Update: October 2018
As you know, the disease is easier to prevent than to cure. But not
less important is the disease that has already originated in the body in time to recognize and
start to properly treat. For многих заболеваний упущенное время –
these are lost opportunities to recover, maintain quality and
продолжительность of life.
It is also important to know that for most diseases there are risks.
occurrence and development. Correctly find and evaluate risks too
need timely. Exactly такая тактика позволяет их существенно
Today, world medicine is moving along two main
- capacity building high-tech assistance that
road and available mainly in economically developed countries
- cost-effective spending of meager budgets in the way of mass
preventive care to the public.
Of course, if screening and prevention is only a formality
and instruction, tests are unreliable, and medical examinations are fluent
and superficial – no sense.
But there is an experience of the Soviet health system, with
which, despite the absence of most modern methods
treatment, managed to keep under control most of the dangerous
infections, the incidence of tuberculosis, to begin timely
treatment of peptic ulcer, reducing the number of its complications, to establish
oncological care and increase its availability, ensure
population free dental care. Among modern systems
health Cubans succeed due to medical examinations significantly
save on treatment, revealing a large list in time
If in the West before signing a contract with insurance
organization is a prerequisite for the passage of medical
inspection, then in the Russian Federation today there is no such practice. This does not mean that
the case should be left to chance. Just everyone should remember
those minimum clinical examinations worth going to
certain life stages.
Immediately make a reservation that obvious problems are solved as they
receipts. That is, with any health complaints should be
consult a doctor immediately, no matter what age
- But for healthy people today there is either
polyclinic medical examination (covering working
- Or fashionable concept of check-up, meaning a scheduled survey
at the doctor for the purpose of early diagnosis or even just identifying
risks of diseases and recommendations for their reduction.
Chekap provides for conducting physical examinations in healthy people,
since 30 years, with a frequency of once every two or three years.
Chekap is different for different clinics and medical centers, but there are
some intermediate level that must be followed when
conducting. In addition to the main chakapa there are specialized,
- cardiological: it is shown to all over 50 years
- oncological: after 50 and in the presence of sick
malignant tumors of close relatives.
Men over 30 years old
Health after 30 may well be intact. But certain
the hygienic minimum of observations must be made, since many
diseases today are much younger. To be sure
their strength and build long-term plans without fear and threat
premature end, every young man after 30 years old
A turn should pass the following clinical minimum.
Competent clinician even without expensive additional
survey methods may suspect abnormalities
health And the average therapist can do at least
function of the switchman, giving directions to the main tests and
sending for consultation to the right specialists.
In addition to examination, the doctor measures blood pressure and during his
enhancement conducts surveys to identify the nature
hypertension. Quite often, it is at a young age that hypertension
is left without proper attention and treatment, which creates risks for
the occurrence of its complications such as strokes and heart attacks. At the same
it’s time to adequately changed lifestyle, quitting smoking,
correction of excess weight, and if necessary, the beginning of therapy
antihypertensives can protect against the development of the disease and
disability in adulthood or old age.
Also toардиологические риски можно оценить по индексу массы
body, which reveals the relationship between the height-weight ratio
and abdominal obesity. According to BMI, patients can
get recommendations on diet and exercise designed to
protect against heart disease, diabetes, problems with
spine and joints.
Be sure to evaluate the total cardiac
risk, which consists of heredity, age, gender
patient, he has an addiction to smoking, increase sugar
blood, disorders of lipid metabolism and BMI.
This is a single-projection X-ray small-frame image, which
with moderate radiation exposure allows you to get an idea about
condition chest organs and, first of all, is
screening for pulmonary tuberculosis. With today’s incidence
this pathology “fluushka” will be more important than an electrocardiogram and even analyzes
Of course, taking into account the radiation load, this procedure is annually
It is far from all to do. But once every two years, fluorography should
be compulsory. Annually it is carried out to groups.
risk, that is, those who:
- constantly works with people – doctors, teachers, salespeople and
- patients with diabetes and chronic lung disease,
gastrointestinal tract, urinary organs, patients on
permanent corticosteroid or cytostatic therapy
- migrants, displaced people
A blood test – “blood from a finger”
This is a simple blood test to assess the condition of the red
blood (eliminate anemia or thickening of the blood, increasing the risks
thrombosis), get an idea of the state of immune defense and
bone marrow (leucoformula), eliminate inflammation (leukocytes and
ESR), to evaluate the blood coagulation system (platelets).
Blood biochemistry – “blood from a vein”
She allows from a test tube of the venous blood taken on an empty stomach
get a lot of valuable information about the body’s work (see
- Blood sugar level excludes or makes one suspect
diabetes. With deviations in the indicators held
finger blood test on an empty stomach or after consultation
endocrinologist determined glucose resistance.
- According to cholesterol level and lipid profile, risks are assessed by
atherosclerosis and cardiovascular pathologies.
- Total protein, urea and creatinine give an idea of the work
- Bilirubin and its fractions, as well as transaminases (AlAT and AsAT)
allow to suspect pathology of the liver and biliary tract.
- The level of basic electrolytes (sodium and potassium) is also determined,
which is important for the assessment of kidney function and water-electrolyte
General urine analysis
General urine analysis выявляет патологии почек и мочевыводящих
ways. May indicate urological problems. For
in order to determine the level of urinary tract damage,
can be additionally assigned a three-glass test, which
optional in the absence of changes or complaints.
Informs about rhythm disturbances, heart muscle changes and
cardiac conduction system. Indirectly may indicate
overloading of the heart chambers or myocardial thickening. К ECG в 30 лет
must be treated with reasonable skepticism and must be attached to it
history of life and previous diseases. So. what have
A 50-year-old man can be considered the terrible signs of illness,
A 30-year-old athlete may be just a consequence
trained myocardium. In all cases of dispute, you should get
referral to a cardiology check-up or visit a cardiologist,
who will prescribe ECHO cardioscopy (ultrasound of the heart), and if necessary
trade mil or cycle ergometry and MRI of the heart (see the causes of pain in
Inspections of narrow specialists
There are not so many of them, and it makes sense to go through them even with a large
workload at work and rich privacy. These
a few “people in white coats” literally allow calm
sleep the next two to three years.
- At this age, various hernias can already be diagnosed.
protrusions (which it is necessary to operate, and not to speak
- It is also possible the development of early lower varicose veins.
limbs, the progression of which can be stopped by a decrease
intra-abdominal pressure, with the exception of excessive physical
load, weight loss and occasional splitting with a raised 45
degrees with feet, and also to treat with Detralex (Venorus).
- Digital rectal examination procedure is not too
desirable but completely painless and extremely prudent, and
once in two or three years to pass it is quite possible. But in this way
rectal cancer, which is still detected in
advanced stages, and the appearance of which contribute to the perennial
smoking and chronic inflammatory processes in the area of direct
guts. Подробнее о диагностике рака прямой guts.
- Timely detected tumor process successfully operated
and leaves high chances of survival with decent quality
- Among other pathologies that may be of interest to the surgeon:
gallstone and urolithiasis.
- He will not only give competent recommendations on prevention
complications of osteochondrosis, which almost everyone already has
youth, but also be able to explain why hands grow numb at night
those who misuse sedentary work or from youth
- Also this specialist can recognize by early symptoms.
the onset of chronic cerebral circulatory disorders and separating them
from migraine or simple vascular spasm.
- He can also find out how to relieve anxiety,
improve sleep and why crawling on the skin of alcohol abuse
goosebumps, do not walk legs or develop convulsions.
Oculist определяет остроту зрения и осматривает глазное дно,
which is an accessible state mirror brain vessels. Exactly
the vessels of the retina can draw conclusions about the complications of high
blood pressure, the risks of blindness or senile insanity in
the future. A good specialist can not only pick up points, but
and learn how eye massage is done, relieving fatigue,
why do you need eye exercises and why you can not watch TV
when the lights are off or sit for more than two hours
He examines the region of the thyroid gland, excluding its enlargement
or nodules, after which, if necessary, appoints
blood test for hormones T4 and TSH and ultrasound of the thyroid gland. Also to
this specialist is better come with the results of blood tests on
sugar (in order to exclude diabetes mellitus or a reason for
further diagnostic search in this direction with
determining the level of glycated hemoglobin or performing
glucose tolerance test). Endocrinologistом оцениваются и
height and weight indicators, hair type, structural features
скелета и пропорциональность частей тела Endocrinologist же может
suggest and hormonal type of hypertension with
adrenal tumors, hypothalamic syndrome.
According to the results of complaints, visual inspection and palpation may
diagnose varicocele, cryptorchidism, developmental abnormalities
external genitalia or suspected tumors. According to testimony
additional studies are assigned to patients: ultrasound of small
pelvic, prostatic secretion studies. Urologists themselves have long been
recognized that stories about the general problems of the male genital sphere
they are fabricated by the specialists themselves, who are thinking about their own piece of bread.
The frequency of true prostatitis requiring treatment and monitoring
big money, greatly overstated.
It is not included in the program of compulsory medical examination.
But a visit to him is considered a good tone rule twice a year.
Exactly за такой период времени простые проблемы с зубами и деснами
can develop into a serious threat to the integrity of a smile.
Women after 30 years
For дам бальзаковского возраста основной перечень лабораторных
surveys and expert consultations coincides with those of
men. However, it should be noted that:
- risks of cardiovascular accidents in women before the onset of
menopause is significantly lower than that of men, due to the protective
- this is offset by a greater predisposition for varicose veins.
diseases of the lower extremities, especially against the background of repeated
pregnancies and tendencies to vein thrombosis on the background of a combination
long-term use of oral contraceptives and smoking (see for and
against taking birth control pills).
- alertness for the development of hypertension and sugar
diabetes are also relevant for women, especially with adverse
heredity of this pathology.
- Thyroid pathologies pursue the beautiful half
человечества значительно чаще, чем men. Especially relevant
autoimmune thyroiditis on the background of hormonal fluctuations during
of pregnancy. Therefore, it is more appropriate for women to undergo an analysis.
blood for thyroid hormones before a visit to an endocrinologist and
to apply to a specialist with a ready result.
A visit to the gynecologist in the program of preventive care should
be scheduled twice a year. In addition to the survey and inspection in
mirrors include cytology smears (to eliminate cervical cancer
uterus and diagnosing precancerous changes requiring treatment
or dispensary observation) and palpation of the mammary glands in order to
exclusion of tumors.
Mammography or breast ultrasound included in the domestic
diagnostic minimum in women after 40 years. For более молодых
ladies, they are appointed according to indications, as breast cancer continues
look younger by leaps and bounds and is still being diagnosed on the second and
the third stage, what is considered late diagnosis for cancer
For сравнительно молодых мужчин и женщин. who stepped over
threshold of thirty years, but not yet reached forty, it is advisable:
- quit smoking immediately
- use alcohol moderation
- do not overeat and monitor your weight, keeping the body mass index in
limits to 26
- it is not recommended for ladies to lose weight drastically and have it
deficiency due to risks of hormonal imbalance
- have at least 8-10 hours a week of aerobic exercise
- sleep at least 7-8 hours a day
- conduct primary prevention of genital infections and
timely treat acute diseases of the reproductive system
- sanitize foci of infections in the mouth, throat and nose
- avoid production hazards, excessive use
cosmetics and household chemicals (see harmful substances in cosmetics,
the effect of household chemicals on health, women cleaners bring their
- do not live under high voltage lines, near industrial
enterprises and sources of ionizing radiation.
Health after 40
Forty years is the age that is not even accepted in Russia
note. The thing is that by this turn the young enthusiasm and
armor-piercing reserves of the body are somewhat reduced. After 40 more often
all diseases are still well compensated or are
By the age of 40, a mild depression often comes up, ready
a large number of citizens develop into protracted bipolar
frustration. Especially from depression and anxiety disorders
suffer from the inhabitants of large cities classified as office
workers. In this case, men suffer more often than women, lonely with
more likely than family.
Of the other mental disorders, a high percentage of alcoholism.
Here men confidently hold the championship level.
The cardiovascular system
By age 40, hypertension is also usually
fully formed from different vascular dystonias and even
manages to give left ventricular hypertrophy of the heart,
changes in the fundus vessels, or even move along the renal
glomeruli, impairing plasma filtration. Men sure pace
cardiologic risks increase and the first cases are already manifesting
strokes and heart attacks.
Ladies still hide behind the estrogen background, but appear
thyroid pathology and gynecological diseases, including
endometriosis, myoma, ovarian cysts and cervical erosion.
Still far from age-related prostate adenoma, representatives
strong sex suffer from chronic prostatitis, erectile
neurogenic dysfunction and together with their
partners suffer from numerous diseases transmitted by
sexually, but fortunately it is not difficult and not always chronically.
Venous insufficiency, problems with the spine
Both sexes are prone to lower limb varicose veins and
hemorrhoids, and also have periodic radiculoneuritis, as
the result of neglect of the spine in younger years,
the result is widespread osteochondrosis. Former and
existing athletes overcome post-traumatic arthrosis
joints, myocardiopathy and heart rhythm disorders.
Among oncology men are susceptible to lung cancer and intestinal cancer
(including the rectum). Women leading position for cancer
mammary gland and cervix, as well as thyroid tumors (see
tests for oncology).
Diabetes первого типа уже приносит свои плоды в виде
multiple vascular complications in individuals of both sexes. Starts
declare yourself and diabetes of the second type.
Diseases of the respiratory system, allergic diseases
High percentage of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(due to smokers), asthma, allergic
diseases in both men and women.
Eczema and psoriasis affect men and women due to high
degree of neuroticism, superimposed on the hereditary background.
Male and female organisms are still full of vitality and
vague hopes for life prospects. However, already slipping
dreams of a comfortable old age in Europe or a decent harvest on
country house, although they are stopped by crazy thoughts about marrying a student
third year or the birth of a late karapuz.
So that all dreams could come true, and still have enough strength,
after 40 it is necessary to monitor your health, passing prophylactic
examinations or medical examinations every two years.
Recognizing the importance of clinical events for the masses,
Committee of the State Duma of the Russian Federation on health protection with might and main is preparing
Labor Code Amendments. Who would oblige employers
provide workers and employees with paid short-term
leave for medical examination.
To the peculiarities of clinical examination in persons older than forty
- Mandatory examination of the fundus by an oculist to assess
conditions of arteries and veins, which changes can speak about
complications of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or
the development of atherosclerotic vascular changes. Also toраевые
retinal tears or changes in the optic nerve head can
require surgical treatment to preserve vision.
- Mandatory measurement of intraocular pressure in order to
timely detection and treatment of glaucoma.
- Men are advised to consult a cardiologist.
- Neuropathologist начинает осматривать пациентов каждый год.
- Those who have already had a stroke or are at high risk for it.
development, a duplex scan of the brachiocephalic
- Every two years women are required to see a breast specialist and
- An abdominal ultrasound is performed, which is further
repeats depending on the results (every five years with
absence of pathologies or in accordance with the schedule of dispensary
observation of identified diseases).
- From 45 years old, fecal occult blood analysis is performed with the aim of
select risk groups for the development of colorectal cancer.
Prevention Guidelines для лиц от сорок до 50 остаются
the same as in the group of 30-year-old patients.