Gastroduodenitis: symptoms, treatment in children andadults

Update: December 2018

Gastroduodenitis is a term meaning inflammatory processes.
характера в слизистых оболочках stomach и двенадцатиперстной кишки.
They are always more or less accompanied by ulcers.
disease. The disease is due to:

  • imbalance between aggressive and protective factors;
  • violation in the body of regulatory systems (endocrine, nervous,
    immune) and recovery processes of the mucous membrane caused by
    its damage.

About 50% of the adult population of the country suffers from this disease.
In the last 20 years, the incidence among preschoolers has increased
(almost 2 times) and children of school age – 1.5 times. Start
diseases in children are often obliterated in nature and goes into
chronic form, involving other organs in the process. In this article
речь пойдет о гастродуодените, симптомах и лечении этого
заболевания у детей и adults.

Causes and mechanism of development

There are acute and chronic with periods of exacerbation of the form (in
зависимости from течения заболевания). Cause acute
gastroduodenitis most often are:

  • fromравления химическими раздражающими веществами и пищевыми
    products
  • exposure to very spicy foods and pesticides contained in
    products
  • острые инфекционные желудочно-кишечные и некfromорые хронические
    general diseases
  • eating disorders and stressful conditions leading to
    гиперсекреции (повышенному выделению) соляной кислfromы в желудке на
    background reducing its protective functions.

A significant proportion (up to 60–70%) is accounted for by chronic
gastroduodenitis. The main reasons for their cause:

  • Helicobacter infection; Гастродуоденит: симптомы, лечение
  • genetic predisposition;
  • transferred acute gastroduodenitis;
  • permanent neuropsychic character;
  • irregular diet and inadequate nutrition (lack of
    protein, iron, vitamins);
  • chronic diseases – organs of the digestive tract
    (intestine, gallbladder, pancreas), cardiopulmonary
    and liver failure, autoimmune and endocrine
    diseases, blood diseases;
  • длительный прием неспецифических прfromивовоспалительных и
    glucocorticoid drugs;
  • smoking and alcoholism.

To single out any one reason is difficult. More common disease
results from a combination of several causes and carries
multifactorial character. However, after detection in 1983
Helicobacter pylori bacteria in the mucous membrane idea of
cause and development of the disease, as well as approaches to treatment methods
gastroduodenitis has changed in many ways.

Active strains of bacteria can damage the epithelial layer
mucous membrane and penetrate through it, thanks to the flagella and
enzymes that break down proteins. This leads to damage to small
сосудов ионами соляной кислfromы, а также уреазой, выделяемой
bacteria, impaired microcirculation and the formation of inflammatory
reaction.

The significance and role of this bacterium as a causative factor is not fully
clarified. However, it is believed that in 65 – 85% (according to various sources)
the cause of gastroduodenitis is Helicobacter pylori. She is
is found in most people from childhood and has
damaging effect only against other predisposing
факторов, механизм кfromорых заключается в:

  • disorder of nervous and hormonal regulation activity
    stomach и двенадцатиперстной кишки;
  • violation of secretion of protective mucus and increase
    кислfromности;
  • imbalance of cell system interaction
    (AKUD-system), located in many organs and producing
    hormones, as well as biologically active substances;
  • violation of the regeneration of the mucous membrane.

Forms of gastroduodenitis

Различают следующие формы гастродуоденита (в зависимости from
severity of inflammatory processes in the mucous membrane):

Read also on the topic:

  • What you can eat with gastritis
  • Superficial gastritis – symptoms, treatment
  • Симптомы пониженной кислfromности stomach
  • Гастрит с повышенной кислfromностью
  • Causes of Bad Breath
  • Symptoms of atrophic gastritis
  • Симптомы гастрита stomach
  • From ulcers and gastritis will help yogurt vaccine
  • Flatulence – Causes and Treatment
  • Список препаратов пробиfromиков
  • Intestinal Dysbiosis – Treatment
  • Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis

  • Поверхностный гастродуоденит, симптомы кfromорого чаще
    accompany an acute period during the course of the disease and manifest on
    фоне fromечности и утолщения складок слизистой оболочки.
  • Hypertrophic – characterized by redness, whitish
    налетами и мелкfromочечными кровоизлияниями на фоне утолщения и
    fromечности складок слизистой.
  • Mixed gastroduodenitis – the picture is the same as when
    hypertrophic gastritis, but more pronounced. Besides,
    fromмечаются fromдельные очаги атрофии слизистой (неразвитость,
    deterioration of nutrition), expressed in the flattening of the folds.
  • Erosive – it is characterized by the presence of multiple erosion
    (superficial ulcers), covered with mucus and whitish fibrinous, in
    in the form of film, bloom. This form precedes the formation
    ulcers.

В зависимости from кислfromности различают гастродуоденит:

  • С повышенной кислfromностью или секреторной функцией stomach
    (the most frequent variant of the disease)
  • With normal secretory function
  • With reduced secretion, which often accompanies
    злокачественные опухоли stomach.

Along with these basic forms there are atypical as well
asymptomatic forms, constituting 40%. Moreover, the value
changes in the stomach and duodenum may not coincide with
severity of symptoms.

Clinical manifestations – symptoms

Acute gastroduodenitis is manifested by a feeling of heaviness.
and acute pain in the epigastric and paraumbilical regions, nausea,
vomiting, belching with air or / and liquid acidic contents, sometimes
severe heartburn, dizziness. There may be symptoms
the disease that caused it. All symptoms wear
relatively short and pronounced.

In contrast to the acute form, the chronic course of the disease has
the nature of the cycle, and the severity of symptoms depends largely on
глубины и площади воспаления слизистой оболочки stomach и луковицы
duodenum, acidity and general condition
organism.

Outside of exacerbations, gastroduodenitis symptoms are expressed in:

  • feeling of heaviness and overcrowding in the pit of the stomach;
  • nagging pain of persistent nature in the same area and / or
    heartburn before eating for 1.5 – 2 hours, after eating, but
    again increasing after 2 hours;
  • night pains of whining character, also disappearing after taking
    food;
  • characteristic are pains occurring after eating through
    2 – 2.5 hours, accompanied by nausea and passing after
    artificially induced vomiting;
  • non-intense pain on palpation (palpation) of the abdomen
    the same departments;
  • increased irritability, fatigue, violation
    sleep, loss of body weight despite having saved or even
    increased appetite;
  • language coated white bloom, a sense of bitterness or
    �”Metallic” taste in the mouth;
  • constipation with increased acidity and constipation, sometimes
    alternating diarrhea with reduced secretory function.

The greatest severity and intensity of all these symptoms
acquires a period of relapse (exacerbations). There are pains especially
strong, often accompanied by severe heartburn, nausea, vomiting
and often stop only after taking medication
drugs.

Symptoms of gastroduodenitis in children

Frequent involvement of other organs in the process – pancreas
glands, gall bladder, their ducts, intestines, which makes it difficult
differential diagnosis. Severity of symptoms
gastroduodenitis in children is much less. For the rest
symptoms are approximately the same as in
adults.

Pain in children is usually in the form of contractions. Disorder is often noted
sleep, pallor, “bruises” under the eyes, anorexia, loss in
weight, instability of mentality, fast fatigue and lag in
physical development, brittle nails and hair loss (signs of
hypovitaminosis), instability of the chair (constipations are replaced by diarrhea).
In children with gastroduodenitis, vegetative
disorders:

  • excessive sweating
  • vascular instability
  • increase in heart rate
  • vegetative crises occurring in the type of dumping syndrome with
    sudden sleepiness after eating
  • with long breaks between meals can occur
    symptoms of hypoglycemia – decrease in blood glucose, trembling in muscles,
    weakness, sweating and dizziness, sometimes loss
    of consciousness.

Exacerbations in adults and children are seasonal (autumn and
Spring). Their onset is triggered by neuropsychiatric or physical
load, errors in nutrition.

Diagnosis and treatment

Principles of diagnosis and treatment of gastroduodenitis in children and in
adults are identical. Diagnosis at 70% based on the analysis of complaints
patient and his examination. Basic additional diagnostic
methods:

  1. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, during which time
    assessment of the localization and extent of inflammatory damage
    mucous membrane, as well as the sampling of biopsy material for
    detection of Helicobacter pylori. The presence of the latter (in the case of
    infection activity) can also be determined by
    respiratory urease test (using urea).
  2. RN-metriya – allows you to assess the secretory function.
  3. General clinical blood tests.

The basic principles of treatment of gastroduodenitis in the acute period
include the creation of physical and psychological peace. Meal
should be frequent (5 – 6 times), but in small volumes. From the diet
food eliminates foods that cause increased secretion
gastric juice: fatty, spicy, smoked, fried, and
containing extractives, spices and a large amount
fiber. The principle of diet for chronic gastroduodenitis outside
the acute period is the same, but it is more extended and less
strict.

From the drugs prescribed:

  • H2 receptor blockers (to reduce secretory and
    acid-forming activity) – cimetidine, ranitidine,
    omeprazole;
  • antiacid drugs (with increased and normal acidity),
    which increase the protective properties of the mucous itself and protect it from
    воздействия соляной кислfromы и пепсина — альмагель, фосфалюгель,
    Maalox, Gastal, Denol;
  • antispasmodics – no-shpa, sukrafalt (especially children), possessing
    также прfromивокислfromным и прfromивовоспалительным эффектами;
  • vitamin and light sedatives.

При хроническом гастродуодените с низкой кислfromностью
replacement drugs are prescribed – gastric juice, betacid,
acidin-pepsin.

The scheme of treatment of patients with Helicobacter pylori
infection:

  • антибиfromики (сумамед, амоксициллин и др.);
  • прfromивопрfromозойные средства (метранидазол);
  • H2 receptor blockers;
  • ингибиторы прfromонного насоса (омепразол);
  • bismuth preparations.

Вне периодов обострения рекомендуются физиfromерапевтическое
treatment, balneological and spa treatment, use
(after consultation with the doctor) infusions of medicinal plants.

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