Eye keratitis – symptoms and treatment, photo, causesdiseases in adults and children

Кератиты – группа воспалительных поражений роговицы —
front transparent shell of the eye, having a different etiology,
causing corneal clouding and reduced vision. Often process
accompanied by reddening of the eyeball due to expansion
vascular mesh of the pimply area. In cases where
the patient is late to see a doctor, a purulent ulcer may develop
cornea, the outcome of which will be the death of the eye as an organ. Other
the outcome may be the formation of a cornea wallet, which will lead to
low visual acuity.

Keratitis: what is it?

Кератит глаза

Keratitis is an inflammation of the cornea of ​​the eye, resulting from
injury, infection or allergies, manifested by its clouding and
decreased visual acuity. Keratitis is localized in the anterior
part of the eye, but rather in his cornea. Often is
due to previous eye inflammations
(конъюнктивита, блефарита и других).

Infiltration – accumulation is the basis of inflammatory opacities.
in the corneal tissue of cellular elements such as leukocytes, lymphocytes,
histiocytes, plasma and other cells that arrived here in
mainly from the edge looped net.  If the disease
осложняется гнойной инфекцией, то при развитии инфильтрата
возникает некроз ткани роговицы и проявляются
ulceration After the ulcer heals, the scar tissue forms, and
впоследствии проявляется лейкома.

Allocate:

By depth of destruction:

  • Superficial – affects the upper stromal layer;
  • Deep – affects the entire stromal layer.

According to the location of the infiltrate:

  • Central – in the area of ​​the pupil. The central infiltrate
    is located, the more the vision suffers as in the period of the disease, so
    and after treatment;
  • Paracentral – in the projection of the iris;
  • Peripheral – in the zone of the limbus, in the ciliary belt of the iris.

According to etiology:

  • Exogenous – corneal erosion, traumatic, bacterial,
    viral, fungal infection, damage to the eyelids, meibomian glands and
    conjunctiva;
  • Endogenous – defeat tuberculosis, malaria, syphilis,
    brucellosis;
  • Allergic;
  • Neurogenic;
  • Infectious;
  • Herpetic;
  • Bacterial;
  • Fungal;
  • Avitaminosis;
  • Viral;
  • Hypovitaminosis.

Each form of keratitis has its own characteristics, manifestation
which depends on the general condition of the patient, his age and
nature of the pathogen.

The reasons

The largest number of cases of keratitis is associated with viral
etiology. In 70% of cases, pathogens act
вирусы простого герпеса и герпеса Зостера (опоясывающего
herpes).

For exogenous (action from the outside) reasons include:

  • mechanical damage;
  • chemical exposure;
  • thermal effects;
  • infections (tuberculosis, syphilitic keratitis);
  • fungal lesions;
  • bacteria (staphylococcus, pyocyanic stick);
  • contact lenses;
  • photokeratites (found in professional welders).

Endogenous (action from the inside) include corneal diseases,
arising from:

  • Severe infectious lesion (inside);
  • Launching a reaction to the neuropartial effects;
  • Нехватки в организме важных витаминов.

In modern ophthalmology, keratitis responds well to treatment.
without any complications. In severe cases may remain
corneal opacities, and as a result, reduced vision.

Keratitis symptoms (photo of eyes)

For keratitis of any etiology is characterized by a common symptom, the so-called.
corneal syndrome, which includes three main
symptom:

  • Photophobia (photophobia) – in bright light, the patient feels
    pain, inability to open eyes, blinks and blinks often
    eyes.
  • Tearing – excessive discharge of tear fluid.
  • Blepharospasm – reflex contraction of circular muscles, closure
    eye.

All this is due to the fact that during keratitis as a result
infiltration occurs sensitive sensory irritation
nerve endings of the cornea, as well as its transparency and
shine, the cornea becomes cloudy and loses its sphericity.

In the early stages, one of the first symptoms is the feeling of being in
foreign body eye, enhanced corneal vascularization. At the part
patients can be traced blepharospasm. Pathological closing of the eyelids
promotes enhanced stimulation of the trigeminal nerve due to
peripheral receptor irritation. Inflammation of the nerves
leads to a “facial clinic.” During external examination visualized
asymmetry of the corners of the mouth, jerking of single muscles,
speech difficulty.

The most significant symptom of keratitis is a violation
transparency of the cornea. This phenomenon is a direct consequence of the appearance
infiltration and swelling of cellular elements. Noticeable appear
changes and in the state of the epithelium of the cornea: its brilliance
disappears, and a roughness occurs. In some cases
detachment and desquamation of the epithelium occurs. As a result, on the surface
erosion is manifested.

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Depending on how deep the tissue has spread
pathological process, infiltrates may be superficial or
deep.

  1. Superficial infiltrates often pass by themselves without
    any treatment and leave behind a slight turbidity.
  2. At the same time deep infiltrates often pass only after
    long treatment with “heavy” drugs and often left after
    self cicatricial changes that adversely affect visual
    human functions.

Keratitis in children

The cause provoking keratitis in children is penetrating into
cornea infection. However, it can get there in several
in ways – hence the classification of the disease. Besides,
provoke the occurrence of this disease, and especially keratitis in
children, can adenoviruses, and also such infectious diseases as:
chicken pox or measles.

Иногда родители тревожатся, заразен или нет кератит,
since there may be more children in the family, and is it necessary to isolate them from
sick kid. Yes, it is transmitted contact. Many symptoms
keratitis is similar to manifestations of allergic conjunctivitis. Even
doctors require multistage and thorough diagnosis to
Dilute these two diseases.

The first signs of the disease will be:

  • pain in the eyes; fear of light;
  • profuse lacrimation;
  • blurred vision;
  • involuntary contraction of the circular muscle of the eye, which
    leads to pathological closure of the eyelids;
  • itching and burning in the eye.

Treatment of a child with keratitis begins with washing.
tear duct swabbing to determine the causative agent
and its sensitivity to antibiotics. Hold local and general
therapy. Local therapy is based on such methods as
installations and subconjunctival injections. General therapy
is intravenous, oral and intramuscular
medicines.

Possible complications

Like any untimely cured disease, keratitis can
cause complications. This is possible when
inflammation passes from the cornea to its other membranes. it
can pull along such unpleasant diseases as:

  • reduced quality of vision due to corneal clouding, education
    cataract and adhesions in the pupil area;
  • endophthalmitis (suppuration of the inner membranes of the ocular
    apples);
  • вторичная глаукома;
  • panophthalmitis (inflammation of the tissues of the eyeball to form
    abscesses));
  • cellulitis of the orbit;
  • irritation of the anterior part of the vascular eye membranes;
  • herpetic keratoiridocyclitis;
  • perforation of the cornea;
  • blood sepsis;
  • thrombosis of the cavernous sinus;
  • iridocyclitis.

Diagnostics

In the diagnosis of keratitis, its relationship with
general diseases, viral and bacterial diseases
infections, inflammation of other structures of the eye, eye microtraumas
etc. During external examination
глаза офтальмолог ориентируется на выраженность
corneal syndrome and local changes.

The doctor performs the following diagnostic methods:

  • external examination
  • visual acuity check
  • eyelid reversal is required to exclude a foreign body,
  • biomicroscopy (examining the eye with a microscope),
  • fluorescein cornea staining (for better visualization of
    corneal damage),
  • analgesimetry (determination of pain sensitivity).

Eye keratitis treatment

Treatment should be carried out under the supervision of an ophthalmologist.
Specialized hospital for 2-4 weeks. Are common
principles of keratitis pharmacotherapy include local and systemic
etiotropic therapy with the use of antibacterial,
противовирусных, противогрибковых и др. medicines.

General treatment for all keratitis:

  • detoxification therapy (reosorbilact 200.0 intravenously
    drip)
  • parenterally administered antibiotics, antiviral and
    antifungal drugs depending on the type and
    sensitivity,
  • desensitization therapy (10% calcium gluconate is added to
    drip),
  • In parallel, the patient must undergo a course of reception
    vitamin complex. Especially important in this case
    назначение витаминов В1 В2, В6, С,
    PP. Назначают поливитамины по 1 таблетке 1-2 раза в
    day.

An important role is played by the use of drugs that expand the pupil, for
предупреждения формирования спаек внутри eyes. According to testimony
glucocorticosteroid drugs are prescribed – dexamethasone or
betamethasone.

Groups of drugs that are used:

  1. antibacterial agents. Appointed with purulent type
    inflammation. When keratitis use drops “Levomitsetin”, “Tobreks”,
    �Floksal, Tsipromed. Severe forms of the disease may require
    administering antibiotics under the conjunctiva or into the muscle;
  2. antiviral drugs: solution idooxoridine, Zovirax,
    �Zirgan, Interferon, Florenal, drops Oftalmoferon. Are used
    with herpetic and adenoviral inflammation;
  3. local anesthetic “diphthal”. Helps to remove the corneal
    syndrome, provide pain relief to the eye;
  4. mydriatic (Atropine, Cyclomed, Tropicamide). it препараты,
    dilating the pupil. They are necessary with concomitant iridocyclitis
    for the prevention of adhesions between the pupil and the iris;
  5. corticosteroid drugs (Dexamethasone, Hydrocortisone)
    used to reduce inflammation and swelling;
  6. healing agents (Korneregel, Actovegin). Promotes
    regenerative processes after injuries and erosions;

Additionally, keratoprotective, epithelializing
medicines. In severe cases, performed injections
антибиотиков под слизистую eyes.

Eye keratitis treatment проводится исключительно под контролем
ophthalmologist in a specialized hospital in
for several weeks. In this case, the general approach to treatment includes
in itself eliminating the causes of local and systemic nature, and
the use of antibacterial, antiviral and other drugs.

Prevention

Do not forget that the best treatment is prevention.
Therefore, in the case of keratitis it is very important to avoid traumatic
eye damage, especially if professional activity is related
with similar risks. Secondly, it is important not to run even simple ones.
первый взгляд, заболевания eye.

Observe the following guidelines:

  • follow hygiene,
  • правильно ухаживать за контактными линзами, если они
    there is,
  • protect eyes from the influence of harmful effects and contact
    foreign bodies
  • treat any eye diseases that occur,
  • try to prevent diseases that may
    provoke keratitis;
  • follow a diet with plenty of proteins, microelements,
    vitamins and limiting the amount of fat and carbohydrates.

To prevent the manifestation of this disease, it is important not to allow
eye injuries, on time
лечить конъюнктивит, блефарит, дакриоцистит, а также
common diseases that predispose to the development of keratitis.

It is especially important to engage in the prevention of those who are already ill
this disease, because it reduces the risk
development of recurrent keratitis.

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