Update: October 2018
See also: Treatment of eczema on the hands
Eczema is a neuro-allergic disease of the upper layer.
skin, характеризующееся сыпью, склонностью к рецидивам, жжением и
itchом. It can be acute, trim and chronic. Eczema,
whose symptoms are known since ancient times, as an independent
The disease was isolated recently – about 2 centuries ago.
Eczema is the most common dermatological.
disease, and it accounts for 15 to 40% of dermatoses.
Eczema affects men and women almost equally, and in children’s
age, it is found in various variants in every 15th
The disease has not bypassed the celebrities: the symptoms of eczema in
their time was discovered by the Queen of Scotland, Mary Stuart,
Spanish painter Francisco Goya, French revolutionary
Jean Paul Marat, Russian writer and doctor A. P. Chekhov.
Types of eczema
Although a single eczema classification does not currently exist,
it is customary to single out the following forms:
True (idiopathic) eczema, its appearance has
influence of internal factors, such as VSD, gastrointestinal diseases,
psychological stress, genetic fitness,
diseases of the thyroid gland, diabetes mellitus, it includes:
Read also on the topic:
- Antifungal preparations for the feet and nails
- Hormonal and non-hormonal psoriasis ointments
- Atopic dermatitis in adults – treatment, symptoms
- Allergy Cream
- List of dermatitis ointments
- Eczema treatment on hands
- Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis on the face
- Treatment of atopic dermatitis in children
Микробная: возникает на тех областях skin, где продолжительное
time there is an inflammatory process caused by various
pathogens – microbes or fungi.
- eczema of the nipples and areola of the mammary glands in women
- varicose veins
Seborrheic Eczema развивается на фоне персистирующего на коже
heads of the fungus Malassezia furfur (see seborrheic dermatitis on the face
Children’s eczema может дебютировать у ребенка уже с 4-5 месячного
age, which can be explained by the pathological course
pregnancy, weak immunity of the mother. It can be microbial,
idiopathic or seborrheic.
Professional. It usually occurs when a person comes into contact with
various chemicals at work or in the home, more often
всего это различные красители, моющие facilities, хром, формальдигиды
and other toxic compounds.
Atopic eczema – it occurs in patients prone to
allergic manifestations to various external stimuli, and
also with food allergies. This is most often due to
Some researchers also distinguish eczema:
Any type of eczema can be acute, subacute or
chronic, and the area of the lesion – diffuse and limited.
Острые формы часто сопровождаются get wetм, а хронические
proceed mainly as dry eczema.
Withчины возникновения экземы достоверно неизвестны. Believed
that most often the disease develops as a result of the influence
Internal (endogenous) factors:
- diseases of internal organs, including digestive organs
(especially hepatocholecystitis, hepatitis), ovaries, thyroid
- angio-vegetative neurosis
- diarrhea and constipation
- impaired renal function and metabolism
External factors are exogenous:
- contact with petroleum products, solvents, cement,
dyes, chemicals, cosmetics and detergents
facilitiesми, а также прочими химическими веществами
- infectious agents – streptococci, staphylococci, fungi
- external environment – overheating, overcooling, excessive
- neuro-mental factors – overwork, stress
- повреждения skin механическим, термическим или химическим,
- medication, for example, novocaine,
benzylpenicillin and the like.
The skin is functionally connected with the internal organs.
Toxic products that are formed in the intestines are normal.
excreted in the feces, and what is absorbed inside, is neutralized in
liver and excreted by the lungs. In case of abnormal liver function,
kidney or intestinal toxic metabolic products greater
part begin to be excreted through the skin. If this goes on for a long time,
then the harmful effects of toxins increase and develop
External or internal factors increase sensitivity to
such an impact that entails the formation
neuro-allergic reaction, which is the leading cause in
the occurrence of eczema.
Common symptoms of eczema
Whatever the causes of eczema, the disease proceeds as
- Эритема (redness skin). Reddened skin is warmer.
compared with surrounding tissues (hyperthermia), there is a strong
itch. If a child or adult at this stage is constantly combing
given place then eczema can complicated by penetration
- Papular stage. A papule is a nodule that does not contain
cavities. With eczema, papules rise above the surface of the skin,
pink-red color and the size of a pinhead. Then
formed papules may be covered with scales, redness
gradually disappears, and the skin condition returns to normal.
- Vesicular stage. With the progression of inflammation papules
turn into small bubbles filled with light liquid.
Some of these bubbles will open, highlighting the contents.
- Pustular stage. The contents of the bubbles gradually grow cloudy,
accumulation of leukocytes is noted, and the bubbles turn into
- Stage soak (weeping eczema). Symptoms – education in
the areas of the papules of weeping, oozing erosions are bright red.
The skin hairs in these areas mostly fall out,
and the rest are glued to exudate. When infection occurs
more vivid and pronounced picture. Gradually inflammatory process
subsides, and the skin turns pale.
- Korochkovaya stage. The erosion surface dries out and becomes covered.
crusts. In the event of infection, pus can accumulate beneath them.
If the papillary layer of the skin is damaged, then usually the crusts are dark brown.
- Scale stage. As the restoration of the surface layers
the skin of the crust begins to tear away, and the dry surface of the skin
the cover is covered with horny plates and scaly
The skin gets its original appearance after 2-4 weeks. If eczema
linger longer on the peeling or soak phase, then this
subacute course. Recurrent eczema is when pathological
Changes develop in the same area where eczema has been before.
The chronic form of eczema is accompanied by thickening, persistent
reddening of the skin with the weakening of its protective and barrier
Symptoms of various types of eczema
True eczema. For true eczema characteristic
foci of acute inflammation with fuzzy boundaries, they are symmetrical and
occur predominantly in open areas of the body. Typical
Symptoms: swelling, redness of the skin, vesicles (vesicles) and severe
get wet. Nodules and pustules are observed much less frequently.
The rash is localized on the extensor surfaces of the legs or arms and
A kind of true eczema when eczematous lesions
When an infection is joined, inflammation of the nearest lymph nodes and
This form of eczema often occurs in women during menopause.
With horny eczema soak, severe redness, and
Микробная экзема. For typical microbial eczema
Symptoms of an asymmetrical location of the rash, with
preferential localization around wounds, burns, cracks and other
skin lesions. The surface of the lesions is weeping, covered with large
the number of crusts, with epidermis exfoliation at the edges of the focus.
Nummular (coin-like eczema)
This form of microbial eczema “prefers” large folds: in
This type of eczema develops in the case of:
Eczema nipples and areola
This type of eczema develops after trauma to the nipple with
Main симптомы себорейной экземы:
These changes are rarely accompanied itchом, часто развиваются у
The first symptoms usually occur between the ages of 3 and 6 months.
Children’s eczema наблюдается до 2–х лет, а затем регрессирует или
First of all, professional eczema is:
What treatment can a doctor prescribe?
As you know, treatment begins with a good examination,
which allows to identify the main cause of the disease. For example,
if you remove the allergen from the contact, the development of eczema and its
progression will stop. Attention is also paid to treatment.
diseases of the digestive system, kidneys.
Locally during the soak are used lotion with solutions
anesthetics, antiallergic and, if necessary,
bactericidal drugs. As the inflammation subsides, they are prescribed.
appropriate creams, ointments (see the detailed description of the possible
treatment of eczema in the article on eczema on the hands: treatment).
What can the patient do?
Success in treating eczema will largely determine the behavior of the
human and how he will adhere to the recommendations
- Dieting. From the daily diet should be excluded:
nuts, citrus, poultry, fish, coffee, chocolate, eggplant, strawberries,
milk and other allergenic products. It is also necessary to reduce
total amount of carbohydrates, extractives, spices.
- Своевременно лечить очаги хронической infections.
- Skin Care: Avoid contact with the allergen (wash dishes in
gloves), regularly soften and moisturize the skin recommended
доктором facilitiesми для ухода.
What should you refrain from?
With экземе не следует наносить на кожу различные раздражающие
facilities, а также контактировать со facilitiesми, содержащие
Автор: Мельникова Светлана Георгиевна врач-дерматолог