Eosinophils in the blood are increased, what is the norm,reasons for increasing the result of analysis in children, adults

Update: October 2018

Among the many blood cells there is a population of white blood cells,
called eosinophils, which are markers
determining:

  • allergy
  • infectious
  • parasitic aggressions
  • tissue damage by inflammation
  • or a tumor.

Its name cells received due to the ability to excellent
absorb eosin dye used in laboratory diagnostics.
Under a microscope, cells look like small amoebas with a double core,
that are able to move beyond the vascular wall, penetrate
in tissue and accumulate in inflammatory foci or locations
tissue damage. In the blood, eosinophils swim for about an hour, after
which are transported to the fabric.

The main properties of eosinophils:

  • Increased sensitivity of receptors to class immunoglobulins
    E. Due to this, antiparasitic immunity is activated, and
    there is a destruction of the membranes of the cells surrounding the parasite. Capsule
    from membrane fragments it becomes a beacon for cells that
    inactivate or devour the parasite.
  • Accumulation and stimulation of the release of mediators
    inflammation.
  • Absorption and binding of inflammatory mediators, above all,
    histamine
  • The ability to absorb small particles, enveloping them with their
    wall and pulling them into yourself. For this, eosinophils are called
    microphages.

The rate of eosinophils in the blood 1 – 5

For adults, normal eosinophil content in the clinical
blood count is from 1 to 5% of the total number of leukocytes.
Eosinophils are determined by flow cytometry with
use of a semiconductor laser, while the norm in women
the same as men. Rarer units – number
cells in 1 ml of blood. Eosinophil should be from 120 to 350 in
milliliter of blood.

The number of these cells can fluctuate during the day against the background
changes in the work of the adrenal glands.

  • In the morning evening hours, eosinophils are 15% more compared to
    with the norm
  • In the first half of the night at 30% more.

For a more reliable analysis result you should:

  • To take a blood test in the early morning hours on an empty stomach.
  • Two days should refrain from alcohol and excessive
    eating sweets.
  • Also, eosinophils may increase during menstruation.
    women. Since the moment of ovulation, until the end of the cycle, their number drops.
    This phenomenon is based on the eosinophilic test of the ovaries and
    determine the day of ovulation. Estrogens increase maturation
    eosinophils, progesterone – reduces.

Eosinophils: normal in children

As a child grows, the number of eosinophils in his blood fluctuates
slightly, as can be seen from the table.

Age Eosinophils in%
First 2 weeks 1-6
15 days – year 1-5
1.5-2 years 1-7
2 years-5 years 1-6
older than 5 years 1-5

Eosinophils above normal, what does it mean

A significant increase in the number of eosinophils is considered a condition
when the cells are over 700 per milliliter (7 per 10 to 9 grams per liter).
Increased eosinophil content is the name
eosinophilia.

  • Growth up to 10% – mild
  • From 10 to 15% – moderate
  • Over 15% (more than 1500 cells per milliliter) – pronounced or
    severe eosinophilia. There may be changes in
    internal organs due to cellular and tissue oxygen
    fasting

Sometimes when counting cells, errors occur. Eosin
not only eosinophilic granulocytes are stained, but also
granularity in neutrophils, then neutrophils are lowered, and eosinophils
enhanced without good reason. In this case, you will need
control blood test.

Leading to eosinophilia

When eosinophils are elevated in the blood, the reasons lie in
allergic readiness of the body. This happens when:

  • acute allergic conditions (angioedema, urticaria,
    hay fever)
  • allergies to drugs, serum sickness
  • allergic rhinitis
  • skin allergies (contact dermatitis, eczema, atopic
    dermatitis, vulgar pemphigus)
  • helminthiasis (see signs of worms in humans)
  • parasitic diseases (toxoplasmosis, chlamydia,
    amebiasis)
  • acute infections and exacerbations of chronic (tuberculosis,
    gonorrhea, infectious mononucleosis)
  • systemic pathologies (systemic lupus erythematosus, eosinophilic
    fasciitis, rheumatoid arthritis, periarteritis nodosa)
  • lung pathology: bronchial asthma, fibrosing alveolitis,
    sarcoidosis, eosinophilic pleurisy, histiocytosis, diseases
    Leflera
  • lesions of the gastrointestinal tract: eosinophilic gastritis,
    eosinophilic colitis
  • blood tumors (lymphogranulomatosis, lymphomas)
  • malignant neoplasms.

If eosinophils are elevated in the assay, the adult is going to:

  • blood test for biochemistry
  • feces on worms eggs
  • abdominal ultrasound is performed

Further consultation of the allergist is appointed:

  • При allergic rhinitis берутся мазки из носа и зева на
    eosinophils.
  • If bronchial asthma is suspected, spirometry is performed and
    provocative tests (cold, with berotok).
  • The allergist further conducts a specific diagnosis.
    (determination of allergens by standard serums), specifies
    diagnosis and prescribe treatment (antihistamines, hormonal drugs,
    serum).

From worm infestation, parasitic diseases and acute infections
treats infectious diseases. Pulmonologist will deal with pulmonary problems.

Eosinophils are elevated in a child

The most frequent causes of elevated eosinophils in children
become:

In newborns and babies of the first months of life: From six months to three years: Older than three:
  • hemolytic disease
  • rhesus conflict
  • pemphigus newborn
  • staphylococcal enterocolitis
  • staphylococcal sepsis
  • atopic dermatitis
  • serum sickness
  • eosinophilic colitis
  • atopic dermatitis
  • drug allergies
  • Quincke’s edema
  • helminthic invasions (see pinworms in children)
  • skin allergies
  • allergic rhinitis
  • bronchial asthma
  • oncohematology
  • scarlet fever
  • chickenpox

Eosinophils below normal

If the absolute number of eosinophils per milliliter of blood falls below
200, the condition is interpreted as eosinopenia.

Low eosinophil counts become in the following
cases:

  • In severe purulent infections, including sepsis, when
    the leukocyte population is shifting towards the young forms (band
    and segmented), and then the leukocyte response is exhausted.
  • At the beginning of inflammatory processes, with surgical pathologies
    (appendicitis, pancreatitis, exacerbation of gallstone disease).
  • On the first day of myocardial infarction.
  • In infectious, painful shock, when blood cells are formed
    stick together in a tin-like formation inside the vessels.
  • When heavy metal poisoning (lead, copper, mercury,
    arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, thallium).
  • With chronic stress.
  • Against the background of pathologies of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands.
  • In the advanced stage of leukemia, eosinophils drop to zero.

Combined enhancement of eosinophils

  • Lymphocytes and eosinophils are elevated in viral infections in
    allergy sufferers in patients with allergic or helminthic infections.
    The same picture will be in the blood of those who are treated with antibiotics or
    sulfonamides. In children, these cells rise with scarlet fever,
    presence of Epstein-Barr virus. For differential diagnosis
    additionally it is recommended to donate blood to the level of immunoglobulins
    Е, на антитела к вирусу Эпштейна-Барра и feces on worms eggs.
  • Monocytes and eosinophils increase in infectious processes.
    The most typical case in children and adults is mononucleosis. Similar
    the picture can be with viral and fungal diseases,
    rickettsiosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis.

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