Фолликулярная киста яичника: treatment, симптомы,причины, разрыв cysts

Update: December 2018 Follicular cyst is functional.
benign neoplasm of ovarian tissue which
formed from a follicle that has been unpulsed in the current menstrual
cycle. Such a cyst is usually one-sided, can measure 2,5-10
cm, and consists of a single-chamber cavity, with liquid inside,
estrogen rich. Most women in education
фолликулярной cysts, симптомы никаким образом не проявляются,
the woman does not even know about her development. But, при
recurrent nature, a cyst may provoke
delayed menstruation, lower abdominal pain, in conjunction with
hormonal imbalance be the cause of infertility. For
диагностики такой cysts яичника используется УЗИ, двуручная
gynecological palpation, Doppler, emergency
diagnostic laparoscopy. With обнаружении такой cysts, treatment
is waiting tactics for 2 months and then
in the absence of positive dynamics held
anti-inflammatory and hormone therapy. When
возникновения осложнений, таких как разрыв или перекрут cysts
яичника, показана экстренная лапароскопия cysts яичника, с
removal and histological examination of pathological tissues.

Follicular cysts account for 80% of all cystic cases
neoplasms in women. Moreover, regardless of age
women, it may appear in girls during the period of sexual
maturation, and in premenopausal women, but the largest number
случаев возникновения такой cysts регистрируется у женщин
reproductive age.  Similar tumors can
dissolve independently during 2-3 menstrual cycles,
never malignant (do not lead to oncology), but may
вызывать осложнения в виде разрыва или перекрута ножки cysts.

Causes

Основной причиной развития фолликулярной cysts является —
lack of ovulation in a woman in the current menstrual cycle, which
most often caused by a hormonal disorder. But, даже у здоровой
women ovulation may not occur every menstrual cycle.
Therefore, the causes of the development of functional cysts, such as cyst
yellow body of the right or left ovary, follicular cyst –
in addition to hormonal failure, there may be several more.

Еще в 19 веке у женщин после 40 лет, не имевших детей, cysts
The ovaries were called waterborne disease, which was considered incurable.
In the early 20th century, the causes of the appearance of functional cystic
neoplasms were considered only inflammatory infectious
diseases of the uterus and hormonal function
ovary.

In 1972, a theory appeared about the self-programming of death
cells at the genetic level – apoptosis, and experts began
study the relationship of hormonal disorders, ovarian dysfunction and
apoptosis as the main causes of growth of tumors in women. So
there is another theory of the causes of ovarian cysts,
explaining their development by a hormonal genetic disorder.

To date, in determining the direction of treatment
фолликулярной cysts у женщины, а также для разработки тактики
preventive therapy, doctors should consider the following
Studied reasons for their growth:

  • Research on women for STIs, since latent infections can
    to undergo imbalance (chlamydia in women, mycoplasmosis,
    ureaplasmosis, gonorrhea, etc.)
  • Natural age-related changes in hormonal levels – in
    girls in puberty, women in menopausal (see
    негормональные препараты при климаксе,  гормональные препараты
    with menopause)
  • Inflammatory processes in the uterine appendages – salpingo-oophoritis,
    oophoritis, salpingitis. These diseases can sometimes be
    tuberculosis, however, the diagnosis of female tuberculosis
    genital organs in our camp is difficult and ignored
    most gynecologists, and also often gives false negatives.
    results in a sluggish tuberculous process in the fallopian
    pipes. But many young women can not get pregnant because of
    cause obstruction of the fallopian tubes, caused by tuberculosis,
    and other infections.
  • Hyperstimulation of ovulation before IVF (see negative effects
    ЭКО), а также длительное treatment бесплодия гормональными
    preparations and ovulation stimulants (see boron uterus for
    conception)
  • Pathological changes of the endocrine system, disorders
    neuroendocrine regulation that lead to hyperestrogenia
  • Ovarian dysfunction, which can also occur after
    abortions (consequences)
  • Emotional long-term stress

Primary in the occurrence of hormonal disorders in women, as
Oddly enough, is the change in the function of the cerebral cortex. With
appearance of a young woman, a girl of important feelings or thoughts
(dominant theme), most often a grave thought that gnaws and
suppresses a woman, but she constantly returns to her, thereby
causing the activity of one particular area of ​​the brain.

As you know, the human brain has electrical activity, and
this area of ​​the brain when such a constant negative feeling or
мысли вызывает активизацию или возбуждение расположенных рядом
nerve centers that perform completely different functions, including
function to adjust hormonal levels.

This dominant thought during long-term existence, as
states, when looping, gradually inhibits the activity of other
nerve centers, it leads to hormonal disorders,
sleep disturbance, aggression, negative inadequate
psycho-emotional reactions and, as a result, to functional
cysts and other diseases. Therefore, it is very important to close in time.
some stages of your life, remove the accumulated excess
negative feelings, enjoy every day of existence,
forgetting the bad of the past.

How does a follicular cyst appear?

In healthy women with normal reproductive function
organs not burdened with hormonal drugs or
the presence of provoking factors, each menstrual cycle
accompanied by the development of follicles. The most mature and the most
active serves as a base for the maturation of the egg, after rupture
which (ovulation period of about 10-15 days of the cycle), the egg
is released and moves through the fallopian tubes to the uterus.

In place of a ruptured follicle, a luteal body remains or
the corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine gland. This is luteal
education is necessary for progesterone production and for conception
until the formation of the placenta, and if the pregnancy did not occur –
until the time of menstruation.

In case the follicle does not burst, the egg remains inside,
and follicular fluid accumulates in the cavity, forming a cyst.
The increase in the size of such an ovarian cyst is due to leakage.
blood serum into the cyst cavity through blood vessel walls
vessels, and also due to not stopping secretion by cells
granular epithelium.

Symptoms of follicular cyst

Symptoms of a cyst primarily depend on its hormonal
activity and associated diseases of the pelvic organs –
adnexitis (salpingitis, oophoritis, see symptoms and treatment of inflammation
appendages), endometriosis, uterine fibroids, etc. With intensive
estrogen producing hormone-active cyst, symptoms may
manifest lower abdominal pain, heavy bleeding when
menstruation, girls early puberty.

However, small to 4 cm hormonally inactive cysts can
develop asymptomatic and during 2-3 menstrual cycles
completely dissolve, that a woman does not notice her education,
nor disappearance. A larger cysts 6-10 cm can
accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Long and abundant monthly
  • Bleeding between menstruation, after sexual
    an act
  • Violation of the cycle, delayed menstruation, painful periods
  • Lower abdominal pain, feeling of heaviness, feelings of bursting in
    groin area, right or left, depending on localization
    cysts
  • Pain and discomfort increases in phase 2 of the menstrual cycle,
    after exercise, after sex, long walking, with
    sharp movements (roll, tilt, sharp turn)
  • Violation of the hormonal background can be traced by the change
    basal temperature (temperature in the anus in the morning), in 2
    phase of the cycle (from day 14) it should be above 37.1 С, and at
    гормональных сдвигах и наличии cysts, может быть ниже 36,8С.

Follicular cyst of the left ovary according to symptoms and signs
ничем не отличается от cysts правого яичника. Existing opinion
that the development of cystic neoplasms in the right ovary occurs
more often than in the left – is a myth, because there is no
reliable data confirming this.

According to statistics, recording cases of cyst
ovarian follicular cyst of the right ovary is also formed
often, that of the left ovary. There is an opinion that the right ovary
more active, dominant follicles are more often formed in it, since
it is more intensively supplied with blood supply due to direct
joints of the main aorta and artery, and the left ovary is supplied
bypass from the renal artery.

This remains a matter of debate since there are no
доказательств, подтверждающих большую вероятность развития cysts в
right ovary. Indeed, apoplexy of the right ovary
occurs 2-3 times more often, and this is due to natural
the cause is its proximity to the aorta and more intense
кровоснабжением, а вот частота формирования cysts одинакова в обоих
the ovaries.

А вот типичная картина симптомов фолликулярной cysts правого
ovary may resemble clinical signs of inflammation
appendix. Те же боли с правой стороны, а при разрыве cysts такие
symptoms of an acute abdomen – sometimes confusion
true diagnosis. But modern diagnostic methods produce
differentiation of the diagnosis, the main thing to do it in time.

Soие cysts безопасны с точки зрения отсутствия риска
malignancy and possible resorption even without treatment.
However, in some cases, complications such as
разрыв cysts или перекрут ее ножки, это достаточно опасные
states that require emergency medical care.

Withзнаки разрыва фолликулярной cysts яичника

If a woman has a follicular cyst with symptoms, it has
крупные размеры, то во время физической активности, полового an act,
а также при беременности существует риск разрыва капсулы cysts,
necrosis of ovarian tissue, leg twist, and even apoplexy
(rupture) of an ovary with intra belly bleeding. In such cases
требуется срочное хирургическое treatment фолликулярной cysts.

In the fall, sudden movement, after sex is possible full or
частичный перекрут в не зависимости от размера cysts, при этом
squeezing of the neurovascular bundle of the ovary occurs. But,
if a woman is not protected, then many symptoms of rupture or
прекрута cysts очень похожи на прорвавшуюся внематочную трубную
pregnancy. What are the symptoms may be when torsion legs
фолликулярной cysts:

  • Heart palpitations – tachycardia, feeling of fear
  • Dizziness, general weakness
  • Drop in blood pressure, cold sweat
  • Paleness of the skin
  • Nausea, vomiting, intestinal work is suspended
  • Slight increase in body temperature
  • Very intense pain on one side – right or left, where
    neoplasm is located, no change of position, no rest
    contribute to the remission of pain.

With разрыве cysts возникает клиника острого живота:

  • Fainting, dizziness, weakness
  • Drop in blood pressure, vomiting, nausea
  • Dagger, sudden piercing pain causing shock
    state
  • Paleness of the skin или цианоз (синюшность)

Если разрыв cysts произошел возле сосуда, возможно возникновение
bleeding, then the symptoms can be supplemented by the following:

  • Drowsiness, lethargy, weakness
  • Шоковое state
  • Heart palpitations due to low pressure

These critical conditions are very dangerous and are required
promptly call an ambulance because delay can
cause purulent peritonitis, severe blood loss, anemia in the background
blood loss, adhesions, and further infertility. But,
modern progressive technologies reduce such risks if
perform laparoscopy in time of rupture or torsion,
complications are minimized.

Ovarian follicular cyst and pregnancy

If a woman has persistent (non-absorbable)
for 2 months) cyst, then until it resolves
this ovary cannot participate in the process of conception, that is, this
period may be accompanied by infertility. But, при нормальной
ovulation in another ovary, pregnancy becomes
probable. And if conception happened during pregnancy, the cyst
should regress spontaneously, in rare cases
follicular cyst during pregnancy can cause complications, and
be a threatened abortion.

Today, cystic neoplasms during pregnancy are not
rare, and most often do not pose a threat, but there is
such a point of view that follicular cyst and pregnancy is
diagnostic error or obvious gynecological phenomenon,
since they cannot coexist.

This is explained by the fact that a woman’s body during pregnancy
it is necessary to produce more progesterone than
usually because it supports pregnancy and is involved in
the formation of the “children’s place”. For this reason, the corpus luteum should
not function for 2 weeks as in the second phase of the menstrual
cycle, and all 3 months 1 trimester. It is the yellow body that can
develop into a cyst, and further resolves.

In addition, during pregnancy a woman strenuously
produced prolactin, which inhibits the maturation of new
follicles, preventing the development of a new pregnancy in the background
existing. Therefore, there is an opinion that during
pregnancy follicular cyst is a diagnostic error,
which should be excluded and look for another explanation of the presence
neoplasms, possibly potentially dangerous.

How to treat a follicular cyst

  • Waiting tactics

Чаще всего при диагностировании фолликулярной cysts, treatment
limited to regular observation and waiting tactics in
for 2-3 cycles, while in the dynamics should be traced
resizing a neoplasm using ultrasound.

  • Homeopathic treatment, herbal medicine, folk remedies

If the cyst is not more than 6 cm, it resolves in 2-3 months, according to
желанию женщины этот процесс обратного развития cysts, можно
supplement treatment with homeopathy, popular methods (see treatment
cysts яичника народными средствами, гомеопатией)

  • Progressive modern physiotherapy

Чтобы стимулировать регрессию такой cysts, врач может направить
patient on physiotherapy – ultraphonophoresis,
magnetotherapy, electromagnetic therapy, SMT-Forez. These modern
progressive physiotherapy allows painless
доставлять  лекарственные средства в ткани гипофиза,
adrenal glands, ovaries, normalizing their metabolic processes.

  • Oxygen therapy

With лечении cysts яичника, рецидивирующей (повторяющейся через
определенное время), персистирующей cysts очень важно restore
harmony of brain activity, help a woman with the formation
right mindset. Such a treatment method as
oxygen therapy, that is, oxygen therapy can be carried out with
modulation of the rhythms of the brain of the patient, which contributes to the normalization of
cerebral cortex processes such as excitation-inhibition, and
also has a general healing effect. Oxygen saturates
the brain, tissues and organs of the patient by 30%, which is equivalent to a walk through
forest for 2 hours.

  • Hormone therapy, vitamin therapy, anti-inflammatory
    treatment

Gynecologists recommend taking oral contraceptives for 2
months, but taking any hormonal drugs should
hold after blood tests for hormones – FSH, LH, progesterone,
estrogen (see harm to oral contraceptives for a woman’s health).
Also, the doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory therapy,
vitamin therapy.

  • Хирургическое treatment (см. подготовка и после лапароскопии
    cysts яичника)

Of course, if the tumor will progress, the diameter
will be more than 8 cm, within 3 months it will not regress, and
также в случаях рецидивирующей cysts врачи будут настаивать на
surgical intervention. Surgical treatment is
в проведении лапароскопии, вылущиванием cysts, резекцией яичника
or with the closure of its walls.

Psychological factor in the treatment

When dubbing such a diagnosis, many women get upset and
Think about how to treat a follicular cyst. In this period, the woman is not
it is necessary to panic, but on the contrary, it is necessary
попытаться успокоиться, привести душевное state в покой.
The catch phrase “all diseases from nerves” in this case has a direct
the confirmation.

As soon as a woman calms down, it is possible to come to terms with some kind of
adverse event in life, insults, internal experiences
subside – leave and this problem. To gain inner peace
the conviction that “Everything is going as it should
to be. “The philosophy of such a saying is that if you are given such
test means you need it now to know something
important and find what you need. Try to find
positive in everything that surrounds you.

In the bustle of everyday life, few of us think about
that everything that happens to us is a consequence of negative thoughts and
empty waste of our energetic power, the nervous system.
Of course, it’s easy to say, but it’s worth trying to change your
attitude to what is happening, less upset about trifles, not
get angry, forgive offense.

You can even just keep saying to yourself simple
phrases – affirmations, positive attitudes. For example, “I’m completely
healthy, my body has recovered, I am full of strength and energy! “You can
come up with other similar phrases for yourself and repeat them somewhat
once a day. It gives amazing results.

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