E. coli: species description, symptoms andtreatment methods

E. coli in Latin is called Escherichia coli (E. coli)
and is a type of bacteria that includes pathogens and
non-pathogenic species. Pathogenic intestinal species
sticks cause infectious and inflammatory diseases of the organs
digestive tract, urinary and reproductive system in
men and women.

Next, we consider in detail what types of intestinal
sticks, the reasons for their entry into the human body, the first symptoms
и treatment methods у взрослых.

What is E. coli?

Кишечная палочка

E. coli (Escherichia coli) – bacteria related to
the genus Escherichia and the family Enterobacteriaceae. These microorganisms
are highly resistant, they are able to live for months in the water,
soil feces.

A group of diseases associated with E. coli and
вызываемые патогенными штаммами бактерии, называется
escherichiosis. Act as the causes of the disease
intestines, kidneys and other organs. This creates a number of problems in
areas of digestion, urogenital system.

Bacteria multiply quickly and well in food,
especially in milk, and therefore eating infected and contaminated
E. coli causes infection with subsequent development
infectious and inflammatory disease.

Classification

Кишечные палочки бывают условно-патогенные (к которым
относится гемолизирующая кишечная палочка) и
pathogenic. Учёные смогли выделить больше сотни
pathogenic strains of this bacterium, which were subsequently
divided into four main classes, namely:

  • entero-invasive;
  • enterotoxigenic;
  • enteropathogenic;
  • enterohemorrhagic.

These microorganisms могут стать причиной
развития эшерихиозов – заболеваний инфекционного
nature, which according to statistics are most common in children and
of women
(инфекция передаётся фекально-оральным путём в
основном через пищу или воду).

The form Особенности Escherichia coli
Enteropathogenic escherichiosis Acute intestinal infection caused by enteropathogenic bacilli.
Often the disease affects newborns, babies from birth
up to a year. Frequent clinical manifestation:

  • vomiting
  • loose stools.

The kid begins to regurgitate often, refuses food. Sleep
the child is disturbed, he becomes restless. The disease proceeds in
protracted form is not intense.

Enterotoxigenic This kind of E. coli resembles
picture of food poisoning. Distinctive characteristics:

  • severe and frequent diarrhea,
  • vomiting
  • abdominal pain,
  • nausea.

Disease prone adults, children of all ages. Often
is common with travelers.

Entero-invasive Entero-invasive кишечная палочка вызывает острые пищевые
toxic infections in children and adults, the course of which is similar to
dysentery.
Enterohemorrhagic Enterohemorrhagic (гемолитическая, гемолизирующая) кишечная
wand causes hemorrhagic colitis in children and adults or
hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Both diseases require
treatment.

Withчины попадания в организм

Escherichia coli

E. coli exists and reproduces provided
ambient temperature at 37 degrees. It feeds in
intestine minerals and amino acid breakdown products.
Retains its vitality, falling into reservoirs, soil and
products.

The genus Escherichia belongs to the family of enterobacteria. The greatest
A group of microbial species is beneficial to the body. Part
strains is pathogenic – a number of heavy food
poisoning, urinary infections. With severe immunodeficiency
conditions when E. coli has spread throughout the body,
can lead to the development of meningitis, sepsis.

The main cause of infection with intestinal infections is
non-compliance with hygiene standards.

There are 2 ways in which the infection is transmitted:

  1. Water. Infection enters the body through consumption
    unboiled water or poor quality.
  2. Alimentary. It is characterized by ingestion of contaminated food. With
    this type of infection often causes food poisoning in
    the person who used for cooking the seeded
    products. For the human body such food is poison.

Orally, Escherichia coli enters the intestinal tract from:

  • dirt on your hands;
  • dirt on vegetables and fruits;
  • insufficiently processed thermally meat;
  • contaminated raw water;
  • raw milk (according to statistics, this method of transmission
    is the most common).

Contact-household transmission is rare. More often his
can be observed during the outbreak of eshechiriosis in a separate room
(maternity hospital, hospital, school, etc.). One of the most dangerous
infection with E. coli is transmission through
childbirth from mother to child.

Symptoms of E. coli

Симптомы заражения кишечной палочкой проявляются
differently so each class of pathogenic bacteria is necessary
considered separately. condition
здоровья заражённого человека будет зависеть от того, в
which group belong and with what speed intestinal multiply
sticks, disease symptoms described below.

To the general signs of development in the body of pathogenic intestinal
sticks include symptoms such as:

  • Disruption of the digestive process;
  • Pain in the abdomen;
  • Vomiting and nausea;
  • Manifestations of flatulence;
  • Unpleasant smell, felt from the mouth;
  • Weakness;
  • Sleepливость;
  • Loss of appetite;
  • Increased body temperature;
  • Drop in blood pressure.

Depending on the type of bacteria, a person notices
the presence of certain signs.

Symptoms depending on the type of bacteria

The colibacillosis caused by entero-invasive sticks causes
defeat of the large intestine. Disease develops with
occurrence of general intoxication symptoms:

  • weaknesses
  • headache,
  • chills
  • temperature increase.

Спустя несколько часов возникают схваткообразные боли внизу
belly.

  • There is diarrhea, the stool is first watery and plentiful. But on
    мере поражения толстой кишки развивается колит.
  • Symptoms of this condition are frequent liquid or
    кашицеобразный стул с примесью слизи, прожилками крови.

This variant of colibacillosis is characterized by benign
over. The temperature and the stool are normalized after only one-three.
of the day

Intestinal infections caused by enteropathogenic intestinal
with chopsticks, in adults and children over 3 years of age flow by type
salmonellosis. That is, the disease begins acutely:

  • nausea appears
  • vomiting
  • stomach ache,
  • moderately or slightly increased body temperature.

The stool becomes liquid, watery and abundant, and the patient
goes to the toilet 2 – 6 times a day. With дефекации испражнения
literally splatter. The infection lasts on average for 3 – 6
days, after which comes recovery.

Enterotoxigenic кишечные палочки опасны тем, что могут
attached to the intestinal mucosa, than
significantly disrupt his work.
Инфекция передаётся через немытые руки или фрукты,
therefore the symptoms of the vital activity of intestinal bacteria in human
The body is sometimes called “traveler’s diarrhea,” which
accompanied by:

  • watery diarrhea without blood,
  • nausea
  • paroxysmal abdominal pain.

Manifestations of infection with enterohemorrhagic infection:

  • Necrosis;
  • Withсутствие кровяных сгустков (в кале);
  • Peritonitis;
  • Diarrhea (watery stools).

Symptoms of infection in a child are more severe,
especially when infants or children with low
body weight.

Escherichia coli can cause diseases in other organs,
besides the intestines. In the urinary tract this bacterium is also capable
cause inflammation. У девушек и of women этот риск является более
higher than men, because they have a short way out
intestine to urethra.

Complications

Some types of sticks can cause:

  • poisoning;
  • colibacteriosis;
  • intestinal dysbiosis;
  • colpitis;
  • prostatitis;
  • inflammation of the genitourinary system, cystitis;
  • meningitis in newborns.

In rare cases, inflammatory diseases can cause
complications:

  • peritonitis;
  • pneumonia;
  • sepsis;
  • mastitis.

Опасно попадание любых бактерий во влагалище of womenы. it
leads to inflammation of the genitals. First appears
vulvovaginitis or colpitis. If the pathogen is not eliminated in time,
the infection rises to the fallopian tubes and uterus. Develops
endometritis. With дальнейшем движении бактерий вверх по организму они
enter the abdominal cavity, peritonitis is observed.

The disease caused by E. coli manifests itself in different ways and
may have a lot of complications on the organs and systems of the body. therefore
the pathogen must be identified as soon as possible and immediately
start treatment.

Diagnostics

Infection is diagnosed on the basis of bacteriological
research. Often при наличии палочки в исследовательском
material that is the main part of normal microflora
intestine, it is very difficult to isolate a pure pathogenic culture
bacteria. If the body has an inflammatory process,
urgent treatment is recommended. To get the result of the analysis
use:

  • fecal and emetic masses;
  • blood;
  • urine;
  • pus;
  • swabs or scrapings taken from mucous genital organs.

Treatment of E. coli

Treatment of intestinal infections caused by the stick, usually
comprehensive and includes the following items:

  1. Antibiotics. Antibacterial therapy forms the basis
    treatment of E. coli. A particular drug is prescribed after
    determine the sensitivity of microorganisms to it. More often
    recommend antibiotics of the cephalosporins group: Cefelim, Cephalexin,
    Levofloxacin. Preparations are taken in courses of 5-10 days.
  2. Bacteriophages. it препараты, уничтожающие бактерии более мягко
    and safe than antibiotics, but they are not effective
    is always. Bacteriophages include Sekstafag, Enter-bacteriophage
    etc.
  3. Painkillers. If abdominal pain is severe,
    prescribed painkillers such as No-shpa, Took, Spazmalin,
    Nurofen. However, they can not be taken for a long time.
  4. Пробиотики (Линекс, Бифидумбактерин etc.) помогают
    restore normal pathogenic and beneficial balance
    microorganisms in the intestines.

Treatment of colibacillosis should be carried out in a hospital:

  • Mild forms of infection are not require
    назначения антибактериальных средств.
  • With среднетяжелых формах коли-инфекции назначают антибиотики из
    fluoroquinolone groups (norfloxacin, ofloxacin).
  • With тяжелой форме эшерихиоза приписывают препараты из группы
    cephalosporins (cefotaxime), fluoroquinolones together with
    aminoglycosides.

In addition to taking antibiotics, the patient must perform
определенные правила treatment. If the patient has diarrhea or
vomiting то ему необходимо в обязательном порядке пить регидрационные
solutions. With their help, the lost
liquids and salts.

With каждом опорожнении кишечника и рвоте необходимо выпивать от
300 to 600 milliliters of rehydration solution. For his
preparations can be used pharmaceutical powder in the form of Trisol,
Rehydron, Glukosolana.

To ensure the highest quality treatment of infectious
diseases that occur with the appearance of E. coli,
Recommended intake of enterosorbents:

  • Polysorb;
  • Enterosgelya;
  • Polyphepane;
  • Smecta;
  • Filtrum.

Dietary compliance. You can cure E. coli
subject to a special diet. The menu should include more
water cooked cereals, slimy soups, boiled vegetables,
lean meat and fish, steamed.

It is strictly forbidden to eat smoked, fat and
fried foods, canned food, milk, fresh fruit,
spices.

Prevention

E. coli is destroyed during cooking, baking,
pasteurization. However, this rule is applicable provided that
the temperature is at least 70 ° C and the process
lasts at least 2 minutes. Unlike others, the bacterium
E.coli is characterized by resistance to cold, acidic conditions, drying and
high salt concentration.

Preventive actions to prevent diseases,
caused by intestinal sticks:

  • Personal hygiene: washing hands and face thoroughly after
    streets and crowded places, competent approach to intimate hygiene.
  • Control the purity of consumed raw foods and bring to
    the desired state of milk and meat.
  • Drinking only quality water.
  • Use of disposable clothing in the hospital
    institutions.
  • Monitoring the hygiene and health of pets.
  • Regular cleaning of premises using reliable but
    non aggressive detergents.
  • Caution for meals in catering establishments
    and during holidays in hot countries.

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