Dysentery: symptoms in children, adults, treatment,infection routes

Update: December 2018

Dysentery is an infectious intestinal disease that
medicine is divided into amoebic and bacterial, that is
on amebiasis and shigellosis. Ameb first distinguished Russian by the name of Lesh
(F.A) Shigella as causative agents of dysentery – Japanese Kiyoshi
Shiga

Because amoebiasis is common in endemic countries with hot
climate – Mexico, India, etc., in Russia this disease happens
rarely enough. In time to recognize and start adequate
treatment of the disease, you should know what the symptoms of dysentery
may be in children or adults. In this article, we are more
tell about shigellosis or infectious dysentery, the symptoms of which
begin with general intoxication, vomiting, nausea, belching. Also
dysentery is manifested by heartburn, diarrhea and bloating, pain, false
urging to stool, rumbling (splashing noise), rectal spittle and
raspberry jelly (distal lesions).

However, only on the basis of patient complaints, it is impossible
establish the exact cause of digestive disorders and signs
intoxication. To establish the diagnosis, you must either pass the feces to
seeding on a dysentery group or blood on serology (antibodies to
shigella).

Ways of infection, causes of dysentery in children and adults

The source of dysentery is persons suffering from chronic or
acute form of the disease, as well as bacterial carriers.

  • Patients with an acute form are most contagious in the first few
    days of illness. The acute form lasts about 3 months, during which
    bacteria excretion does not stop.
  • In chronic dysentery – a person can produce shigella.
    only during exacerbations, the duration of such dysentery is more than 3
    months.
  • The most unpredictable and dangerous bacteria carriers are individuals with
    low symptom course of the disease, when it is erased or its lungs
    forms when the disease is not pronounced, and the person allocates
    bacteria that cause dysentery.

The cause of dysentery in children and adults is noncompliance
rules of personal hygiene, the use of contaminated products. Mechanism
infection with this infectious disease is only fecal-oral,
which happens in various ways:

  • The waterway of infection is most often transmitted to them, the so-called
    Flexner dysentery.
  • Food path – mostly they pass dysentery to Sonne
  • Контактно-бытовой путь —  передается дизентерия Григорьева
    — Shiga

All types of dysentery can be transmitted from person to person.
through household items, if in case of non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene,
they are infected with feces. Transmission factors of dysentery and other
intestinal infections are water, flies, food, especially
dairy products, unwashed fruits and vegetables, dirty hands, household
items used by a sick person.

  • Human susceptibility to dysentery is high

And it almost does not depend on age and gender, however,
most often dysentery affects preschool children,
as they often lack proper hygiene skills.
The causes of dysentery in children and adults may not only be
the fact of infection, but also provoking factors, for example,
susceptibility to intestinal diseases increases with
chronic or acute diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, with
intestinal dysbiosis (treatment).

  • Seasonality of the disease

Like other intestinal infections, gastric flu, salmonellosis,
dysentery occurs more often in the warm season, in the autumn-summer,
since favorable external conditions contribute to the revitalization and
reproduction pathogen.

  • After suffering dysentery in a person for a year
    immunity is maintained, which is strictly species-specific.

Дизентерия симптомы

The causative agent of the disease can maintain its activity during
external environment up to 1.5 months, and getting on some products
especially for dairy products, and is able to multiply.
The occurrence of dysentery begins after the penetration of Shigella into
The digestive tract, then multiplying, the pathogen secretes poisons into the blood, these
toxins have a negative effect on blood vessels, liver,
blood circulation to the intestinal wall and the central nervous system.
The inflammation that occurs in the small intestinal mucosa may
lead to the formation of deep ulcers in the intestines.

Symptoms of dysentery in children and adults

In establishing the diagnosis of the disease are important data
about the presence of a dysentery outbreak, the registration of cases among
environment of the patient, seasonality. The incubation period of this intestinal
инфекции считается от нескольких часов до 5 дней,
but most often it is 2-3 days, so with high accuracy you can
determine the possible source of infection. What are the distinctive
signs of dysentery? Symptoms in adults with typical clinical
picture dysentery following:

Dysentery begins acutely, and the symptoms are primarily worn.
signs of intoxication, high fever appears,
headache, nausea, loss of appetite, falling arterial
pressure.

The pain in the abdomen is dull, first wears constant, diffuse
character With the development of intoxication, she acquires character
seizures, becomes cramping, often in the left side down
belly or above the pubis. Before the bowel movement the pain intensifies.

For dysentery is characterized by the appearance of tenesmus, that is, false
painful urge to empty, not ending with defecation.
Also могут быть боли в прямой кишке при дефекации и еще несколько
minutes after emptying, bowing pain in the intestine may give in
sacrum.

The chair becomes speeded up, over 10 times a day, while often
muco-bloody discharge appears, in severe cases with
emptying of the intestines only bloody mucous membranes appear
highlight.

There is also a gastroenteric version of the course of the disease (not
more than 20% of cases). For him, fever and intoxication are not
precede intestinal disorders, and coincide in time with them.
This form is debuted immediately with vomiting, liquid, watery stools. With
second-third day can join and colitis. For this form
dehydration is very characteristic (as opposed to colitis),
there are lethargy, falling blood pressure, dry mucous membranes and skin,
decrease in discharge of urine.

The disease occurs in various forms, from the lung.
malaise, intestinal discomfort and low-grade fever,
to severe, severe dysentery, symptoms and treatment
which require the urgent hospitalization of the patient – a complete rejection of
food, fever, pale skin, frequent
stools, vomiting, neurological disorders.

In chronic dysentery, the symptoms of the disease are no longer worn.
intoxication nature, however, constant daily
diarrhea, fecal masses often have a greenish tint,
mushy, a person loses weight, hypovitaminosis appears. With
timely adequate treatment in developed countries
cases of chronic dysentery are recorded, since the use of
antibiotics, enterosorbents, eubiotics, which in modern
pharmacological industry a great many successfully
inhibit shigella reproduction.

Features of dysentery, symptoms in children

Dysentery in young children has a number of features.
The main clinical manifestations are diarrhea with colitis
syndrome (a small amount of feces, the appearance of blood, mucus in
feces) and symptoms of general intoxication that are not
differ from most infectious diseases – worsening
state of health, fever, loss of appetite. Collitic
the syndrome happens 90% of cases, but its manifestations can be expressed
not bright, but only combined with dyspepsia syndrome.

On the first day of illness due to a spastic condition of the intestines,
a child’s stool becomes scarce, instead of stool may
stand out only muddy slime with greens, sometimes with streaks
blood.

Tenesmus that occurs in older children and adults in children
young age are replaced by crying during bowel movements, anxiety,
relaxing the anus. Unlike older children,
infants and children under 3 years old, the stomach is usually not drawn in, but distended.

Toxic forms of dysentery occur in infants
very rarely. Their infectious toxicosis is mild due to
physiological hyporeactivity to microbial toxicosis. But for
they are very typical exsiccosis (dehydration), which with vomiting and
diarrhea develop quickly enough.

Symptoms of dysentery in children manifested frequent copious
watery stools, vomiting, a sharp decrease in weight, because
severe disorders of water-mineral and protein metabolism occur.
Such changes can lead to cardiovascular disorders,
adynamia, intestinal paresis and other serious complications.

In infants, the symptoms are complemented by the occurrence of
ileocolites, ileites with fever, severe intoxication, constant
vomiting, significant weight loss, flatulence, copious,
frequent, dull, fetid stool. It is established that such forms
dysentery is usually combined with staph infection,
salmonellosis.

The most severe symptoms of dysenteric intoxication in children
convulsions, dizziness, cyanosis, meningeal
phenomena, cold extremities, as well as in children may occur
tachycardia, cardiovascular weakness, arrhythmia, fall
blood pressure, muffled or deafness of the heart
tones.

What distinguishes the symptoms of dysentery from other disorders
intestines?

Dysentery should be differentiated from various other
intestinal infections or non-communicable bowel diseases such
as:

  • With токсикоинфекциях пищевых, сальмонеллезе

Эти заболевания  начинается с многократной рвоты, озноба,
pain, which is localized most often in the epigastric region. With
food poisoning there is no colon damage and therefore
there is no spastic left pain in the iliac region, also
no false urge to defecate. With сальмонеллезе кал имеет
greenish shade or as they say, the view of the swamp mud.

  • Amebiasis

Unlike infectious dysentery, it is characterized by
chronic process without noticeable temperature reaction.
The feces retain the appearance of fecal masses, while mucus and blood
mix evenly to form a “raspberry jelly” in which
discover amoebae – causative agents of the disease.

  • Cholera

also not accompanied by symptoms of spastic colitis. it
the disease begins with diarrhea, severe vomiting, feces
rice broth, there is no heat, pain in the abdomen and
false urge to defecate. Cholera is characteristic rapidly
increasing symptoms of dehydration, which rarely leads to
severe condition of the patient.

  • Typhoid fever

also spastic colitis is not characteristic of him, sometimes
the large intestine is affected, there is a high temperature long
time, a specific roseola rash.

  • Colitis

non-infectious origin, occurs in case of poisoning
chemical compounds, and also he often accompanies such
diseases like hypoacidium gastritis, cholecystitis, uremia, pathology
small intestine. Such colitis has no seasonality, is not contagious.
disease and is associated with internal changes in the digestive tract.

  • Hemorrhoids

This disease is characterized by bloody discharge, but
usually without inflammatory processes in the colon. With геморрое
only at the end of the act of defecation to the fecal masses is mixed
blood.

  • Colon cancer

Rectal cancer – diarrhea is also characteristic of this disease.
with blood and intoxication symptoms in the stage of tumor collapse. But,
oncological diseases do not have an acute nature of
characterized by the presence of metastases in distant organs or regional
lymph nodes.

 Dysentery treatment

Children diagnosed with dysentery, especially thoracic and
younger age – up to 3 years, most often hospitalized. Adults
patients can be treated both in hospital and at home, depending on
the severity of the infectious process, the age and condition of the patient, or
when it is impossible to carry out treatment and care for the sick at home
conditions. The main treatment is to prescribe the following
drugs:

  • With выборе противомикробных средств: легкие формы лечатся
    Furazolidone, moderate and heavy preferred
    fluoroquinological or cephalosporins, aminoglycosides (kanamycin).
  • Children from the first days of the disease should be given saline,
    glucose-salt solutions – Regidron, Oralit, Glukosolan, etc.
    Dilute 1 sachet of such funds should be in 1 liter of water, give
    baby a teaspoon every 5 minutes, based on the daily dose
    110 ml per 1 kg. baby
  • Эубиотики —  Бифидобактерин, Бактисубтил, Бифиформ,
    Риофлора иммуно, Бификол, Withмадофилюс, Лактобактерин, Линекс и etc.
    Because antibacterial drugs exacerbate symptoms
    intestinal dysbiosis, necessarily shown eubiotics, which
    appointed by the course of at least 3-4 weeks (see the entire list of analogues
    Linex).
  • If indicated, the doctor may prescribe immunomodulators, vitamins,
    as well as astringents and antispasmodics.
  • After an acute process to accelerate regeneration recommended
    microclysters with herbal decoctions, infusions – Viniline, eucalyptus,
    Chamomile, sea buckthorn oil, wild rose.
  • Adsorbents, enterosorbents – Smekta, Polyphepan, Polysorb,
    Filtrum STI (instructions for use), activated carbon and
    etc.
  • Enzyme complex drugs – Festal, Creon, Panzinorm,
    Mezim
  • With хронической дизентерии, лечение антибиотиками менее
    therefore, physiotherapy is prescribed,
    eubiotics, therapeutic microclysters.
  • Sparing diet – slimy soups, rice water or porridge without
    salt, mashed potatoes. Force feeding neither child nor adult
    you shouldn’t, the main condition is more liquid, you can drink unsweetened,
    weak tea, water, milk whey. Exclude from the diet
    Muffin, meat, sugar, coffee, all semi-finished products, finished products,
    копчености, колбасы, сыры и etc. Только с 5 дня можно добавлять
    gradually boiled fish, meatballs, omelets, kefir. In 2 weeks
    translate into a full, but diet food.

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