Flat feet — причины, симптомы у взрослых,types, degrees, treatment and prevention of flatfoot

Flat feet – это такого рода деформация области стопы, при
to which its arches are lowered, as a result of which
the complete loss of their inherent cushioning and spring
functions. Depending on which arch of the foot
flattened produce transverse and longitudinal flatfoot. Also
distinguish congenital and acquired flatfoot. Different
about 45% of all adults suffer from flatfoot forms.
Pathology more often detected in women.

What is flat feet?

Flat feet

Flat feet — это изменение формы стопы, характеризующееся
the omission of its longitudinal and transverse arches. With плоскостопии
quite pronounced or almost completely changed structure
normal arch of the foot as longitudinal (on the inner edge
foot), and transverse – along the base of the fingers. how
complication – spinal pain, arthritis and arthrosis
knee and hip joints.

The foot is a natural shock absorber that protects the body from
shaking when walking and allowing you to keep balance when
movement. With рассмотрении формы стопы выделяют два свода –
longitudinal and transverse.

  1. Продольный свод – это изогнутость стопы по внутренней
    стороне от пятки до сустава большого fingertips. He usually good
    is visible.
  2. Поперечный свод менее заметен. It is an arch
    at the base of the toes (where the metatarsal ends).

With ослаблении мышечно-связочного аппарата нормальная форма
foot is broken. The severity of the arches is lost, the foot settles,
spreads out. Similar pathology is defined as

Flat feetм страдают до 50% населения земли. Women
prone to this disease is 4 times more than men. IN 3%
cases of flatfoot recorded since birth, to 2 years old
in 24% of children, by 4 in 32% of children, by the age of seven in 40% of children
after 11 years, half of adolescents suffer from flatfoot.


Flat feet разделяется на продольное и поперечное. AT
depending on how the foot expands: in width or length. AT
Currently, there are such types of flatfoot: longitudinal,
cross, combined.

On сегодняшний день наиболее распространённой формой деформации
foot is transverse. Different acquired and congenital

Longitudinal плоскостопие

Longitudinal плоскостопие характеризуется уплощением продольного
свода feet. Wherein её длина увеличивается и практически вся
The sole area is in contact with the floor. Withмечательно, что
longitudinal flatfoot is characteristic mainly for women. ATлияет на
its body weight: excess weight increases the load on the foot and
longitudinal flatfoot becomes more pronounced. ATозраст, в
which most often meets longitudinal flat-footedness, – 16–25
years old.

ATыделяют четыре стадии продольного плоскостопия:

  • pre-disease stage (prodromal stage);
  • intermittent flatfoot;
  • flat;
  • flatfoot of the foot.

On стадии предболезни пациента с плоскостопием беспокоит быстрая
fatigue when walking, pain in the upper part of the arch of the foot and muscles
tibia after prolonged static loads.

Transverse плоскостопие

If it is, for example, a transverse arch (and he
deformed in 55.23% of cases), then the five metatarsal bones, on
which relies the entire front of the foot, diverge
like a fan. Wherein стопа укорачивается, наблюдается наружное
thumb deflection and abnormal flexion / contraction
average. how правило, это случается с людьми в возрасте от 35 до
50 years old.

The proportion of transverse flatfoot according to various data is from
55% to 80%. The disease usually develops in middle-aged people.
age (35-50 years). Women страдают поперечным плоскостопием в
20 times more often than men.

By nature, flatfoot distinguish:

  • ATрожденное выявляют с 5-6 лет, потому что у детей более раннего
    age expressed all the signs of this disease.
  • Traumatic forms after bone fractures,
    сопровождающихся нарушением сводов feet.
  • Paralytic flat – a complication of postponed polio,
    Cerebral palsy appears due to paresis, paralysis of the muscles of the foot, as well as
    calf muscles of the leg.
  • Рахитическое наблюдается у детей при рахите из-за
    impaired bone mineralization.
  • Static occurs in adults when doing work,
    associated with prolonged standing on the legs (administrator, surgeon,
    stewardess, entertainer, consultant). Appears because
    несостоятельности связок, мышц feet. Appears also in the elderly
    age due to muscle atrophy, as well as obesity, pregnancy
    из-за увеличения нагрузки на своды feet.

Degree flatfoot

Lack of ligament apparatus. The very first step
disease that is manifested by recurrent pain in the legs in
during the day, with increased loads, at the end of the working day. With
this degree of disease visual changes in the foot is not
are determined. Feet retain their original healthy appearance.
Short unloading of the lower limbs rather quickly
relieves pain.

1 degree

Weakening ligamentous apparatus, the foot does not change shape, pain and
fatigue in the legs occurs after a long walk or in the evening.
After resting pain and discomfort disappear. Gait changes,
becomes less ductile.

2 degree flatfoot

Flattening of the foot is determined by the naked eye, disappear
vaults, foot expanded and spread. The pains become permanent and
more pronounced. The pain spreads throughout the ankle.
joint, the entire leg, up to the knee joint. Gait
difficult, clubfoot appears.

3 degree flat feet

Third degree: characterized by complete deformation. Wherein
diagnosed with dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system with
manifestation of relevant diseases. At this stage of development
diseases felt severe pain, sports loads
are impossible.

The reasons

Among the main reasons provoking the development of flatfoot,
can be denoted as follows:

  • overweight;
  • pregnancy;
  • features of activity that cause excessive physical
  • heredity (flatfoot in the next of kin);
  • wearing poor quality shoes, too narrow or too small
  • weakened ligaments and foot muscles due to lack of
    appropriate loads or age, etc.

In 90% of cases flatfoot is diagnosed in people with ill
developed muscular-ligament apparatus of the feet. To avoid
the occurrence of deformities and never face flat feet
help regular training of the muscles of the foot.

Symptoms of flatfoot in adults

Usually a person who spends a lot of time on his feet does not
notices the development of flatfoot, and the appearance of pain and unpleasant
sensations in the legs and feet associated with fatigue. There are a few
main signs on which you can suspect the development of this
terrible disease in himself.

Early signs of flatfoot:

  • Fatigue of the legs can later lead to a general
    fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Aching pain in the feet
  • The pains in the muscles of the thighs, lower legs, lower back arising during movement,
    and later, when standing, the pain disappears after a night’s sleep
  • Difficulties in choosing shoes
  • Tension in the calf muscles
  • Puffiness
  • The appearance of areas of hardened and thickened skin delivering
    discomfort when walking (natoptish), occur at the base of a large
  • Shoes start to wear much faster than before.
    mostly from the inside.
  • Periodically there is a feeling that the leg has increased in length,
    and because of this, you have to buy shoes a size larger.

In advanced cases, when walking, the area of ​​the sacrum and lower back hurts,
may cause headaches, walking long distances
painful and painful.

Flat feet Symptoms
Longitudinal With longitudinal flatfoot manifestations are as follows:

  • very tired legs,
  • pain when pressing on the middle of the foot or sole,
  • puffiness
  • problem with the selection of shoes, the constant stumbling on
  • pain in the feet and lower back,
  • deformation of the shoe inside, splaying of the heel.
Transverse Symptoms of the disease transverse flatfoot:

  • Pain in the forefoot.
  • The appearance of corns, corns.
  • Deformation of the shape of the toes.


Flat feet, как уже в целом может быть понятно из особенностей
the course and progression of this disease may trigger
a number of specific complications, among them we highlight the following:

  • gradual increase in pain, its nonspecific manifestation (
    there is pain not only in the feet, but in the hips, in the knees, in the back,
  • clubfoot;
  • unnatural posture, curvature of the spine, development
    scoliosis and other diseases of the spine (osteochondrosis, hernia and
  • ingrown nails;
  • dystrophic changes developing in the back muscles and
  • the development of diseases directly related to
    defeat of the feet (deformities, corns, curvature of the fingers, neuritis,
    spurs, etc.).

How to determine flatfoot at home?

There are proven methods for determining flatfoot:

  1. Getting a foot print. Take a white sheet, apply
    on the foot fat cream, put the paper on the floor and stand on it.
    It is important to stand straight and without support. Carefully examine the imprint. On
    the inner side must be recessed;
  2. Изучение стопы по методу Фридлянда, основанном на изучении
    subometric index. To do this, measure the height and length of the foot,
    height divided by the length and multiplied by 100. The norm is
    values ​​from 29 to 31.
  3. Onмазать ступни любым красящим и легко смывающимся веществом, и
    become on any white sheet of paper. Attention! When conducting
    procedures cannot be relied upon. You need to stand only straight. With
    viewing the resulting image to make a conclusion. If the whole area
    foot painted over, then the disease is definitely there. If there is
    notch on the inside of the foot and space between the front
    part and heel, then with no problems.

These methods allow to suspect the presence of pathology. But how
to determine the degree of flatfoot? Just for this should
consult a specialist.


The diagnosis of flatfoot is set on the basis of radiography
stop in 2 projections with a load (standing). Preliminary diagnosis
�”Flatfoot” can be set by an orthopedist based on
physical examination. Determines the correct location
anatomical landmarks of the foot and ankle, volume
movements and angles of deflection of the foot, the reaction of the arches and muscles on
load, gait features, features of shoe wear.

Обратите внимание: у женщин плоскостопие диагностируется
в 4 раза чаще, чем у мужчин. Often pathology develops in
gestation period due to physiological mass increase

The main methods that use orthopedists for staging
The diagnosis is as follows:

  1. X-ray. The main diagnostic method allowing
    determine not only the presence but also the nature and extent
    pathology, is a radiography in two projections.
    X-ray examination is carried out with a load, i.e.
    the patient must stand.
  2. Plantography. Methods for applying to the legs fat cream,
    which can be used at home and has been described
    above. Instead of fatty cream, doctors often use lugol,
    which leaves on paper more accurate and distinct
  3. Podometry. This is a measurement of various parameters of the foot and
    calculating a variety of indices to determine the presence
    deformities and degree of pathology.

Treatment of flatfoot in adults

Flat feet многим кажется простым заболеванием, но на самом
In fact, this is quite a serious and rapidly progressing pathology,
difficult to correct. It can be completely cured only in
childhood, and in adults treatment is aimed at slowing
development of the disease in more severe stage. The earlier detected
flat feet, the more favorable his treatment will be.

In adults, the fight against flatfoot is aimed at:

  • pain relief;
  • improving the tone in the muscles and ligaments of the feet.

Orthopedic Insoles

Good results in the treatment of flatfoot in individuals of any age.
provide orthopedic insoles inductors, individually made
for each foot with all the anatomical features.

These insoles are usually made of plastic, which
plastic when heated, and when the temperature decreases
rigidity.  These insteps can be made for shoes
without a heel or with a heel.

  1. Wearing orthopedic insoles can completely cure
    flat feet in children under seven years old if you start treatment with
    two to three years old. Children need to change often enough
    instep supports according to foot growth.
  2. In adolescents and adults wearing an insole makes walking
    comfortable, slowing or stopping the progression of the disease.
    At first, instep supports may seem awkward to wear, however
    as addictive comes a feeling of comfort.


Exercise is an integral part of treatment and
prevention of flatfoot. They help strengthen the muscles of the foot,
stop the progression of the disease has already begun. For
achieving a stable result takes at least six months. Important
regularity, otherwise there will be no effect.

Onчинать лечение необходимо с гимнастики, которую можно
perform daily at home. Medical gymnastics
used to achieve correction of the arch of the foot, strengthens the muscles,
trains the ligament apparatus, forms the correct type of gait.
There are a large number of exercises that are selected
individually and depend on age, complaints, position of the foot and its

Complex of gymnastic exercises:

  1. Lifting socks. Enough to do 10-12 reps.
    Onчинать упражнение нужно их основной стойки: стопы параллельны
    one another, slightly spaced.
  2. Riding legs with a small elastic ball or a round stick.
    Exercise time – 5 minutes of riding the entire surface
  3. Rotation. You need to sit down, stretch your legs forward, rest your heels
    into the floor, and alternately rotate the feet in different directions. 10 times
    вправо и 10 times влево.
  4. Хождение на разных сторонах feet. 10 steps on the outside,
    then 10 steps on the inside, then 20 steps with a point change
    supports at every step.
  5. Перекаты: стоя с пятки на носок — 10 times.
  6. Flexing and extending the fingers on the legs – 3 minutes.
  7. Holding the feet of a small ball. As an option –
    shifting small objects from place to place holding them

The whole complex takes no more than 20-30 minutes daily. After
exercise is recommended to make a massage.

Walking on uneven surfaces. Exercises выполняются
barefoot, each 8-12 times.

  1. Walking barefoot in the sand (for the sand you can adjust the box
    half a meter to a meter) or foam mat (or with a large
    pile), bending the toes and leaning on the outer edge of the foot;
  2. Walking on a sloping surface with support on the outer edge;
  3. Walking along the log sideways.

It is very important that the patient performs special exercises when
flatfoot every day. Muscles and ligaments of the foot as
prophylaxis must be trained constantly, otherwise they weaken, and in
the result is flatfoot symptoms.

Massage for flat feet

Massage for flat feet предусматривает the use of large
the number of different techniques.
Это поглаживание, разминание, растирание и
other methods. Massaging the foot, you need to move from the fingers
to heel. Massage of the leg involves movement from the ankle.
to the knee joint. Both exercise and massage are great.
тонизируют мышцы и связки feet. Can be used in the treatment process
special foot baths.

The basic massage techniques for flat feet are quite simple:

  • massage the legs from the ankles to the groin need to bottom up
    (stroking, patting, rubbing);
  • to massage the foot and its back side (from the fingers to the ankle)
    need by grinding, that is, in circular movements of the tips
    fingers joined together, or the edge of the palm across
  • arch of the foot can also be massaged “comb”, which
    formed from the joints of the proximal phalanges of four fingers when
    squeezing the brush into a fist (in other words, “knuckles”);
  • heels (alternately), as well as the toes of the feet from the foot
    more comfortable rubbing, bending the leg at the knee, four connected
    fingers of both hands (thumbs on the rise).

Doing exercises for the treatment of flatfoot should be no less
20 minutes and, if possible, twice a day.

Healing baths with the help of folk remedies

It has been found that water
procedures. After тяжелого трудового дня, особенно если он
implies a long stay on the legs, it is recommended to give
feet to relax, placing them in a warm bath.

  1. On основе дубовой коры. On пол-литра кипятка нужно добавить 100
    d dry matter, put on the fire for half an hour, strain and
    Pour into a bowl of warm water.
  2. Salt baths. You can use iodized, and better marine
    salt. One dessert spoon is dissolved in a liter of warm water, dipped
    in a container with a solution of the leg for ten minutes. Then they need to dry
    wipe and massage with your hands, pre-lubricated
    moisturizer. Such procedures improve blood circulation,
    strengthen bones and perfectly relax.
  3. Bath with a decoction of sage, chamomile or pine needles. One glass
    dried plants pour hot water and boil for 15-20 minutes,
    insist to cool. Dilute ½ with hot water and
    hold his legs about half an hour.

Prevention of flatfoot

Prevent illness by following these rules:

  1. Нужно побольше ходить босиком. With возможности
    should go on nature, and take a few minutes to walk
    barefoot on grass, ground, pebbles, conifer needles.
  2. Wearing the right shoes. This has to do with
    prevention of disorders in children. For них необходимо покупать
    shoes that tightly hold the leg, which does not fly off and not
  3. Необходимо выполнять упражнения от плоскостопия.
    By highlighting a few minutes a day, development can be prevented.
    violations. As a charge, you can use a massage mat.
    Also for the foot massage is necessary.
  4. Нужно следить за осанкой и правильным положением
    стоп при ходьбе, а так же при стоянии. Feet must be
    are located almost parallel to each other and rely on outdoor
    edge of the sole.
  5. Good prevention are home baths with
    anti-inflammatory drugs (chamomile, sage, St. John’s wort). They
    help relieve fatigue from walking after walking, as well as eliminate
    inflammation and swelling. Such trays before massage help
    prepare the skin for relaxation.
  6. Foot massage improves the blood supply to the foot. Wherein
    stimulated reflex points, which are on the sole
    about 90 pieces. General massage for the prevention of flat foot
    assigned to children to enhance the protection of the body.

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