In the regions of Russia with developed animal husbandry, even in our
the age of high technology periodically occur outbreaks of zoonoses –
diseases transmitted from animals to humans. They cause not
only strong harm to health, but also a huge damage – the economy
country. One of these diseases is foot and mouth disease – a dangerous acute
viral infection characterized by lesions in humans
mucous membranes of the mouth and nose, the skin of the periungual bed and
The causative agent of FMD is rather small (the diameter is not
exceeds 30 nm) RNA-containing virus belonging to the family
Picornaviridae and the Aftovirus genus. Science knows its seven types:
O, A, C, SAT-1, SAT-2, SAT-3, Asia-1. And if the animal was sick
one of these types, then after recovery it can easily
catch any other. In addition, immunity after the disease
lasts for a period not exceeding eighteen months.
FMD virus for a long time can be in the external environment.
So, on the surface of objects, he retains his ability
заражать животных and man в течение 150 дней, а в навозе
remains active for 168 days. On mammals wool
and people clothes the virus is unchanged from 28 to 40 days.
In dairy products, the timing of the virus is several
vary. For example, in milk, whose temperature is maintained at
37 degrees, the pathogen retains its activity on
for twelve hours, but in a chilled product – this
The period is extended to 47 days. But in fermented milk products and
при изготовлении сыра, вирус быстро гибнет.
Low temperatures do not destroy the pathogen, and in frozen
carcasses he lives about 40 days. And the heating, on the contrary, is pretty
quickly inactivates the pathogen. So, at 60 degrees the virus dies.
after 15 minutes, and the temperature in 80−100 degrees kills him
For the disinfection of premises and care products are best suited.
2−3% hot solution of caustic soda or potassium, 1-2% solution
formaldehyde and 20% solution of freshly sour lime. These funds
inactivate the virus within ten minutes.
Some information from veterinary medicine
All artiodactyls are susceptible to FMD disease –
cattle, pigs, small cattle, deer. Less
buffaloes and camels are susceptible. If dogs and cats drink
infected milk, they too can easily become infected. Of
laboratory animals susceptible guinea pigs, rabbits and
It should be noted that birds and horses with foot and mouth disease do not get sick. But
the birds, like the rodents, take an active part in
spread of infection.
FMD can become susceptible to all.
animals, regardless of gender and age. But молодняк болеет гораздо
heavier than adults, and among calves, pigs and lambs are not uncommon
Nowadays, outbreaks of the disease are registered in the territory
Europe, Asia, Africa and South America. In Russia, the epidemic of foot and mouth disease
last recorded in 2015 in the Amur region,
Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krai.
Healthy animals become alimentary and aerogenic.
The virus can be introduced into the farm by various
- With sick animals.
- With contaminated feed and water.
- With infected items.
- Attendants – cattlemen, milkmaids, veterinary
workers – can bring the pathogen on clothes and shoes.
- On the wheels of cars entering the farm.
Animals in the farm eat food and breathe in dust containing
causative agent of infection. And, getting into the body through mucous membranes
shell and damaged skin, the virus penetrates the epithelium and begins
to multiply actively. At the same time in the intergame crack or in the mouth
primary aphthae are formed – no more than two pieces. On the next day
virus with blood is spread throughout the body. Of-за чего у
animal fever, refusal of food,
Immune system of the diseased destroys the pathogen almost
in the whole body. The exceptions are mucosal cells.
and skin that is poorly supplied with blood and, accordingly,
antibodies. In them, the virus multiplies well, resulting in
in the mouth, in the hoof gap, on the corona of the hoof and on the skin of the nipples
udder a lot of aft is formed, which cause the animal
In the case of hoofed animals with weak immunity, as well as
in young animals, skeletal and cardiac damage may occur.
In adult animals, foot and mouth disease occurs in two
- Atypical, which, in turn, is subdivided into
malignant, abortive and latent.
In adult cows and sheep, symptoms of the disease are practically
same – short-term fever, education
aft, erosion, drooling. Udder damage accompanied
the development of mastitis. After 8–10 days, recovery begins. Have
young foot and mouth disease is accompanied by signs of gastroenteritis or
bronchopneumonia. If time does not provide assistance, the young
Have взрослых свиней ротовая полость is amazed
rarely, aphthae are located on the limbs, patch and milky
glands. The duration of the disease is from eight to
twenty five days. Have поросят наблюдается септическая форма ящура,
in which in the first days of the disease there is a fall of 60−100%
Have взрослых коз клиническая картина выражена слабее, чем у коров.
Oral cavity, limbs and udder are affected. Salivation
missing, but you can hear the grinding of teeth. Usually two
weeks, animals recover.
Have взрослых оленей афты появляются на слизистой оболочке рта и
skin of limbs. In addition, diarrhea is noted. If the disease is not
complicated by concomitant microflora, then after 14 days the animals
get well soon.
During treatment for patients, it is necessary to create optimal
conditions – the room must be clean and well ventilated
Dry bedding is required. Best for feed
use mash from bran. Patients provide full
peace All ulcers are treated with a 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate
or 0.5% solution furatsilina. For hooves make baths with 5%
If the disease has a severe course or is complicated
concomitant infection, the treatment takes longer and
effort. Special preparations are used that support
immunity, cardiovascular system. And for treating hooves with
signs of necrosis apply Novocain blockade and
For the prevention of foot and mouth disease in the economy conduct routine vaccination
artiodactual animals do not allow the virus to enter the territory from
feed and water. Be sure to install sanitary guards and
carry out quarantine of newly introduced animals.
Foot and mouth disease and medicine
Foot and mouth disease – a disease that is transmitted from a sick animal
only healthy fellow man, but also man. Exists
several options for contracting this viral infection:
- Through products of animal origin.
Raw milk and poorly cooked meat contain quite a lot.
viruses that freely penetrate the gastrointestinal
- In contact with sick animals. In this case, the virus enters
into the human body with inhaled air, as well as through
- As a result of contact with the items used to care for
Most often the virus enters the human body during
use of contaminated products. Therefore unpasteurized milk
it is necessary to boil, and the meat obtained from the artiodactyls
animals – longer subject to heat treatment.
Mechanism of development and symptoms of the disease
The virus enters the human body through mucous membranes and
injured skin. A bubble forms at the point of entry.
filled with turbid liquid – afta. It is here throughout
total incubation period, which lasts an average of two to
six days, the virus multiplies. After this
time, the vial bursts, and the pathogen with the blood stream penetrates into
epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. In addition, the virus
FMD in humans is also localized in the skin around the nails and between
fingers and toes.
Numerous aphthas appear in the mouth and on the surface of the skin.
filled with turbid exudate. A few days later they burst,
ulcers are formed, which gradually unite, occupying large
For foot and mouth disease, the symptoms are fairly common, so it’s difficult
confused with other diseases. Have людей заболевание всегда протекает
acutely. At the beginning of the pathology, the person feels weak, the temperature
body rises to 40 degrees, torment headaches,
loss of appetite.
With the onset of an aphta, the symptoms become larger. Are observed
burning in the mouth, the formation of bubbles filled with liquid,
pain when chewing food, increased salivation.
After the aphtha appears on the body, the hyperthermia persists.
about 5−6 days. And then the temperature begins to gradually decrease.
This indicates the beginning of the healing process, which may
last about 14 days.
In this case, the disease is transferred by adults rather
easy. Unlike children who have much more rash and
pain is much stronger. If a baby is infected
when eating milk, the clinical picture will be
remind poisoning. In this case, there is pain in the abdomen,
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
Very hard for young children. Unfortunately, for them the forecast
may be unfavorable. Ofвестны случаи гибели детей в
result of FMD virus infection.
Foot and mouth disease – a disease whose specific symptoms allow
pretty quickly establish the diagnosis. But иногда можно наблюдать менее
pronounced clinical signs. В этом случае ящур
quite simply confused with other diseases:
- Herpetic stomatitis.
Sometimes aphthous skin lesions with
viral infections are similar to rashes resulting from
To make an accurate diagnosis, the attending physician collects the most
complete patient information. First of all, the doctor is interested
place of residence affected, namely the well-being of the area by
foot and mouth disease This is followed by questions about whether the person contacted
sick animals, and whether he ate raw milk.
After collecting anamnesis, the doctor sends the patient for passage
laboratory research. The patient must pass tests
– blood, saliva and feces. And in the laboratory will conduct serological
diagnosis, allowing to establish the presence of antibodies in the blood.
Only after collecting anamnesis and carrying out all necessary
laboratory tests the doctor will be able to deliver the final
Having determined the disease, the doctor refers the patient for two weeks.
to the hospital where he is given specialized care. Because
for the treatment of FMD there is no specific means, then the patient
prescribe drugs that facilitate his condition, and special
В связи с тем, что при ящуре is amazed слизистая оболочка
mouth, eating is accompanied by severe pain. therefore
the patient is given frequent meals in small portions and
drink plenty of water Food must be liquid and warm. If a
pain is too strong then resorting to feeding through
Treatment is reduced to the treatment of the affected mucous and skin. For
hydrogen peroxide, a solution of silver nitrate,
manganese or rivanol. After washing the wounds they are applied
various topical preparations. Most often for this purpose
use oxolinic, florenale, interferon and others
Damaged areas are treated with antiseptic sprays. These
drugs destroy pathogenic microflora, not giving her the opportunity
Often prescribed to take antiviral drugs in the form of
tablets and capsules. They help the body cope with the pathogen
and help alleviate the overall condition.
Of-за большого количества назначенных препаратов у человека
allergies may begin. To avoid this, the patient is prescribed
drugs with antihistamine properties.
In addition to specific symptoms, for FMD are characteristic and
clinical signs common to most infections are increased
body temperature, soreness and aches in muscles and joints. For
relieve the patient is prescribed antipyretic and
If a к вирусному процессу присоединяется вторичная микрофлора,
then be sure to use antibiotics that destroy
microbes that cause various diseases.
For повышения резистентности организма пациенту назначают
various vitamins and, if necessary, immunostimulants.
In addition to medication, in the hospital often
apply the means of physiotherapy. These include, for example, treatment
by laser. Before using it on the affected areas doctor
causes a solution of methylene blue. After that, the work enters
a laser beam that for five minutes affects
damage, promoting tissue regeneration.
For лечения слизистых оболочек применяют не только лазер, но
also aerosole therapy. In this case, medicinal substances in the form
the smallest particles penetrate deeply into the affected tissues, where and
exert their therapeutic effect.
The main point in the prevention of foot and mouth disease is compliance with the rules
personal hygiene. If a в хозяйстве произошла вспышка эпидемии, то
all sick animals are isolated. Haveход за ними осуществляется
farm workers only in workwear. After leaving the premises in
which contain sick animals, the working form is necessary
remove and wash hands thoroughly. Passage from the isolator
It is carried out only through a desbary.
It is strictly forbidden to eat milk from
suspicious of animal disease without exposing it
heat treated. Patients with hoofed products
Meat is always best to thoroughly boil and roast. After
cooking all the dishes, as well as hands, is recommended
Wash thoroughly with detergent.
After контакта с любыми животными, независимо от состояния их
health, you must properly wash your hands with soap and water.
Foot and mouth disease is a disease that almost always occurs in humans.
in acute form and ends with recovery. And although treat this
the infection is not so difficult, but it is much easier to prevent it
появления, соблюдая необходимые правила personal hygiene. Besides,
noticing the first clinical signs of the disease do not need
engage in self-diagnosis. Better right away
seek medical advice without waiting