- Child development
- Tips & Tricks
- Analyzes and ultrasound
Fifteenth week of pregnancy – the end of the fourth month, then there is a second trimester that is “golden” for every future Mom, already in full swing. All the ailments associated with toxicosis, left behind, and the fetus is actively growing, developing and more and more resembles an ordinary baby.
What changes are characteristic for the body of a woman and a baby in this period and what can expect a pregnant woman at this time?
In the fifteenth week the growth of the future the baby is about 10 cm, and weight – 70 g, he makes in uterus floating movements, constantly bending, turning, bends and extends the limbs, thus training the muscles and joints. He performs exercises that are similar to inhaling and exhaling, that is, it swallows and spits amniotic fluid, which promotes the formation of lung tissue and prepares the child for his the first breath outside the maternal womb.
The vocal cords and taste buds are already formed, therefore the fetus can respond to foods the mother consumes. Ear shells are already able to pick up some sounds, and eyes (even though they have been closed for centuries) – respond to light that breaks through the walls of the uterus and abdomen.
It is during this period that one of the most important organs – the cerebral cortex. The hemispheres are covered with convolutions, nerve cells divide, the central nerve begins to develop a system that will subsequently control the whole organism.
The main organs of the fetus are already practically formed and actively function: the heart distills the blood (in composition it does not different from the blood of an adult and already “has” a group and rhesus), the gall bladder produces the first bile, and the kidneys – urine. The child regularly empties the bladder, however, amniotic fluid waters remain sterile, as they are updated at least 8-10 times per day.
At this time, the glands of the internal secretion, pituitary gland. His cells synthesize hormones, regulatory processes of metabolism and growth. Start to work sebaceous and sweat glands, and in boys it begins to be produced testosterone, the main male sex hormone (in babies, the process the production of sex hormones starts a little later).
The end of the fourth month of pregnancy is characterized intensive growth and formation of the skeleton of the baby. Skin becomes stronger, but through it capillaries and blood vessels still shine through vessels, therefore its color is closer to red than to pink. Hair the cover becomes stiffer and thicker, especially on the eyebrows and head, and hair follicles begin to produce an enzyme that will determine the hair color of the baby in the future.
At the fifteenth week, the expectant mother is already does not experience nausea or other ailments that could to pursue her in the first trimester, and frequent urination too remain behind – the uterus grows, moves into the abdominal cavity and the bladder is relieved of pressure.
But without unpleasant phenomena and sensations, this period is still not manages, and one of them is constipation. Unlike urinary of the bladder, the intestine remains in a pinched position, which is why there are some problems with the stool.
Another common problem of the fifteenth week is pains in the lower abdomen, which can be of a different nature. Usually they are associated with the continuous growth of the uterus, as a result of which it the muscles are tight.
If the sensations are not strong, then the pregnant woman has nothing to worry about, since what is happening in her body is absolutely normal. But in cases when the pain begins to give in the lower back or is accompanied with a fever, you should immediately contact a gynecologist – data symptoms may indicate a miscarriage or infection the kidneys.
Pain syndrome is often manifested in the coccyx. Their causes may be different – uterine pressure on the pelvic organs, their displacement or infringement of nerves.
In this case, the woman is not recommended to sit for a long time, but in order to reduce discomfort, you can take the so-called posture cats, that is, to lower to the elbows and knees, lifting the pelvis up.
Some expectant mothers may experience suffocation. (especially at night), headaches, nasal congestion, or nosebleeds. They are also normal. phenomena associated with changes in the body, therefore getting rid of them with medication is not worth it – it’s better how You can relax more and be more often in the fresh air.
As for appearance, then at the fifteenth week in women often intensifies skin pigmentation: appear on the face freckles, in the middle of the abdomen – a dark strip, and the nipples become dark brown.
But on such problems as hair loss, crumbling teeth and brittle nails, you should pay attention – they mean that baby lacks nutrients, so he begins to scoop them from the mother’s body.
During this period, the stomach continues to grow and the “interesting position” women are already usually noticeable to others.
At the end of the fourth month of the future mother should abandon tight, tight clothes and visit a specialty store to get a pair of free and comfortable things.
If a woman has a tendency to stretch, it’s time start using special creams for them warnings.
Tips & Tricks
The fifteenth week is the period when Of particular importance is the nutrition of a pregnant woman. Both mother and baby a sufficient amount of calcium is needed, therefore, in the diet Surely there should be fermented milk products and cottage cheese.
It is proper nutrition that helps to avoid the most unpleasant physiological problems of the second trimester – constipation. For this should eat different cereals, whole grain bread, fresh vegetables and fruits.
You also need to include vegetable fats in the menu, in which contains placenta-fortifying vitamin E and protein for pregnant women doctors recommend consuming at least 200 g of protein a day (as meat or fish). Finally, to avoid swelling you need to drink more liquids – at least two liters daily.
In the autumn-winter period, it is recommended to use cranberry juice and rosehip tincture – they contain a lot of vitamin C, that is are excellent prevention of colds.
If the expectant mother did not have time to solve problems with teeth before conception, in the fourth month you can tackle this problem. Toxicosis is no longer will be an obstacle to treatment, anesthesia is not harmful to the fetus, but carious teeth are just sources of infection, which may carry the risk of infection of the fetus.
At this time, a rapidly increasing belly forces a woman look for a new, more comfortable sleeping position. Gynecologists recommend pregnant women sleep on their left side, stretching out their lower leg and upper bend and lean on it in front – this is the position that provides freedom for the inferior vena cava.
As for the psychological state, then on the fifteenth week it can be different – some women become distracted and forgetful, while others experience a surge of energy and forces. Do not forget about small physical exertion, as well as about sleep and rest.
At the fifteenth week, as at the previous one, a pregnant woman can spotting spotting appears – usually they are noted after sexual intercourse. In this case, sex is better refuse and carefully monitor your well-being and condition.
If the discharge is accompanied by pain in the abdomen and lower back or full bleeding opens, immediately see a doctor – such symptoms indicate a threat of miscarriage.
Also, some expectant mothers have brown discharge, pink or cream color. They usually do not represent any dangers and appear due to elevated levels of estrogen in the blood or in women with uterine erosion. If the discharge is curdled, an unpleasant odor or yellowish green, they are also a serious reason consult a specialist as they can talk about vaginal candidiasis or urinary tract infections.
Analyzes and ultrasound
With a normal pregnancy, any special tests are not prescribed, but it is at this time that women It is recommended to pass the triple test (this must be done before the 20th weeks). It involves the study of three markers (AFP, hCG and estriol), which are able to detect malformations and genetic pathology of the fetus.
If appropriate, women are advised to analyze the amniotic fluid (amniocentesis), since at this time It is the safest for the baby.
Many expectant mothers are looking forward to the fifteenth week for having an ultrasound scan – at this point differentiation of the genitals is already ending, so the doctor can tell a woman the gender of her unborn baby.