Ebola haemorrhagic fever: symptoms, waystransmission, forecast

Update: December 2018

Ebola haemorrhagic fever is one of the most dangerous
infectious diseases, the causative agent of which is the Ebola virus.
The disease causes a bleeding disorder, causing
a person dies from internal bleeding.

The disease is very rare, but with a very high percentage.
death rate – on average, out of a hundred cases, no more than
10-20 people. Fever is contagious for humans, primates, pigs and
bats. The cunning of the disease is that it can be transmitted
from animal to human.

Brief historical background

The first outbreak of the virus was recorded in Sudan in 1976. Have
one of the dead for the first time managed to isolate the causative agent of the virus.
Then, out of 318 infected fevers, 280 people died. Virus
discovered in the vicinity of the Ebola River in Zaire, which gave the name
diseases. Outbreaks of infection have occurred in Sudan, Gabon and Zaire.

Its morphological properties of the virus are very similar to the virus.
Marburg Virus имеет пять подтипов: рестонский, суданский,
Zairian, Bunibughio and Côte d’Ivoire. Not dangerous for humans
only reston subtype. Haveченые считают, что резервуары вируса
located in the equatorial forests of Africa.

Source of infection

Source of infection в природе изучен недостаточно, однако имеются
There is every reason to believe that rodents are peddlers. Virusу
very susceptible monkeys. A person infected with a virus is extremely
dangerous to others.

From each patient, on average, occurs from 5 to 8 gears
virus, resulting in nosocomial outbreaks
diseases. The virus is most dangerous during the first transmissions.
(mortality is 100%), further mortality is reduced.

Virus распространяется на все органы, ткани и жидкости организма
(urine, semen, vaginal discharge, nasopharyngeal mucus). After
infection, the patient secretes a virus within three weeks. AT
incubation period, the infected person is not dangerous.

Geography of infection

97% of fever infections occurred in Africa.
ATспышки вируса были зафиксированы в таких странах:

  • Gabon
  • Haveганда
  • South Africa�
  • Sierra Leone
  • Guinea
  • Republic of the Congo
  • South Sudan
  • Демократическая Republic of the Congo
  • Liberia

Outside Africa, several infections have been reported:
during medical science research in Europe and Russia, one
case of infection in the US, and one – in Saudi Arabia.

По данным ATсемирной Организации Здравоохранения на 5 октября
In 2014, 7942 cases of the disease were recorded, of which 3439 – with
fatal. Haveченые и медики опасаются распространения вируса
to other countries and continents. Unfortunately, the forecasts are disappointing,
the virus is spreading rapidly. ATсего несколько месяцев назад
the probability of spreading the virus to other countries was not
more than 5%, now the risk of further spread is

How does the infection occur?

Virus Эбола политропен, то есть имеется масса способов выделения
virus from the body of the patient and subsequent infection.
Infection occurs:

  • Contact with infected blood
  • Sexually (during the vaginal, oral and anal
  • Through saliva (when kissing, using common dishes)
  • ATоздушно-капельным путем (редко)

You can also become infected when a virus enters the mucous membranes
shell or skin, through the bites of a wild animal. Since saliva,
urine, blood and other body fluids of the patient is extremely
contagious, the risk of
infection is very high, so the patient is isolated in a box and in front of
any contact with him puts on a protective anti-plague suit,
carry out wet cleaning with disinfectants and use disposable

  • Even with short-term contact with the patient falls ill
    20-23% of people.
  • With prolonged and close contact (when caring for the sick,
    living together, ritual ceremonies near the bodies of the dead) – 80%
  • AT 1994 г. и 1995 г. в Заире была вспышка (250 человек)
    Ebola caused by eating by local people
    brain monkey virus carriers. Lethal outcome was 80%.
  • There have also been cases of internal infection at work.
    professionals with green monkeys.

Haveчитывая возможные высокоскоростные международные перемещения
(airplanes) and extreme fever contagiousness (contagiousness),
migration of people with early signs of illness and transportation
infected animals pose a serious danger to
population of other countries.

The body’s response to infection

ATо время инкубационного периода вирус начинает распространяться
on lymph nodes, liver and spleen. When do the first appear
the symptom, the virus infects the cells and tissues of internal organs, causing
периваскулярные отеки, геморрагический и ДATС-синдромы.
Further spreading, the virus causes focal tissue necrosis.
internal organs, signs of hepatitis, pneumonia, pancreatitis.

Symptoms and signs of the disease

The incubation period lasts from several days to 3 weeks, in
on average, 90% of patients experience the first symptoms 8 day after
infection. Ebola haemorrhagic fever begins acutely
main symptoms:

  • ATысокая температура (38-40°С), слабость, боль в мышцах
  • Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite
  • Dizziness, headache, red eyes
  • The patient becomes lethargic, apathetic
  • Symptoms of sore throat appear – sore throat and an increase
  • While progressing, the disease causes hemorrhagic syndrome –
    profuse internal and external bleeding, bloody vomiting and
  • Have некоторых больных могут возникнуть симптомы энцефалопатии:
    increased aggressiveness, confusion of consciousness, problems with
    by memory
  • Cough and respiratory dyspnea, shortness of breath, difficulty
    swallowing occurs in 30% of cases. Small appears on the body
    red rash

Ebola is dangerous for its complications – most often death
occurs as a result of extensive internal bleeding or
infectious toxic shock. Deaths 8-13
день после появления первых симптомов diseases.

If the patient is recovering, the acute phase of the disease lasts
a few more weeks. ATосстановление после болезни длительное,
accompanied by a strong weight loss, asthenic syndrome, anemia,
hair loss, sometimes mental disorders can develop.

ATыздоровление наступает лишь в 10 случаях из 100. Почему так
what is happening is not yet known. Postmortem studies
allowed to establish that the immunity of the vast majority of people
just does not have time to develop antibodies, as a result, and comes

Differential diagnosis of the disease

Ebola haemorrhagic fever has no pronounced
specific symptoms that makes the diagnostic process
embarrassing. If there is even the slightest suspicion
fever, the patient is urgently hospitalized and isolated in
separate box The symptoms of the disease are similar to many infectious
diseases, therefore, before making a diagnosis should be excluded
diseases such as:

  • Plague
  • Fever Marburg
  • Malaria
  • Yellow fever
  • Hepatitis
  • Cholera
  • Meningitis
  • Typhus
  • Rickettsiosis
  • Shigellosis

Instrumental and laboratory diagnostics

Laboratory studies (conducted under conditions of maximum
protection level):

  • Complete blood count – for fever characterized by: reduced ESR,
    anemia, thrombocytopenia, the presence of atypical lymphocytes, leukocytosis with
    neutrophilic shift;
  • Biochemical blood test – in patients reveal an elevated
    amylase, transferase and azotemia activity;
  • Blood test for clotting;
  • Urinalysis – Infected Observed Vividly
    severe proteinuria (increased protein content);
  • Specific laboratory tests: serological reactions
    (RSK, RN, RNGA), immunofluorescence methods, ELISA, PCR (but such
    methods are only available in virology laboratories with very
    strict anti-epidemic regime, therefore in field conditions
    test systems are most commonly used to identify antigens and
    antibodies to the Marburg virus and the Ebola virus).

To determine the condition and extent of damage to the internal
органов проводиться HaveЗИ, КТ, МРТ и рентгенография.


There is no specific treatment, it is applied
symptomatic treatment aimed at alleviating the course
diseases and the fight against dehydration and toxic shock. At the slightest
suspected Ebola, regardless of the severity of the disease,
the patient is urgently hospitalized and isolated in a separate
box with exhaust ventilation.

  • The patient is prescribed oxygen inhalation through the nasal
  • Heparin is administered intravenously to control blood clotting.
    (since death most often occurs as a result of extensive
    internal bleeding).
  • With this disease, immunological reactivity decreases,
    therefore, administration of human immunoglobulin is indicated.
  • Maintain normal blood pressure, treatment of complications and related


None of the Ebola vaccines today
approved by Many countries are developing vaccines,
animal testing. Scientists from the USA have succeeded the most, having
experimental vaccine “Brincidofovir”. The drug has been tested on
In 900 patients, no serious side effects were found. But
while the vaccine is under testing and approval by the Ministry of Health


Specific prevention of the disease does not exist, since
the source of the virus has not been thoroughly studied. However, there are a number of methods
which can minimize the risk of fever infection:

  • Isolation of the patient (or the patient with suspected fever).
    An infected patient is placed in a separate box with the system.
    autonomous life support for at least 30 days from the start
    diseases. ATсе предметы обихода пациента маркируются и строго
    individual, they are disinfected and stored in a box.
  • Protection of medical workers and relatives of the patient –
    wearing a special protective anti-plague suit type 1,
    masks, gloves and glasses. Special care must be taken.
    health workers in the study of biological materials and blood
    the sick.
  • For treatment, use single use tools, then
    they are either burned or auto-keyed.
  • For Disinfection use 2% phenol solution or iodoform.
  • Recovered patients are discharged only after 3-fold “-”
    virological research.
  • Persons exposed to or suspected of being infected
    I isolate for 21 days in boxing.

Safety must be followed after death
because the virus remains active for a long time.

What you need to know the tourist

It is better to refrain from traveling to countries where they were recorded.
fever flashes. But if necessary, you should carefully
to listen to the recommendations of infectious disease physicians from WHO:

  • It is necessary to study information about the disease: symptoms, ways
    infection prevention and protection methods;
  • Do not contact with wild animals;
  • Refrain from eating meat;
  • Do not touch infected people and their personal items.
  • Do not approach the corpses of people who died of fever;
  • The most vulnerable areas for infection are eyes that are damaged.
    skin and mucous membranes of the nose and mouth. Just one drop
    mucus or saliva secreted when sneezing can lead to

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