Eczema – what it is, symptoms, causesoccurrence, types, treatment and diet

Eczema is a chronic inflammatory skin disease.
allergic nature, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to the end
not studied, but the presence of eczema in close relatives, allergic
history of the disease, the effects of endogenous and exogenous
factors in the causes of the small-bubble eczema rash
come out on top.

What is eczema?


Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disease.
processes in the epidermis and dermis and characterized by:

  • a large number of various provoking factors;
  • many options rash, elements of which simultaneously
    are at different stages of their development;
  • frequent tendency to frequent relapses and increases in severity
    clinical course;
  • highly resistant to many therapeutic

Most often eczema is localized on the head, neck, forearms,
elbows, legs, namely, on the inner folds of the knees and ankles.
Attacks in which manifestations of the disease increase, can last
from several hours to several days. Swelling, redness,
bubbles, сильный зуд – так проявляет себя экзема кистей рук.
The causes of the disease are very often unclear.


Depending on the course, the following stages of the disease are distinguished:

  • acute, which lasts for 2 months;
  • subacute – more “soft”, but protracted course of duration
    up to six months;
  • chronic with relapses and remissions
    indefinitely long time.

The nature of the course and form of the disease depends largely
deciding how to treat eczema, that is, the choice
drugs and intensity of exposure.

The true экзема

This form is characterized by chronic course with frequent
exacerbations. The foci of the inflammatory process are symmetrical. At first
the affected skin becomes hyperemic and edematous,
then papules and vesicles appear on it, which open. On
their place remains erosion, from which exudate stands out.

Then yellowish-gray crusts are formed, under which
formed the updated epithelium. The skin becomes compacted, on
her picture is enhanced. For true eczema, pronounced

Microbial eczema

It is usually localized around infected wounds, trophic
ulcers, fistulas, abrasions or scratches. It is typical for her:

  • the formation of low-inflammatory, large and large fist
    sharply delineated foci having a well-shaped reject
    along the edges of the stratum corneum, consisting of streptococcal residues
    flikten (small bubbles with serous contents).
  • On поверхности экзематозных очагов помимо микровезикул и
    weeping erosion, there is a massive layering of purulent
  • Pathological process is accompanied by severe itching.
  • As a rule, foci of microbial eczema are located on the lower

Seborrheic Eczema

This kind of eczema affects the skin and face, and
scalp. The rash is often localized in the forehead,
eyebrows, hairline, and behind the ears, on the nasolabial
triangle. Possible involvement in the pathological process of the skin
neck, the so-called “eczematous helmet” is formed. With correct
лечении возможно полное восстановление skin.


В отличие от истинной экземы характеризуется выраженным
exudative process (accumulation in the places of destruction of large
the amount of inflammatory effusion). Children’s экзема до 3 лет
is one of the most common forms of dermatosis (collective
the name of diseases of the skin and its appendages).

Predisposing factors can be:

  • difficult course of pregnancy
  • the presence of the mother of various diseases of the endocrine system, and
    also chronic foci of infection.

Most often found in children who, from an early age
transferred to artificial nutrition.


This type of disease occurs due to chemical
mechanical or physical stimuli. Such a disease can
cause the following factors:

  • resin,
  • nickel, chrome,
  • geranium,
  • narcissus,
  • Novocain, benzylpenicillin,
  • cosmetics.

What does eczema look like? Photo

Below, we have collected photos of different skin areas with the manifestation

The first signs on the skin

Экзема на руках

Eczema on the elbow of the left arm

на ногах

The reasons

Экзема является одной из самых распространенных болезней skin.
According to statistics, occurs in 35 – 40% of cases among all
skin diseases. The reason can serve as:

  • internal factors – the state of the nervous system, various
    diseases of internal organs, hereditary
  • так и some внешние факторы — термические, химические и
    biological effects. Most often internal and external factors
    are combined.

There are types of eczema that do not have certain
factors of occurrence. In such cases, the causes of eczema
can be attributed to the unexplored. If they are known, the most
common ones are:

  • allergic to certain foods such as milk
    or seafood;
  • reaction to any drugs;
  • contact with plant pollen;
  • stressful situations;
  • excessive sweating;
  • No less common is the cause of eczema, as an allergy to
    cosmetics, soap, aerosol substances (deodorants, air fresheners
    air), household chemicals or jewelry;
  • exposure to wool, silk or leather fabrics;
  • disorders of the immune system;
  • genetic factor.

Symptoms of eczema

Eczema is caused by hypersensitivity.
delayed type. However, with the aggressive effects of chemical
or drugs disease develops by type
immediate type hypersensitivity when symptoms occur
shortly after exposure to an annoying factor.

The main signs characteristic of any type of eczema:

  • the appearance on the skin of a limited area of ​​inflammation, for
    which is characterized by redness, the skin looks thickened;
  • the appearance of a rash that has a different appearance with different types
  • itching of the skin, and sometimes it can be so severe that
    disrupts the normal rhythm of life and sleep;
  • bubbles of rash open up, forming painful cracks and wounds
    on the skin;
  • during the exacerbation period, body temperature may rise and
    to appear unwell;
  • after the exacerbation subsides, the skin on the affected area becomes
    dry, inelastic and cracks.

For each type of disease several stages are inherent:

  1. Erythematous. Экзема проявляется воспалениями,
    arising in the form of stains. Gradually they merge with each
    a friend.
  2. Papular Small nodules appear on the affected skin;
    clear borders and painted in bright red.
  3. Vesicular. The surfaces of the nodules are covered
    bubbles filled with serous contents.
  4. Stage soak. Bubbles on the skin open. From the resulting
    point erosion begins to be released fluid accumulated during
    inflammatory process.
  5. Korkovataya. The fluid on the skin dries out. As a result
    yellowish crusts appear. Under them is restored
    верхний слой skin.
  6. Stage peeling (dry eczema). Available on the skin surface
    scales and crusts begin to fall off gradually.

The true

May have a different name – idiopathic.
Для неё характерны следующие симптомы:

  • островоспалительная отёчность с дальнейшим
    the occurrence of rash;
  • after opening of the bubbles, serous wells are formed – pinholes
  • over time, the serous fluid dries out,
    формируя серовато-жёлтые корки.

Microbial form

The source of microbial eczema are various infections, often
streptococci and staphylococci. That is why microbial eczema
manifested in areas of damaged skin – wounds, trophic ulcers,
fistulae, etc.

  • The course of the disease is complicated by the rapid multiplication of infection.
    Moist sulfur peels thicken up and can start at the top.
    even fester.
  • Clean skin around horny, moist skin becomes covered with new ones.
    pockets of rash.
  • Accompanied by severe itching.


It focuses on the palms, soles.
Для неё характерно:

  • the formation of bubbles, which eventually open up,
    dry up and lead to the formation of urgent purulent crusts.
  • С течением времени дисгидротическая экзема может
    hit the hands and feet.
  • Нередко, дисгидротическая экзема выражается в виде
    trophic changes of the nail plate.

Tilotic (horny, corn-shaped) eczema

It is characterized by the callus of minor symptoms of eczema,
which in this form, as well as in dyshidrotic eczema,
appear on the palms and feet. In parallel, in other areas
кожи могут проявляться some rashes, характерные данному

Symptoms of seborrheic form

Itching and inflammation in seborrheic eczema are minor, the boundaries
eczematous foci clear. Often the pathological process:

  • extends to the scalp and is accompanied by
    the occurrence of dandruff.
  • Patients with seborrhoeic eczema have oily, dull and
    glued together.

Atopic (weeping)

Rash on the skin due to a complicated course
atopic dermatitis. Localization can be any
body area. Characteristic bubbles in the form of bubbles through
some time burst and form oozing erosion. Process
accompanied by intense itching. Complications can be
joining a fungal or bacterial infection.

Признаки сухой экземы

Dry eczema has similar symptoms.
eczematous dermatitis in the acute phase:

  • excessive dryness of the skin;
  • inflammation of the skin;
  • skin redness;
  • bubbles with liquid.

Mycotic Eczema

The source of mycotic eczema is an allergic reaction to
грибковые инфекции, например – кандидоз (молочница), стригущий
lichen and other mycoses. The course of the disease is typical as in

  • rashes,
  • bubbles,
  • weeping serous wells,
  • dry peels.

The only, foci of inflammation are clearly delineated, in turn,
diversity of fungi leads to a more thorough study
diseases and the selection of his treatment.


May appear on any part of the body in the form of multiple
itchy papules that form on inflamed, red skin. After
autopsies remain deep erosion, filled with serous fluid.
This type of eczema is seasonal in nature and most often
exacerbated in autumn or winter, against the background of reduced immunity.

One of the complications can be pronounced swelling of the skin with
addition of purulent infection.

Professional or contact eczema

The nature of the lesions – pronounced swelling, bright erythema and large
number of vesicular elements. Differences from idiopathic form:

  • less pronounced evolutionary polymorphism of elements;
  • rapid “attenuation” of the process in the absence of chemical
  • lack of independent relapse during elimination

As a result of a long flow, the contact form goes into


Diagnostics заболевания начинается со сбора анамнеза. Specialist
finds out when the patient had the first signs, as manifested
eczema (initial stage), does the patient have intolerance
any products, whether allergic reactions were previously possible
whether the body to influence the provoking factors.

After collecting anamnesis, laboratory tests are scheduled:

  • urinalysis;
  • biochemical and clinical blood tests;
  • determination of the enzyme immunoassay method
    immunoglobulin E in serum.

In any case, before embarking on the treatment of eczema,
it is necessary to find out the true cause of its occurrence. After visit
most likely, the patient will need an additional dermatologist.
consultation of the immunologist-allergist and nutritionist.

Often, when clarifying the nature of eczema, a complex
allergological and immunological examination.


After a confirmed diagnosis of eczema, it is necessary to eliminate or
reduce the influence of provoking factors: neuro-psychological
overloading, medication, contact with allergens and aggressive
substances, to treat mycoses and microbial diseases

Treatment экземы можно разделить на такие этапы:

  • General (systemic) medications.
  • Local preparations (ointments, creams, emulsions, lotions,
  • Physiotherapy methods (magnetotherapy, electrophoresis,
    galvanotherapy and others).
  • Correction of diet.
  • Avoid contact with allergens and aggressive


The following groups of drugs are used to treat eczema.

  1. Антигистаминные средства — в острую фазу рекомендуют
    use 1st generation antihistamines (clemensin,
    activastin, chloropyramine), further transferred to use
    antihistamine drugs 2nd generation (loratadine).
  2. Глюкокортикостероиды (бетаметазон, преднизолон).
  3. Дезинтоксикационные средства (растворы кальций глюконата,
    sodium thiosulfate, magnesium sulfate, sodium chloride).
  4. Диуретические средства (фуросемид, диакарб) — при
    severe puffiness.
  5. Транквилизаторы (оксазепам, нитразепам) — для устранения
    itching and the associated nervous tension, insomnia.
  6. Энтеросорбенты (лигнин гидролизный, метилкремниевой
    acid hydrogel).
  7. Антибиотики азитромицин, ампицилин, гентамицин,
    doxycycline, cefotaxime) – for microbial eczema.
  8. Vitamins of group B.

Locally use retinol ointments, apply applications with
ointments and pastes that have keratolytic properties,
have an artificial effect and contain anti-inflammatory and
antiseptic ingredients. Local therapy for eczema while
Unopened vesicles consist in applying neutral ointments,
mash and powder. The composition of the drug for local treatment is selected
individually and made according to a prescription from a doctor.

Treatment of affected areas with water, vegetable oil and
aggressive disinfectant solutions categorically
is prohibited.

In addition to medication, prescribe
physiotherapeutic procedures that help alleviate the condition
and reduce the severity of the inflammatory process. For patients 
recommend sessions of electrophoresis, magnetic therapy, UV –

General recommendations for people suffering from chronic eczema:

  • Avoid skin contact with substances that cause
    exacerbation of eczema;
  • maintaining a hypoallergenic citrus-free diet
    fruit, chocolate, cocoa;
  • skin care in remission is best done with
    special cosmetics (Bioderma cream, Topikrem);
  • measured lifestyle, eliminating nervous tension and
    stressful situations.


For eczema, the doctor always selects the appropriate diet, because
An integral part of successful treatment and long-term remission. Diet
it is necessary to change completely, and in the period of exacerbation food
subject to even more severe correction. With constant performance
recommendations it is possible to achieve easing of symptoms, since
the body begins to function normally.


  • During the recurrence of the diet should be excluded: smoked,
    spicy and salty foods, pastries, sweets, dairy products,
    semi-finished products, eggs, alcohol, citrus fruits, pork, canned food.
  • During the period of exacerbation, the diet should include such products:
    vegetable food, that is, vegetables, fruits, greens, lean porridges,
    fermented milk drinks and foods.
  • During the calm should be used: sea buckthorn, cranberries,
    currants, lingonberries, gooseberries, zucchini, nuts, pumpkin and

With a diet, the patient’s condition improves after 30-40
days, after which the diet can be expanded. But proper nutrition
is mandatory because it allows you to clean the skin and
normalize the functioning of the body.

What can not eat with eczema?

Be sure to exclude from the diet food, which refers to
allergens and can provoke a surge in the disease. To those

  • fat meat;
  • coffee;
  • spicy food;
  • tomatoes;
  • garlic;
  • sweets;
  • nuts;
  • baking;
  • smoked meat;
  • citrus;
  • whole milk;
  • any fried food;
  • Strawberry;
  • grenades;
  • melon;
  • wheat;
  • beet;
  • honey.

It is advisable to eat hypoallergenic foods, but
diet can be supplemented with products that have an average
allergenicity. It is necessary to exclude only those names that
provoke worsening symptoms of eczema.

Product Allergy Table
High Average Low
Egg white Pork Mutton
Milk Rabbit meat horsemeat
Fishes Turkey Turnip
Strawberry Apricot Zucchini
Wild strawberry Peach Squash
Honey Cranberry Gooseberry
Black currant Corn Plum
Pomegranates, grapes Pic Prunes
Pineapple, melon Buckwheat Bananas
Chocolate, coffee Potatoes Apples
Beet Peas Watermelon
Mustard Broccoli Green salad
Soy, wheat Pepper (green) Pumpkin

Folk remedies

Before you start using folk methods, be sure to
you need to consult with your doctor, because some
means have contraindications to use.

  1. Take fresh cabbage leaves. Cook them in milk and mix with
    bran. Make a poultice from the prepared preparation 1 or 2 times.
    per day. The positive effect is noticeable during the wet stage.
  2. Take 2 parts of buckthorn bark and 1 part of chicory root, root
    dandelion, water trefoil leaf and fennel fruit. Pour 1
    tablespoon of collecting 1 glass of water, heat 30 minutes to a water
    bathhouse Take as a folk remedy for eczema 2-3 cups
    decoction per day.
  3. Grate potatoes, wrap the mush in cheesecloth and
    apply to the affected place. In addition to applying lotions in
    home conditions, you need to include this product in your diet.
  4. Pine oil is an excellent preventative.
    eczema, accelerates the healing of cracks and eliminates existing ones
    rash, dryness, peeling, and itching. To make it
    Pine needles need to be prepared in advance – they need to be collected in
    March Half a three-liter jar filled with pine needles, topped up
    sunflower oil, filling the container to the end. Insist in the dark
    and cool place at least two to three weeks, stored coniferous oil
    maybe a year. Pine needles before infusion can be crushed to
    pieces, it facilitates the transfer of useful components into butter.
  5. Take inside with eczema 1 tablespoon at breakfast and
    dinner corn oil for 1 month with 1 cup
    warm water with 1 teaspoon of apple cider vinegar and added honey
    taste. This remedy not only helps to get rid of eczema, but
    and softens the skin, giving it elasticity.

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