Frontitis – causes, symptoms and treatment of frontal sinusitisadults

Frontier is called the inflammatory process to which
mucous membrane of the frontal sinus. Occurs though less often than
sinusitis and ethmoiditis, but is more severe, with severe head
pain, intoxication. When frontal violated general well-being,
purulent discharges are formed, without treatment the risk of formation is high
serious complications.

If you do not promptly consult a doctor and do not go
examination is likely to transform the acute form into
chronic. Chronic inflammation of the frontal sinuses is fraught
many dangerous complications and can even lead to fatal
to the end

Next, consider: what is the disease, what causes and
симптомы фронтита у adults, а также какое лечение является
most effective today.

Front: What is it?

фронтит

Frontline – это воспаление слизистой оболочки лобных пазух,
being sinuses of the nose. Inflammation
performed in the mucous membrane that is located in the frontal
sinus Такое заболевание носит ещё одно название –
frontal sinusitis. Of all the types he possesses
самой тяжёлой формой течения.

ICD Code:

  • МКБ-10: J01.1
  • МКБ-9: 461.1

The development of frontal disease begins as an acute process with viral or
microbial infection or as inflammation due to trauma
frontal nasal canal and frontal bone.

Types of disease

By localization:

  • Left side
  • Right sided
  • Bilateral

With the flow:

  • Acute frontitis
  • Chronic frontal sinusitis

According to the form:

Exudative:

  • Catarrhal frontitis;
  • Purulent frontitis

Productive front:

  • Polypous, cystic
  • Wall hyperplastic

According to etiology:

  • Allergic
  • Traumatic
  • Viral frontitis
    (грипп, ОРВИ, корь, краснуха, adenoviruses и
    etc.)
  • Бактериальный (скарлатина, стафилококк, стрептококки,
    hemophilic infection, other microbial flora),
  • Fungal
  • Mixed
  • Medication.

The reasons

In case of frontal inflammation of the mucous membrane occurs, which
lines the bosom. The reasons могут быть разнообразные, зачастую от них
depends on the shape and severity of the disease.

Различают самые распространённые причины образования
this pathology:

  • Long-term infectious or allergic rhinitis
    character
  • Nasal curvature
    перегородки врождённой или приобретённой формы.
  • Source of infection due to infection
    staphylococci, streptococci and other bacteria.
  • Allergic reaction – bronchial asthma and vasomotor rhinitis
    способствуют образованию отёка слизистой оболочки.
    The result of this process is the overlap of the hole,
    which facilitates the entry of fluid from the frontal sinus.
  • Polyps in the nose.
  • Foreign bodies.

The most common causative agents of viral frontal sinusitis
become:

  • adenoviruses
  • coronaviruses
  • rhinoviruses
  • respiratory syncytial viruses

Симптомы фронтита у adults

Frontal disease is more serious
other forms of sinusitis. The nature of the flow is divided into two forms:
острую и chronic. Each of them has its own characteristics and
the signs.

рентгеновский снимок

Photo of frontal X-ray

The first signs of a general condition occur in
result of blood flow disorders in the human body or
intoxication of his body. Among the common signs are distinguished:

  • pain in the forehead, sometimes eyes, temples, most often
    manifested in the morning time;
  • difficulty breathing through the nose;
  • nasal discharge, often with an unpleasant odor, on the initial
    transparent stages, further purulent;
  • morning expectoration of sputum.

Acute frontitis

Pathogens multiply in the nasal cavity and
frontal sinuses. In acute course of the inflammatory process
localized in the mucous membrane, passes on its own or in
процессе адекватного лечения через 10-14 days

Symptoms of chronic frontitis are somewhat less pronounced than
acute:

  • aching or pressing pain in the region of the frontal sinus, which
    enhanced by tapping
  • when pressing a sharp pain in the inner corner of the eye
  • copious purulent nasal discharge in the morning, having an unpleasant
    smell
  • a large amount of purulent sputum in the morning

The fact that the symptoms have become weaker does not mean that the
an improvement. Conversely, chronic frontal sinusitis may entail
serious consequences and life threatening complications.

Chronic frontal sinusitis

In chronic form of frontal disease, only one lesion is characteristic.
nasal sinus. In the nasal cavity may be observed deformation
processes caused by the pressure of pathogenic contents. When
the disease has become chronic, the clinical picture
much weaker. Symptoms may appear, and then
disappear.

There are the following signs of frontal sinusitis of the chronic course:

  • сниженное обоняние, иногда пациент вообще не
    может распознавать smellи;
  • conjunctivitis;
  • there may be no discharge from the nose;
  • in the morning, the eyelids are slightly swollen, which means
    the spread of inflammation on the walls of the orbits;
  • persistent cough
    не удаётся никакими противокашлевыми и
    expectorants;
  • severe weakness that does not allow to perform ordinary homemade
    affairs;
  • in chronic frontier, polyps proliferate and
    tumors in the nasal cavity, which cause problems
    when breathing.

In medical practice, frontal sinusitis without nasal discharge refers to
chronic type of disease.

Frontline Description and Symptoms
Catarrhal Initially, there is a headache, localized,
mainly in the region of the superciliary arches. Most often pain
observed at night and an hour after waking up and passes to 13-14
hours, which is associated with a change in body position in the morning and the beginning of the outflow
mucus from the sinus upright. Pain can give in
the eye or both eyes in the jaw, and its severity varies from
easy to strong, cutting.
Purulent The clinical picture includes:

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  • purulent discharge from the nose, the discharge of which increases by
    mornings;
  • throbbing pains in the nose, aggravated by
    pushing or turning the head;
  • fever and temperature up to 39-40 ᵒC;
  • night and morning cough;
  • severe headaches;
  • tearing and tension in the nose;
  • photophobia, tearing.
One side (left / right) The causes are viruses, bacteria, fungi and injury.
the nose. When unilateral form of the patient appears:

  • Headache and mucopurulent discharge from one nostril
  • Body temperature 37.3-39 ° С
Double-sided form
  • The pain arises symmetrically from two sides.
  • May give to different parts of the head.
  • Discharge from both nostrils.

Complications

Complications of frontal sinusitis, which arise as
in acute and in chronic process.

These include:

  • transition of infection to the bony walls of the sinus, necrosis and education
    fistula with discharge of fluid
  • transition of infection to the orbital area with
    формированием абсцессов и флегмоны,
  • transition of inflammation to the back wall with the formation of an abscess
    мозга или менингита,
  • sepsis.

Lack of optimal treatment leads to partial or complete
loss of smell. The inflammatory process may impair eye function.
and significantly reduce visual acuity. Within the frontal sinuses
granulations and polyps are formed. it чревато появлением свищей в
Orbital area and violation of the integrity of the bony septum
sinus

Diagnostics

Often
начинается фронтит без выделений из носа,
поэтому диагностировать начало заболевания можно только
на осмотре у отоларинголога. Experienced otolaryngologist
(ENT) will quickly make the correct diagnosis based on the patient’s complaints.
More research is needed to clarify the severity.
disease and proper selection of treatment regimens.

Diagnostics фронтита включает в себя следующие методы:

  • History taking;
  • Рентген пазух;
  • Rhinoscopy;
  • УЗИ околоносовых пазух;
  • Endoscopy of the nose;
  • Computed tomography (CT);
  • Diaphanoscopy (transillumination);
  • Thermal imaging (thermography);
  • Bacteriological examination of nasal secretions;
  • Цитологическое исследование содержимого полости the nose.

Treatment of frontal sinusitis

Treatment must be entrusted to a qualified medical
an employee. However, at the initial stage you can cure frontal sinusitis.
on their own. In most cases, there is no initial stage.
необходимости принимать специальные drugs. Quite a few
wash nasal cavity once a day. Rinsing will clear the cavity from
mucous formations. However, determine the frontal on the initial
stage can not always. Few people pay headache
Attention.

How to treat acute frontal sinusitis?

For the treatment of acute frontal sinusitis if any
Its corresponding symptoms are prescribed drugs to narrow
vessels. Basically, these are nasal sprays. They provide
qualitative elimination of swelling of the nose, as well as restore
full outflow of the contents of the nasal sinuses. For similar purposes
Phenylephrine-based drugs are used.
oxymetazoline, as well as xylometazoline.

Basic principles of treatment of acute frontal sinusitis:

  • Создание условий для нормального дренажа sinus
  • Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory treatment.
  • Increase the body’s defenses.
  • Prevention повторных обострений.

How to treat chronic frontal sinusitis?

In chronic frontal sinuses, they are performed:

  • rinsing the nose with saline solutions;
  • nasal sprays with steroid hormones (substances that have
    anti-inflammatory action). The drugs have proven their
    effectiveness and safety in numerous studies on
    around the world: they are practically not absorbed into the blood and do not affect
    hormones;
  • long courses of low-dose antibiotic macrolides
    (drugs of the antibiotic group, the least toxic to
    human body, possess antimicrobial,
    anti-inflammatory, as well as immunomodulatory properties)
  • Full treatment of other inflammatory / infectious
    diseases;
  • Find out the causes of allergies and get rid of the irritant
    – only in case of development of chronic frontitis on the background
    allergic rhinitis.

Medications

Before применением любого препарата, обязательно посоветуйтесь с
ENT doctor.

Antibiotics at the front

If there are indications for taking antibiotics, then the drug first
Choice is Amoxicillin in combination with Klavulanova acid.
Препараты, которые содержат такую комбинацию: «Аугументин»,
�”Amoxiclav”. If the patient is allergic to antibiotics
группы пенициллинов, то лучше использовать  –

  • fluoroquinolone antibiotics (for example,
    �”Ciprofloxacin”),
  • macrolides (Clarithromycin, Azithromycin).

Antibiotics at the front назначаются примерно на 10-14
days However, after 5 days from the beginning of the reception it is necessary to evaluate
efficacy of therapy. Если значимого улучшения не достигнуто,
it is best to prescribe a more potent antibiotic.

Preparations for removing edema

Homeopathic remedies are also used in the treatment of frontitis.

  • Sinupret: used to relieve inflammation, thins
    the contents of the sinuses.
  • Sinuforte: relieves inflammation, promotes ventilation and
    opening of the nasal sinuses.
  • Cinnabsin: relieves swelling, makes breathing easier and promotes
    strengthen immunity.

To reduce mucosal edema, antihistamines are also prescribed.
препараты – Супрастин, Тавегил, Цетиризин.

Antipyretic drugs are used at elevated temperatures,
many drugs have analgesic and anti-inflammatory
Effect. Reduce the temperature of the drug with paracetamol (Efferalgan and
Panadol), ibuprofen (Nurofen).

Drops

To relieve swelling and improve drainage of the affected sinus
produce lubrication of the mucous membrane under the middle nasal
shell vasoconstrictor – adrenaline, ephedrine,
naphazoline, xylometazoline. With the same purpose prescribed
instillation of drops with a similar effect 3-4 times a day. it
известные всем препараты Нафтизин, Санорин, Галазолин,
Називин, Назол и другие.

Physiotherapy

UHF therapy

Treatment with an electromagnetic field with a wavelength of 1-10 nm. Plates
superimposed on the area of ​​the frontal sinuses. UHF field effect
heat, reduces puffiness, activates regeneration processes.

Cuckoo method

It involves the introduction in one nasal passage of a thin tube,
which serves special thinning and antibacterial
drugs. Another tube is inserted into the second pass.
pumping out purulent mucus. Sinus washing is performed with
using such solutions as “Chlorophyllipt” and “Furacillin.”

Промывание при воспалении лобных пазух, проводимое в
home environment is less effective compared to
similar procedures in terms of medical facilities. But nonetheless,
to abandon them is not worth it.

Washing the nasal passages is carried out:

  • Saline solution. For its preparation a small spoonful of salt
    must be diluted in a glass of warm water. With a sharp front to this
    the solution is recommended to add 3-5 drops of tea ether
    tree.
  • Отварами трав – календулы, шалфея, цветков ромашки.

Puncture

Often a puncture at the front is used if treatment with
medication did not help. Also when the disease is accompanied
headaches, there is a pathological cavity in the tissues and
suppuration. Initially, an x-ray is required to determine
puncture site. The procedure can be performed through the nose or forehead under
local anesthesia.

With uncomplicated course, the prognosis is favorable, possibly complete.
cure, in advanced cases, the transition to chronic
current with periods of aggravation.

Folk remedies for frontal

народные средства

It is not always possible to completely cure the frontalities with folk methods,
however, it is possible to significantly speed up the healing process.
at home, additionally applying medicinal
drugs.

  1. Dissolve in 500 ml. warm boiled water a tablespoon
    alcohol solution chlorophyllipt. It has antibacterial
    action and even fights those microorganisms that have developed
    antibiotic resistance. The solution is used for washing 3-4
    times a day.
  2. Take the same amount of aloe juice, onion juice, honey,
    cyclamen root juice, Vishnevsky ointment. Mix well and
    keep in the refrigerator in a resealable jar. Before
    using keep steaming until a temperature of thirty
    seven degrees. Apply ointment to cotton flagella and inject on the floor.
    hours in both nasal passages. Course 3 weeks.
  3. It is possible to treat frontal disease with cyclomen. Juice of this plant
    diluted with boiled water in a 4: 1 ratio, drip the solution three times in
    day in two drops.
  4. Rosehip decoction (2 tablespoons per cup of water,
    cook for 10 minutes, insist – 20 minutes), add to regular tea
    viburnum juice or raspberry syrup / jam. You can do the following
    a mixture with a tonic effect – take 3 nuts for a glass of honey
    walnuts, hazelnuts and cashews, insist during the day and use
    half a teaspoon thrice a day.
  5. Bay leaf. A few leaves to throw in boiling water,
    then 10 minutes, and then breathe over the steam. Perform the procedure
    in the morning, and in the evening you can leave the same broth, heat it and
    breathe again.

Prevention

High-quality prophylaxis of frontal sinusitis in humans suggests treatment.
primary disease. General strengthening is important
the immune system, involving the tempering and water
procedures, eating vitamins, as well as fresh fruit and
vegetables.

The main purpose of the prevention of frontal sinusitis: boost
protective properties of the body, the treatment of viral diseases, as well as
regular otolaryngologist visits.

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