Enterocolitis: symptoms, treatment,diagnostics

Update: October 2018

Enterocolitis is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane
small and large intestine in response to infectious or chemical
stimulus. Characteristic signs, symptoms of enterocolitis
are digestive disorders in the affected intestine that,
along with common manifestations of intoxication, leads to frequent
diarrhea and dehydration. In this article we will take a closer look.
symptoms and treatment of enterocolitis.

Depending on the cause of development, enterocolitis is divided into:

  • Bacterial – inflammation of the intestinal mucosa in response to
    introduction of pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella, etc.
  • Parasitic – inflammation as a result of helminthic invasion,
    amebiasis, pinworms in adults, roundworm: symptoms, treatment, symptoms
    worms in humans.
  • Toxic – irritation of the mucous membrane as a result
    damaging effects of chemicals, toxins, medicinal
    means.
  • Mechanical – damage to the mucous membrane of large amounts of feces
    masses due to constipation.
  • Alimentary – arising in case of insufficient admission with
    nutritional nutrients necessary for normal
    the functioning of mucosal cells.
  • Secondary – arising in the form of complications or concomitant
    pathology on the background of the underlying disease.

By the nature of the flow, acute and chronic enterocolitis are distinguished.
In acute cases, inflammatory changes affect only
surface layer of the intestinal mucosa epithelium.
Lack or inadequate treatment in the acute period
leads to a long course of intestinal inflammation in the form of
chronic enterocolitis. In this case, there is a lingering
current with periodic exacerbations, replaced by long
remission

With chronic enterocolitis in the pathological process gradually
all layers of the mucous membrane are involved, leading to the development of severe
digestive disorders, difficult to treat.

Symptoms of enterocolitis

The most common in medical practice is acute.
enterocolitis, the symptoms of which appear as:

  • внезапного появления интенсивной Энтероколит: симптомы, лечение боли в животе,
    mainly in the lower sections
  • swelling (causes of flatulence)
  • frequent urge to defecate
  • frequent stool with enterocolitis
  • mechanical as well as some infectious forms of enterocolitis
    characterized by the appearance of bloody impurities and mucus in the feces

Intestinal manifestations of enterocolitis are accompanied by a common
symptoms of inflammation:

  • fever
  • lethargy
  • headache
  • aching joints

More severe disorders of the digestive system
characterized by chronic enterocolitis, the symptoms of which are similar to
acute form, but have a number of features that aggravate the course
diseases.

Chronic enterocolitis is accompanied by pain.
sensations localized in the navel, during exacerbation
radiating to other parts of the abdomen. Pain becomes more intense
by the evening, and after exercise and after meals.
Some discomfort is felt during bowel movements. Gradually
there is an increase in muscle weakness, deterioration of concentration
attention. The prolonged course of the disease leads to a significant
weight loss and depletion of the body.

Digestive disorders in chronic enterocolitis occur
frequent changes of diarrhea and constipation with increased gas generation and
strong bloating.

Diagnostics

Diagnostics энтероколита основана на проведении ряда
instrumental and biochemical analyzes to assess
the degree of damage to the intestinal mucosa and assign timely
treatment.

The most informative way to diagnose enterocolitis with
colon lesion is considered colonoscopy (preparation).
Since this procedure is quite painful and causes
patient discomfort, scientists have developed a modern way
обследования —  капсульную эндоскопию, которая позволяет
diagnose bowel disease without causing discomfort,
since the patient only needs to swallow the capsule. However by
PillCam technology is still inferior to image quality
colonoscopy.

Intestinal sensing allows you to determine the composition of the intestinal
juice in different parts of the intestines. During the study material
obtained using the probe, its consistency is checked,
determines the presence of dead epithelium of the mucous membrane, as well as
enzymatic activity and quantitative composition of undigested
substances.

Today, the most informative is the study with
using a biopsy probe that allows you to take samples not only
the contents of the intestines, but also produce a histological sampling
material from the intestinal wall to identify structural changes in
mucosal cells.

Evaluation of a violation of the intestinal absorption function is carried out with
using a special functional test with calcium chloride, 10
ml of a 10 percent solution of calcium chloride is injected through a probe into
intestine, then for 4 hours at regular intervals
time measure the level of this substance in the blood. The method
allows to establish the presence of chronic intestinal enterocolitis by
lack of absorption of calcium salts.

Another breakdown on the degree of impaired absorption
is a test with iodine. With the introduction of iodine through a probe in
the duodenum is its rapid absorption into the blood
with subsequent accumulation in the thyroid gland. Iodine appears in
patient’s urine and saliva within 10 minutes after admission
intestines. With enterocolitis this time is doubled.

X-ray examination with enterocolitis is not enough
informative, as the contrast substance – barium – quickly
проходит через тонкий intestines. Characteristic changes
X-ray pictures with enteritis are: dilatation of a thin lumen
intestinal and thickening of the folds of the mucous.

Treatment of enterocolitis

If there are symptoms of enterocolitis, before treatment is necessary
determine the cause of its occurrence and eliminate it. Etiotropic
treatment is aimed at eliminating the causative factors:

  • Rationalization of power
  • Compliance with the dosing regimen and the course of medication
    funds
  • Treatment of enterocolitis в условиях специализированного стационара
    or under the supervision of a gastroenterologist
  • Treatment of the underlying disease and prevention of complications

In the event of a sudden deterioration of health and
confirming the diagnosis of acute enterocolitis, treatment should be
aimed at relieving symptoms and fighting infectious
complications.

Для борьбы с инфекцией назначают антибактериальные fundsа.
The most effective treatment planning is based on
Analysis of the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics. But due to
the duration of this analysis at the initial stage of treatment
shows the use of antibacterial drugs wide
spectrum of action, as well as antiseptics (furazolidone, enteroseptol and
others).

In order to normalize the process of digestion, enzymes are used.
festal, splashing, pancreatin, etc. Along with the antibacterial
treatment is prescribed to take probiotics to maintain
the physiological composition of the normal intestinal microflora (Linex,
Bifidumbacterin, etc., see the list of probiotics, analogues
linex).

Nutrition, diet with enterocolitis

A special place for enterocolitis is diet. To the sick
acute enterocolitis is prohibited to use:

  • Sweet dishes
  • Whole milk
  • Cabbage
  • Black bread
  • Fried meat
  • Vegetables and fruits rich in fiber
  • Fermented milk products

Prognosis of the disease

Uncomplicated chronic enterocolitis, as well as on time
diagnosed and treated acute forms do not represent
health hazards to patients and end in recovery
for a short time.

Frequent uncontrolled exacerbations of chronic enterocolitis
lead to the development of severe protein deficiency and impaired
electrolyte composition of blood. Such states are characterized by
progressive exhaustion with malnutrition of internal organs.
This can lead to the development of inflammatory complications.
diseases of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract and severe
disorders of the central nervous system organs.

Автор: Коробов Никита Александрович врач-анестезиолог

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