Update: December 2018
- What does normal gingivitis look like?
- Causes of gingivitis and provoking factors
- Symptoms of gingivitis
- Gingivitis treatment
Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums only, while the infection is not
destroys the joint “gum-tooth” and does not affect the ligaments of the tooth and bone.
It is distributed in almost 100% of the adult population, 80% of schoolchildren.
And only in 30% of cases it is found in younger children.
The main cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene, therefore
данное заболевание называют еще болезнью грязных teeth. Many
people it is not detected, others manifest the most frequent
symptom – bleeding gums. Gingivitis begins with inflammation
papilla of the gum, then its other parts. He quickly takes
chronic course alternating exacerbations with remissions
(remission of the disease).
Oral bacteria are quite aggressive, therefore
people with inflammation of the gums and other tissues surrounding the tooth on
25-50% выше риск заболеваний сердца, а также sugar diabetes, а у
pregnant – вдвое выше риск преждевременных родов.
What does normal gingivitis look like??
- Color – pale pink
- The contours are smooth, tight fit the tooth
- There is no edema and other prominent pathological changes.
- Does not hurt
- Does not bleed when eating, and when using dental
Gingivitis is classified according to the form, flow, phase of the process and
- Forms: catarrhal, ulcerative, hypertrophic
- Current: acute, chronic
- Phases of the process: aggravation, remission
- Prevalence: localized (only in one place),
generalized (all teeth)
Отдельно рассматривают гингивит pregnant и гингивит у
Causes of gingivitis and provoking factors
The main cause of gum disease is microbes contained in
plaque. Together with the predisposing factors they
can cause inflammation of the gums of different shape and severity. Scientists
proved that on the gum isolated from bacteria never
gingivitis is found.
Местные факторы, способствующие скапливанию зубного raid
Anatomical: the shape of the tooth, the close arrangement of the teeth in a row,
malocclusion. Medical actions:
- Mechanical damage to the gums during dental treatment
- Incorrectly placed seal to facilitate attachment
microbes (overhanging, unpolished and unpolished
- Removable dentures (damage the gums, accumulate plaque)
- Bridges that complicate tooth brushing
- Oral surgery, including tooth extraction
- Installation of orthodontic appliances (straighten teeth: bad
are cleared, promote reproduction of bacteria)
Dental calculus: is the site of attachment of microorganisms,
затрудняет чистку teeth. Injury: aggressive brushing, harmful
habits (scratching the nails of the gums), sticking food, hot,
spicy food, chemical damage. Qualitative and quantitative
saliva composition change.
This group of factors include medication,
diseases of the body and pathological conditions that change
defenses or cause an atypical gum reaction.
- Emotional and psychological stress
- Genetic disorders
- Endocrine disorders
- Blood pathology
- Metabolic disease
- Lack of vitamins, microelements and essential nutrients
- Constant medication that causes strong side effects.
- Bad habits
- HIV, severe chronic diseases
- Chronic intoxication.
Proved that the occurrence of gingivitis is influenced by gender (in men
more often) race (in the African race, the disease is more severe) and
Causes of gingivitis in children
The main cause of children’s gingivitis is the same dental
raid But in children, the main predisposing factor is
нарушение самоочищения teeth. The following can lead to this:
- early removal of milk teeth
- orthodontic treatment
- pathology and attachment of bridles of the lips, tongue
- sticky saliva, poor diet with a lack of solid food and
abundance of soft food and sweets
- frequent chewing gum
- mouth breathing, improper swallowing
- multiple caries and pulpitis (inflammation of blood vessels and nerves)
- congenital diseases of the salivary glands.
Причины гингивита pregnant
В развитии гингивита у pregnant женщин главную роль снова
играет зубной raid Pregnancy changes hormones and
the functioning of all organs and systems of a woman, which is almost 100%
cases provokes the occurrence of bleeding gums.
It has been scientifically proven that under the influence of an increased number of
estrogen and progesterone gums become more sensitive to
microbes of dental plaque, which provokes swelling and inflammation.
Микробный состав raid у pregnant несколько иной, так как
некоторые виды бактерий вместо основных питательных substances
start using female hormones.
Symptoms of gingivitis
Symptoms of gingivitis можно discover yourself. However for
exceptions to a more serious illness should be visited.
Symptoms of catarrhal gingivitis
According to research data, gastroenterological patients
catarrhal gingivitis occurs most often.
|What can disturb?||
|What does the doctor see?||
|Differential diagnostics||From hypertrophic and drug gingivitis (different
Symptoms of ulcerative gingivitis
Unusual studies have found that one of the atypical forms
premenstrual syndrome manifests itself ulcerative
|What can disturb?||
|What does the doctor see?||
Symptoms of hypertrophic gingivitis
Hypertrophic gingivitis известен в двух формах: отечная и
fibrous. Hypertrophic gingivitis является одним из главных
symptoms of vitamin A deficiency.
|What can disturb?||
||Unsatisfactory appearance of the gums (increases in size,
изменяется цвет, becomes ugly)
|What does the doctor see?||
When gingivitis conduct a comprehensive survey.
Survey (anamnesis): a person may be asked when they started
the first discomfort with which they are connected, how they changed,
whether the treatment was carried out. External examination: the doctor notes the behavior
patient’s overall appearance, color and purity of the face, probes the lymphatic
knots. Examination of the oral cavity:
- vestibule (space between lips and teeth): allows
оценить bite, состояние уздечек губ и слизистой оболочки
- inside the mouth (palate, pharynx, tongue, cheek mucosa):
their condition is determined by their appearance
- teeth: it turns out the presence of diseases of the teeth, plaque and
stone, the presence of a pathological pocket inside the gums
- gum: revealed if there is a change in color and shape, swelling,
Index score: the doctor calculates using special formulas
the severity of the disease.
- X-ray: allows differential
diagnosis between gingivitis (damage to the gums only) and
periodontitis (damage to the gums and bones)
- Complete blood count: for differential diagnosis with
- Biochemical analysis: differential diagnosis sugar
- Blood test for HIV and syphilis
- Microbiological examination: to identify species
Gingivitis treatment у взрослых начинается с составления плана,
which depends on the severity, stage of the disease, the presence of aggravating
Chronic Gingivitis Treatment
- Training in oral hygiene and selection of individual means
brushing teeth, controlling learned skills later
- Professional hygiene: removal of hard and soft tooth
- Local therapy: the use of antiseptic,
anti-inflammatory ointments, gels, rinses
- Restorative therapy: vitamins, drugs that improve
- Treatment of sick teeth
- If necessary, bite correction or insertion
Treatment of acute gingivitis
It is distinguished by the fact that antimicrobial and
anti-inflammatory therapy. After swelling and gum subside
will cease to hurt, with catarrhal gingivitis begin to fight so
same as described above.
Sometimes, the doctor prescribes
hydromassage gums. It helps to effectively remove soft plaque and
улучшить circulation. Gum massage can be done at home
Treatment of ulcerative gingivitis
- Fight against dental deposits. This stage includes
mandatory antiseptic treatment of the entire oral cavity and
superficial anesthesia with gel
- Treatment of ulcers: first anesthesia is done, then using
enzymes and instruments the gums are cleared of ulcers
- Local antibiotic therapy with metronidazole
- After the start of healing, use local wound healing
drugs (oil solutions of vitamins A, E, sea buckthorn)
- Antibiotics (metronidazole inside)
- Anti-inflammatory therapy
- Antiallergic drugs
- Restorative therapy: vitamins, possible appointment
- After recovery – treatment of diseased teeth.
With ulcerative gingivitis are required to issue a disability certificate
(sick leave) for a few days.
Treatment of hypertrophic gingivitis
In this case, the treatment plan is the same as that of the catarrhal
gingivitis, only after the stage of rehabilitation of sick teeth
surgical removal of overgrown gums. In this case, before the operation
fibrous hypertrophic gingivitis is treated as chronic
catarrhal, and edematous – as acute catarrhal. With leukemia
only symptomatic treatment is performed, overgrown parts of the gums
do not delete.
Gingivitis treatment при беременности
Catarrhal gingivitis is treated according to the same plan, except for
self-prescription drugs used inside: they can
use only after permission of the gynecologist. When
hypertrophic gingivitis treatment is only symptomatic
However, this treatment plan is not always effective due to
special position of women. More and more come to the rescue
research. In 2007, a warm compress was introduced on the gum with
Mexidol and paraffin, recommendations to brush your teeth with toothpaste
Mexidol and use the same cavity rinse
mouth In 2012, the effectiveness of another drug for
topical treatment of gingivitis – ointment vulnusan.
In traditional medicine, pregnant women to combat
bleeding gums is recommended to drink cow’s milk, decoction
rose hips, birch, maple, orange, lemon,
grapefruit juice, rinse your mouth with saline, warm
infusion of nettle and just cold water, and do not eat solid
food and gently brush your teeth.
Gingivitis treatment у детей
To begin to struggle with a children’s gingivitis with lessons of hygiene of a cavity
mouth for children and parents. In a playful way using
The dyes show how well the guys brush their teeth. For children
также проводят профессиональную гигиену полости mouth When
severe forms of the disease (ulcerative gingivitis) first perform those
same stages as adults, and then proceed to the control of cleansing
If one of the factors of gingivitis was an incorrect bite,
the child is sent to the orthodontist. When наличия общих заболеваний
recommend consulting relevant professionals. Important
the moment is the proper nutrition of the child, walks,
Gingivitis treatment в домашних условиях
If you can not visit a doctor, how to help yourself
on your own?
If signs of catarrhal gingivitis are found,
brush your teeth well. Excellent against toothpaste plaque
ROCS. From bleeding need to use “Forest Balsam”,
“Paradontaks” or “Lacalut” in the complex (toothpaste plus
rinse). Effective is the use of gels – balms.
for gums “Asept.”
Mandatory daily cleaning of the interdental spaces using
threads. Rinsing with a shepherd’s bag or
rhizomes of sabrelnik marsh. Broths of chamomile and sage good
relieve inflammation. Self symptomatic treatment
hypertrophic gingivitis will be exactly the same.
In non-severe ulcerative gingivitis:
- Plentiful drink, sparing diet
- Preparations for oral administration: metronidazole (0.5 g 2 times a
day), diphenhydramine (0.05 g, 2 times a day), acetylsalicylic acid
(0.5 g 3 times a day)
- Local treatment:
- first Miramistin or Chlorhexidine in the form of baths
- then Metrogil Dent gel (all this 5-6 times a day)
- in between – gargling chamomile and sage
- after inflammation and pain subsides: to the place of former ulcers –
Kolkosaril, Carotinol, rosehip oil or sea buckthorn for
Prevention любой формы гингивита заключается в тщательной
daily teeth cleaning, professional hygiene
oral cavity 2 times a year, as well as the elimination of provoking general and