Eczema: symptoms, causes

Update: October 2018

See also: Treatment of eczema on the hands

Eczema is a neuro-allergic disease of the upper layer.
skin, характеризующееся сыпью, склонностью к рецидивам, жжением и
itchом. It can be acute, trim and chronic. Eczema,
whose symptoms are known since ancient times, as an independent
The disease was isolated recently – about 2 centuries ago.

Eczema is the most common dermatological.
disease, and it accounts for 15 to 40% of dermatoses.
Eczema affects men and women almost equally, and in children’s
age, it is found in various variants in every 15th

The disease has not bypassed the celebrities: the symptoms of eczema in
their time was discovered by the Queen of Scotland, Mary Stuart,
Spanish painter Francisco Goya, French revolutionary
Jean Paul Marat, Russian writer and doctor A. P. Chekhov.

Types of eczema

Although a single eczema classification does not currently exist,
it is customary to single out the following forms:

True (idiopathic) eczema, its appearance has
influence of internal factors, such as VSD, gastrointestinal diseases,
psychological stress, genetic fitness,
diseases of the thyroid gland, diabetes mellitus, it includes:

Read also on the topic:

  • Antifungal preparations for the feet and nails
  • Hormonal and non-hormonal psoriasis ointments
  • Atopic dermatitis in adults – treatment, symptoms
  • Allergy Cream
  • List of dermatitis ointments
  • Eczema treatment on hands
  • Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis on the face
  • Treatment of atopic dermatitis in children

  • pruriginous
  • dishydrotic
  • tylotic

Микробная: возникает на тех областях skin, где продолжительное
time there is an inflammatory process caused by various
pathogens – microbes or fungi.

  • nummular
  • paratraumatic
  • mycotic
  • intertriginous
  • eczema of the nipples and areola of the mammary glands in women
  • varicose veins

Seborrheic Eczema развивается на фоне персистирующего на коже
heads of the fungus Malassezia furfur (see seborrheic dermatitis on the face

Children’s eczema может дебютировать у ребенка уже с 4-5 месячного
age, which can be explained by the pathological course
pregnancy, weak immunity of the mother. It can be microbial,
idiopathic or seborrheic.

Professional. It usually occurs when a person comes into contact with
various chemicals at work or in the home, more often
всего это различные красители, моющие facilities, хром, формальдигиды
and other toxic compounds.

Atopic eczema – it occurs in patients prone to
allergic manifestations to various external stimuli, and
also with food allergies. This is most often due to
hereditary disposition.

Some researchers also distinguish eczema:

  • neuropathic
  • reflex
  • paratraumatic

Any type of eczema can be acute, subacute or
chronic, and the area of ​​the lesion – diffuse and limited.
Острые формы часто сопровождаются get wetм, а хронические
proceed mainly as dry eczema.


Withчины возникновения экземы достоверно неизвестны. Believed
that most often the disease develops as a result of the influence
following factors:

Internal (endogenous) factors:

  • diseases of internal organs, including digestive organs
    (especially hepatocholecystitis, hepatitis), ovaries, thyroid
  • angio-vegetative neurosis
  • diarrhea and constipation
  • impaired renal function and metabolism

External factors are exogenous:

  • contact with petroleum products, solvents, cement,
    dyes, chemicals, cosmetics and detergents
    facilitiesми, а также прочими химическими веществами
  • infectious agents – streptococci, staphylococci, fungi
  • external environment – overheating, overcooling, excessive
  • neuro-mental factors – overwork, stress
  • повреждения skin механическим, термическим или химическим,
    by radiation
  • medication, for example, novocaine,
    benzylpenicillin and the like.

The skin is functionally connected with the internal organs.
Toxic products that are formed in the intestines are normal.
excreted in the feces, and what is absorbed inside, is neutralized in
liver and excreted by the lungs. In case of abnormal liver function,
kidney or intestinal toxic metabolic products greater
part begin to be excreted through the skin. If this goes on for a long time,
then the harmful effects of toxins increase and develop

External or internal factors increase sensitivity to
such an impact that entails the formation
neuro-allergic reaction, which is the leading cause in
the occurrence of eczema.

Common symptoms of eczema

Whatever the causes of eczema, the disease proceeds as
following stages:

  • Эритема (redness skin). Reddened skin is warmer.
    compared with surrounding tissues (hyperthermia), there is a strong
    itch. If a child or adult at this stage is constantly combing
    given place then eczema can complicated by penetration
  • Papular stage. A papule is a nodule that does not contain
    cavities. With eczema, papules rise above the surface of the skin,
    pink-red color and the size of a pinhead. Then
    formed papules may be covered with scales, redness
    gradually disappears, and the skin condition returns to normal.
  • Vesicular stage. With the progression of inflammation papules
    turn into small bubbles filled with light liquid.
    Some of these bubbles will open, highlighting the contents.
  • Pustular stage. The contents of the bubbles gradually grow cloudy,
    accumulation of leukocytes is noted, and the bubbles turn into
    pustules (pustules).
  • Stage soak (weeping eczema). Symptoms – education in
    the areas of the papules of weeping, oozing erosions are bright red.
    The skin hairs in these areas mostly fall out,
    and the rest are glued to exudate. When infection occurs
    more vivid and pronounced picture. Gradually inflammatory process
    subsides, and the skin turns pale.
  • Korochkovaya stage. The erosion surface dries out and becomes covered.
    crusts. In the event of infection, pus can accumulate beneath them.
    If the papillary layer of the skin is damaged, then usually the crusts are dark brown.
  • Scale stage. As the restoration of the surface layers
    the skin of the crust begins to tear away, and the dry surface of the skin
    the cover is covered with horny plates and scaly

The skin gets its original appearance after 2-4 weeks. If eczema
linger longer on the peeling or soak phase, then this
subacute course. Recurrent eczema is when pathological
Changes develop in the same area where eczema has been before.
The chronic form of eczema is accompanied by thickening, persistent
reddening of the skin with the weakening of its protective and barrier

Symptoms of various types of eczema

True eczema. For true eczema characteristic
foci of acute inflammation with fuzzy boundaries, they are symmetrical and
occur predominantly in open areas of the body. Typical
Symptoms: swelling, redness of the skin, vesicles (vesicles) and severe
get wet. Nodules and pustules are observed much less frequently.

Pruriginous eczema Pruriginous eczema

The rash is localized on the extensor surfaces of the legs or arms and
characterized by the following distinctive features:

  • small itchy blisters and nodules that do not open
  • without soak
  • lichenification of the skin against scratching
Dyshidrotic Dyshidrotic

A kind of true eczema when eczematous lesions
observed mainly on the soles of the feet and palms. Main
symptoms of dyshydrotic eczema:

  • sago-like dense bubbles
  • slight redness of the skin
  • severe itching, burning,
  • weeping erosion after opening the bubbles.

When an infection is joined, inflammation of the nearest lymph nodes and
lymphatic vessels. In some cases, dyshidrotic eczema
observed when allergic organism present fungal
or purulent infections.

Horny (Tylotic) Роговая экзема

This form of eczema often occurs in women during menopause.
Main symptoms:

  • thickening (hyperkeratosis) of the skin of the palms, heels
  • painful deep and superficial cracks
  • itch

With horny eczema soak, severe redness, and
bubbles almost never occur.

Микробная экзема. For typical microbial eczema
Symptoms of an asymmetrical location of the rash, with
preferential localization around wounds, burns, cracks and other
skin lesions. The surface of the lesions is weeping, covered with large
the number of crusts, with epidermis exfoliation at the edges of the focus.

Nummular eczema Монетовидная экзема

Nummular (coin-like eczema)

  • These are asymmetrically arranged round or oval areas.
    reddened skin that is clearly restricted from healthy
  • the surface of such lesions is covered with papules, vesicles, crusts
    and scales with teardrop soak.
Intertriginous eczema Intertriginous eczema

This form of microbial eczema “prefers” large folds: in
groin, under the mammary glands, in the armpit. Main

  • severe redness
  • get wet
  • painful cracks in the center of the folds
  • жжение и itch
Varicose eczema Varicose eczema

This type of eczema develops in the case of:

  • varicose veins
  • varicose veins complicated by trophic ulcers
  • или склерозированием skin
  • symptoms resemble classic microbial eczema with
    primary lesion of the lower third of the legs
Mycotic Eczema Mycotic Eczema
  • observed on the feet
  • skin brushes
  • in the presence of fungal infections of the feet, hands or nails
  • также сопровождается itchом
  • периодическим get wetм
Eczema nipples and areola Экзема сосков

This type of eczema develops after trauma to the nipple with
breastfeeding or due to scabies. Main

  • redness
  • crusts, scales, cracks
  • and plots soak
Seborrheic Eczema Seborrheic Eczema

Main симптомы себорейной экземы:

  • преимущественная локализация очагов на тех участках skin, где
    many sebaceous glands (eczema on the face, back, chest, hairy part
    head, groin area, etc.),
  • шелушащиеся маслянистые бляшки желтоватого colors.

These changes are rarely accompanied itchом, часто развиваются у
newborns in the scalp. Reinforce
the likelihood of developing seborrheic eczema is irregular washing of the head,
oily skin, stress, high humidity.

Children’s eczema Children's eczema

The first symptoms usually occur between the ages of 3 and 6 months.
As a rule, it is true, seborrheic or microbial eczema. With
экземе у детей,  симптомы следующие:

  • symmetry of defeat
  • boundary blur
  • reddened, weeping skin
  • the presence of crusts and scales
  • first, the lesions are located on the cheeks and forehead, and then
    extends further to the scalp, body,

Children’s eczema наблюдается до 2–х лет, а затем регрессирует или
converted to folded or other form of eczema. According to
many scientists play an important role in the development of children’s eczema
changes in the intestinal flora (see treatment of intestinal dysbiosis and
analogs of Linex, a list of all probiotics).

Professional eczema Экзема- симптомы

First of all, professional eczema is:

  • eczema on hands, face or any other open area
  • occurs because of constant contact with chemicals
    such as nickel, formaldehyde, various dyes, detergents
  • disappears out of contact with an irritant (for example, during
  • the symptom picture resembles true eczema

What treatment can a doctor prescribe?

As you know, treatment begins with a good examination,
which allows to identify the main cause of the disease. For example,
if you remove the allergen from the contact, the development of eczema and its
progression will stop. Attention is also paid to treatment.
diseases of the digestive system, kidneys.

Locally during the soak are used lotion with solutions
anesthetics, antiallergic and, if necessary,
bactericidal drugs. As the inflammation subsides, they are prescribed.
appropriate creams, ointments (see the detailed description of the possible
treatment of eczema in the article on eczema on the hands: treatment).

What can the patient do?

Success in treating eczema will largely determine the behavior of the
human and how he will adhere to the recommendations

  • Dieting. From the daily diet should be excluded:
    nuts, citrus, poultry, fish, coffee, chocolate, eggplant, strawberries,
    milk and other allergenic products. It is also necessary to reduce
    total amount of carbohydrates, extractives, spices.
  • Своевременно лечить очаги хронической infections.
  • Skin Care: Avoid contact with the allergen (wash dishes in
    gloves), regularly soften and moisturize the skin recommended
    доктором facilitiesми для ухода.

What should you refrain from?

With экземе не следует наносить на кожу различные раздражающие
facilities, а также контактировать со facilitiesми, содержащие

Автор: Мельникова Светлана Георгиевна врач-дерматолог

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