Обновление: Октябрь 20one8
Electric shock means damage to organs and systems.
вследствие поражения электрическим токоm Main causes of death
with electric shock, this is respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest. After
a strong electric shock, if a person survives, development is possible
complications of the cardiovascular, central nervous
systems, impaired vision, hearing, etc.
Most often accidents occur when:
- not knowing or not following the safety instructions
- faulty household appliances in households, electrical equipment on
- broken wires of high voltage lines
WITHтепень поражения организма человека зависит от способа
the passage of current through the body, on the strength and voltage, time
impact, health, age, and timeliness
first aid to the victim.
Types of Electricity
- electric shock (shock) – effects on the entire body, it does not
causes burns, and leads to paralysis of breathing and / or heart
- electrical injury – damage to the outer parts of the body:
electrical signs, burns, skin metallization.
The impact of electric currents on the body
- Heat – due to resistance of body tissues
electrical energy goes into heat, causing electrical
burns in characteristic places of entry and exit of current, which are called
current signs. With прохождении через ткани тепловая энергия изменяет и
- Electrochemical – leads to cell thickening and gluing
blood, the movement of ions and changes in the charge of protein molecules,
vapor and gas generation. Affected tissues acquire cellular
- Biological – disrupted the skeletal muscles of the heart,
нервной и других систеm
WITHимптомы electric shock
- Unexpected man fall on the street or unnatural
dropping an unseen power from the current source
- Loss of consciousness, convulsions
- Pronounced muscle contractions of an involuntary nature
- Loss of neurological functions – memory loss, impairment
understanding of speech and vision, violation of orientation in space,
change in skin sensitivity, the reaction of the pupil to light.
- Ventricular fibrillation and respiratory arrest – irregular pulse and
- Burns on the body with sharply defined borders /
These are the areas of necrosis of the outer tissues at the entry and exit points.
current flow due to the transfer of energy from electrical to
heat Electric burns are rarely limited to marks on the skin,
deeper tissues are more often damaged: muscles, tendons, bones.
There are options when the defeat is localized under the outside
- The shape is oval, rounded or linear. Along the edges of the affected
skin can form a roller-like elevation, and the middle
The label looks a bit hollow. Probably the detachment of the upper layer in
the form of bubbles, inside which there is no liquid.
- Color – most often pale, pale gray is lighter than the surrounding
- Sensitivity – pain in the places of the marks is absent due to
lesions of nerve endings.
- Withзнаки — отложения частичек металла на коже: при поражении
low voltage currents on the surface of the skin, high – inside
skin. Color depends on the metal in the conductor: copper – particles
blue and yellow, iron brown. Hair rods twist in
spirals, keeping the structure.
Afterдствия удара током
- loss of consciousness of varying degrees and durations;
- memory loss (retrograde amnesia);
- weakness and weakness;
- dizziness and headache;
- violation of thermoregulation;
- flickering in the eyes, blurred vision.
With поражении нервов изменяется чувствительность и двигательная
activity in the limbs, trophic disturbance,
pathological reflexes. The passage of current through the brain leads to
convulsions and loss of consciousness, in some cases, respiratory failure
center leads to cessation of breathing.
High current leads to deep disturbances.
деятельности ЦНWITH, торможению центра дыхания и регуляции сердечной
activities that lead to electric lethargy, imaginary death,
when it seems that breathing and heartbeat are missing, but in fact
business vital systems are reduced to a minimum.
Timely initiated resuscitation leads to successful
восстановлению работы систеm
In most cases, there are failures in cardiac activity.
- sinus arrhythmia;
- heart block.
Electrocution of the heart muscle may result in impairment.
contractile function, leading to fibrillation when fibers
myocardium begin to shrink in a scattered rhythm, and the heart does not
can pump blood, which in severity is tantamount to stopping
hearts. Повреждение сосудов приводит к кровотеченияm
Торможение или остановка respiratory activity происходят
due to damage to the respiratory center in the brain.
The passage of current through the lung tissue causes bruising and breaking
- hearing loss;
- noise in ears;
- disorder of touch;
- rupture of the eardrum;
- middle ear injury;
- Spasm and contraction of muscle fibers can lead to
- Strong skeletal muscle contraction can result in fractures.
spine and tubular bones.
- The spasm of the muscular layer of the vascular wall leads to an increase in
pressure or myocardial infarction (in the case of a spasm of the heart
- CAS: impaired conduction of the heart, heart rate,
obliterating endarteritis, arteriosclerosis;
- Nervous system: neuritis, encephalopathy, trophic ulcers,
- Sense organs: катаракта, нарушение слуха и зрения;
- Musculoskeletal system: contractures (amplitude limitation
movements, impossibility to bend a limb), deformations.
Factors affecting the nature and severity of electrical injury
- More than one000 volts voltage leads to heavy
damage up to death without even touching
source, and being very close – in walking distance from
current source (the so-called “volt arc”).
- AC is more dangerous than DC
- Low frequency current affects internal organs
- High-frequency – the surface of the skin without leading to death.
|Current strength (mA)||The reaction of the body when exposed to the hand|
|0.9-one.2||Hardly noticeable impact|
|one.2-one.6||Goosebumps and skin tickling|
|one.6-2.8||Tension in the wrist|
|2.8-four.5||Forearm mobility impairment|
|four.5-5.0||Muscle cramps forearm|
|one5.0-20one5.0-20||The hand does not come off the current source|
|20-four0||Painful muscle cramps in the whole body|
|More than 200||Deep burns|
Injury current in everyday life
- The most dangerous options are a complete loop that includes 2 hands and 2
legs, hand-to-hand, as the current flows through the heart.
- No less dangerous – hand-head when current flows through
Under the current density understand the amount of current passing through
unit area. The energy is concentrated when the current passes through
smaller area. For example, if an electric current passes through a hand,
current density increases in the area of the joints.
The longer the current, the stronger the lesions and the more
probability of death.
- A high voltage current leads to a dramatic reduction in muscle,
a person can even be forcefully discarded from a current source.
- Low voltage current causes muscle spasm
prolonged involuntary seizure of the conductor by hand. WITH
over time, the skin’s resistance decreases, so
interrupt the contact of the victim with the conductor as soon as possible.
The severity of damage increases in conditions of high humidity.
(baths, bathrooms), as well as in case of electric shock in water, and in
salty water damage is stronger than in fresh water (the more
dissolved salts in water, the better the conductivity of water).
The danger of electric shock increases against exhaustion,
alcohol or drugs, chronic diseases,
senile and childhood.
Why are frequent deaths in the bath when in contact with household
The fatal role is played by wet and wet skin. Such skin has
less resistance to electrical energy and, accordingly,
the damaging effect is always stronger even with the action of devices with
seemingly low voltage of oneone0 V, for example, from a hair dryer or
radio. In addition, a wet body almost guarantees the formation of
most dangerous current loop through vital organs.
WITHтепени поражения током — классификация
|one||Partial local seizures||Easy||Partial convulsions with stored consciousness|
|2||General cramp without the formation of prostration after an interruption
|WITHредняя||Loss of consciousness and convulsions without ECG abnormalities|
|3||Severe prostration with inability to flow, flowing with or
without losing consciousness
|Heavy||Loss of consciousness, accompanied by a violation of the heart and
|four||Instant death or death after previous
|Extremely heavy||Clinical death|
Algorithm of first aid in case of electric shock
All actions must be carried out very quickly, without delay,
unnecessary talk and reasoning. WITHвоевременное оказание помощи
allows you to save life and reduce the severity of electric shock.
Whatever the condition of the victim,
promptly call an ambulance or deliver a person to a medical
institution WITHмерть от удара током может наступить и через несколько
hours The external picture does not reflect the internal damage after
- You can approach the victim in rubber shoes or
podlazhivaya under the feet of a rubber mat, dry boards, strictly on dry
surfaces, wearing rubber gloves on his hands. These measures are more
justified under stress тока более one000 Вольт, но оценить
voltage in the electrical circuit is impossible, better
be safe in order not to suffer yourself;
- soak up the circuit with non-conducting objects (pull off
wire with a wooden stick) or pull the device plug out of the spatula,
turn off the current;
- pull the victim away from the current source using objects
not conducting current, and not touching the body: wooden sticks,
деревянным стулом, веревкой, волоком на расстояние не менее one0
whether the person is conscious
Lightly pat on the cheek, ask basic questions. With
need for resuscitation:
- check for breathing: see if there are breathing
chest movements, bring a mirror / glass to the mouth and nose,
which will mist up in the presence of breath, or a thin thread,
which must be deflected when breathing;
- determine the pulse on the carotid artery by pressing its area
- release airway for further
salvation: put the palm of one hand on the victim’s forehead,
lift the chin with two fingers of the other hand, push forward
lower jaw and tilt your head back. With подозрении на
spinal fracture these actions are prohibited when sticking the tongue
it is permissible to fix it to the cheek with a pin.
- Indirect cardiac massage – most effective for the first 3
minutes after cardiac arrest. The patient lies on his back on level
the surface, straightened in the elbows
in the middle of the chest between the nipples. Производят по one00
ритмичных нажатий в течение one минуты на грудную клетку с амплитудой
pressing 5-6 cm and until the chest is completely unfolded after
- Mouth to mouth breathing – two full breaths every 30
clicking on the projection of the heart. With невозможности данного способа
It is permissible to use only indirect heart massage.
- The duration of resuscitation – prior to arrival
ambulance or until signs of life appear (pink skin,
появление пульса и breathing. Victim in such a case
turn on its side and expect an ambulance. Maximum
duration – 30 minutes, further actions are impractical
except for those patients who are in cold
- Drug treatment (conducted by the resuscitation team
ambulance). With безуспешности приведенных выше мероприятий в течение
2-3 минут вводится one мл адреналина 0,one% (внутримышечно, внутривенно
or intracardiac); а также кальций хлорид one0% — one0 мл,
строфантина 0,05% — oneмл, разведенный в 20 мл four0% растворе
- The primary treatment of burns is to impose a dry
- Painkillers – while maintaining consciousness before the ambulance arrives
a person can be given pain reliever and soothing.
- Transportation of the victim to the hospital is carried out in
лежачем положении и укрытом теплым одеялоm
WITHтационарное лечение после удара током
- It is carried out in reanimation, and in the absence of signs
burn or electric shock – in the surgical department.
- The treatment complex depends on the indications: from a simple toilet and
ligation of burn wounds to complex surgical interventions
restoration of damaged organs and tissues.
- Even in the absence of local damage and satisfactory
condition the patient is in the ward under observation for
prevention of remote reactions from systems and organs.
- WITHерьезные электротравмы требуют длительной реабилитации.
Features of lightning
Striking factors: electric current, sound and light
energy, shock wave. Impact of lightning is like defeat.
high voltage electrical current.
- Symmetrical damages are characteristic: paresis of two extremities,
- The signs of the current have a strange twisted shape and are distinguished by a large
If the thunderstorm found on the street, you can not hide under the trees,
lean against metal objects and even more so be in
- The first officially registered death from electric shock
произошла во Франции, в one879 г – жертвой действия переменного тока
became a carpenter.
- Частота электротравм в развитых странах – 2-3 случая на one00
Thousands of people.
- Группу риска составляют молодые люди 25-four0 лет, причем мужчины
в four раза чаще умирают вследствие электротравм, нежели женщины.
Electric shock protection
- Never try to pick up, remove the wire from the road,
lying on the ground do not touch the wires on the street, sticking out of
ground transformer systems hanging from pillars:
- to the wires sagging low above the ground
- to the wire laying on the ground
- to trees, buildings, cars, which touches ragged
- Count off 8 meters (bus size) from the touch point of the wire
land and walk out of the “defeat zone” in goose step, in this case
when walking, both legs are almost at the same point with one
electrical potential, so the voltage between them is not
will arise. Do not lose balance and do not touch other items
- If you see the victim next to the broken wire,
assistance can be provided only after a power outage
high-voltage, so call for help and do not approach
to the victim. Try to free the victim from stress
можно лишь при one00% уверенности, что провод низкого (до oneкВ)
voltage and only using means of electrical protection.
- Do not use faulty electrical appliances.
- Do not plug in appliances with wet hands.
- WITHоблюдать правила безопасности при обращении с электрическими
- With необходимости работы с электроприборами использовать
means of protection.
- Insulating plates and supports;
- Gloves, caps, galoshes and rugs, dielectric;
- Portable grounding;
- Tools with insulated handles;
- WITHпециальная защитная одежда;
- Safety screens, partitions, cameras for protection against current;
- Warning signs and posters.
- Minimize the time spent in the danger zone near the action
- Withближаться к источниками тока следует только на расстояние,
which is equal to the length of the insulating part of the protective equipment.
- With работе с устройствами напряжением от 330 кВ обязательно
the use of workwear.
- In the conditions of rain and thunderstorms all work must be
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог