  • Атропин – вводится внутривенно или подкожно по 0,6 – 2 мг
    2 – 3 times a day;
  • Izadrin – administered intravenously at 2 – 20 mcg per minute in 5%
    растворе глюкозы до достижения нормального значения
    Heart rate;
  • Эуфиллин – вводится внутривенно по 240 – 480 мг или
    pills are taken orally 600 mg 1 time per day.

With a decrease in heart rate, the patient will need to take
holinoblokatory. The group of these drugs includes medicinal
remedies that block the effects of parasympathetic nervous
system on the body.

To treat bradycardia, these medications are used:

  • platifillin;
  • atropine;
  • metacin;
  • homatropine.

In addition, in this case antiarrhythmic drugs are shown,
regulating the work of the heart:

  • lidocaine;
  • propafeone;
  • darob;
  • verapamil

Potassium salts also have an antiarrhythmic effect.
magnesium.

Surgery

Surgical treatment of bradycardia is very rarely resorted to.
only in cases where the decrease in heart rate significantly affects
hemodynamics. Place and nature of surgery
determined by the cause of bradycardia. With congenital
abnormalities in the development of cardiac tissue surgical correction
done as much as possible in childhood to ensure
normal growth and development of the child.

First aid for bradycardia

A sudden attack of bradycardia is also called Morgagni – Edemsa –
Stokes. Symptoms by which it can be recognized in the very
beginning:

  • State of nervousness and anxiety, often without cause;
  • Pupils dilated;
  • Redness of the skin, swelling of the neck veins;
  • After some time, the redness is replaced by pallor;
  • Severe dizziness;
  • Twitching of the muscles of the face and limbs, which can move
    in convulsions;
  • Stiffness of movement, the person “does not feel the legs”;
  • Loss of consciousness;
  • Incontinence of feces and urine;
  • Reduced respiratory rate.

If several symptoms appear, you should immediately call
emergency care and then try to stop the attack
on their own.

Important! If the patient has lost consciousness or is experiencing severe
pain in the heart or behind the breastbone, you must call the team
emergency care.

If someone in the family suffers from bradycardia, the rest should
know the rules for providing emergency care as in case
a significant decrease in pulse (less than 35 beats per minute) exists
probability of death.

What to do if a person has a sharp decrease in pulse
with bradycardia?

  • HR less than 50 per minute

Ensure air flow – open the window (in winter –
small window) or go out. Beneficial effect of a warm bath.
It is recommended to drink a cup of strong tea, natural coffee.

  • HR less than 40 per minute

The patient should be laid, raising his legs. For heart pain
he can be given a nitroglycerin tablet; in the event of an attack
for the first time, extract of belladonna (crush two tablets and put
under the tongue); with recurrent seizures, concomitant pathologies of the heart and
vessels – Izadrin (only after consultation with the doctor)

  • Loss of consciousness

it значит, что частота сердечных сокращений снизилась до 25 и
ниже ударов в a minute This condition is dangerous because it can
lead to oxygen starvation and serious disturbance
blood circulation in the brain.

It is necessary to call an ambulance and make the patient
artificial respiration – hold his nose, make three breaths
mouth to mouth. After three artificial breaths, pulse is measured. With
maintaining pathologically low heart rate inspiration
repeat.

An ambulance doctor will conduct the following activities:

  • temporary pacing with
    defibrillator;
  • atropine 0.1% – 1 ml intravenous bolus (up to 4 ml per
    day);
  • dopamine 200 mg per 200 ml of saline intravenously;
  • adrenaline 1% – 1 ml per 200 ml of saline intravenously
    drip;
  • aminophylline 2.4% – 5 – 10 ml intravenous jet;
  • Prednisolone 50 mg intravenous bolus.

In the case of mild or moderate bradycardia, not accompanied by
signs of heart attack, stroke, acute heart failure,
the patient, after stopping the attack, may be left in the home
conditions under the supervision of a local doctor from the clinic.

Folk remedies

Broths of herbs and different types of tincture will help, perhaps,
accelerate the pulse, but do not eliminate the cause. Bradycardia is dangerous as
was written above, in that one can “get used to” it, but it can
lead to cardiac arrest. Therefore, with all due respect to the people’s
medicine, cure heart bradycardia is safer than traditional
by methods.

  1. Ginseng root. Take 15 g of dry root, chop,
    pour 0.5 liters of vodka, insist 20–30 days, shake every
    1-2 days. Withнимайте 30–40 капель в сутки. Maximum duration
    the course of treatment is 1.5 months. Then take a monthly break.
  2. Natural grape juice has excellent firming
    impact on the heart. The daily dose is 400
    milliliters.
  3. In the water bath for 15 minutes, place a glass of boiling water with two
    Art. l yarrow, then insist another hour. Ready decoction
    принимать трижды по две Art. l daily.
  4. Broth yarrow from bradycardia. Need to take 50 g
    dry yarrow and fill it with half a liter of water. Boil in
    for 10-15 minutes, and then insist exactly one hour. Withнимать отвар
    need a tablespoon three times a day;
  5. Prepare the following composition – a collection of 30 grams. calamus with mountain ash
    leaves, 50 gr. dandelion roots, currant leaves and
    inflorescences of hawthorn. Ready collection in the amount of a tablespoon to place
    in 200 ml of boiling water, insist half an hour, filter. Withнять
    The drug should be given twice a day.

Forecast

Patients with bradycardia are constantly monitored by a cardiologist, the dose
drugs should be taken daily in
according to doctor’s prescriptions. Lack of blood supply
brain, heart and internal organs are able to cause
symptom complex:

  • frequent dizziness, memory loss, change
    behavior;
  • angina attacks;
  • with a sudden fall possible bruises and fractures, injuries
    heads;
  • on the part of the liver, the kidneys form a functional
    failure, exacerbated chronic diseases;
  • conservatively cure bradycardia with complete
    blockade is impossible, death is possible at the next unexpected
    fit.

Timely elimination of non-cardiac causes, organic
cardiac lesions, toxic effects on the myocardium, correct
selection of dosages of drugs will prevent
development of bradycardia.

Prevention

  1. Prophylactic measures for bradycardia are aimed at
    timely treatment of cardiovascular diseases, correct
    dosage of drugs;
  2. Patients are advised to review their daily diet.
    limit the consumption of fatty and smoked canned foods
    products, salt.

Thus, bradycardia is dangerous only when
neglect of your body. After all, quite a bit more
to pay attention to physical exertion, normalize diet and
take medications strictly as prescribed so that
forget about heart rhythm disorder.

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