most common diseases that can be distinguished in
A group of acute intestinal infections is dysentery.
It is dangerous because it easily turns into a whole epidemic and even
pandemic, rapidly spreading, transmitted by oral-fecal
in a way. According to statistics, 110 worldwide are affected worldwide
million people in a special risk group are residents of countries with
low levels of sanitation, poor nutrition and dirty
Pathogens and causes of the disease
High incidence due to the fact that dysenteric
the wand spreads very quickly in the environment. She is
causes an acute infectious disease that primarily
begins to infect the large intestine, and then causes intoxication
the whole body. In age from 1−1.5 years almost everyone
second child shows signs of damage. Causative agent
dysentery is the Shigella bacterium. To date
revealed several of its forms:
- Shigella subspecies Grigoriev-Shigi, Lardzh-Saks, Shtutsera-Schmidt
– they are considered the most toxic and cause disease with
- Shigella causing Flexner’s dysentery caused almost
75% of cases recorded in the XX century.
- Shigella Sonne – the most common infectious agents
currently on the entire planet.
- Shigella Boydy – the least studied subspecies, rarely found
in developed countries.
Bacteria do not form spores and are immobile. Level of them
ability to survive is determined by environmental factors,
humidity and temperature, as well as the total number of allocated
pathogens. Food products (especially dairy) – the most
an acceptable place for the reproduction and existence of shigella.
The incidence can occur as a separate outbreak, and
mass cases. She is определяется несколькими
- age category of patients –
about 40% of all cases are recorded in children from 1 to 7 years
(non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, active cognition of the environment
- sanitary and hygienic conditions – with their deterioration occur
outbreaks of disease as a result of non-compliance with sanitary norms and
rules (war, natural disasters, catastrophes, deterioration
life in the countries of the “third world”);
- season – in the autumn-summer period, dysentery is recorded
much more often than in winter (this is due to the active use
products from summer cottages without proper processing).
The World Health Organization records 9% fatal
cases of total infected each year.
Such sad statistics forces to take measures
prevent the spread of dangerous bacteria and increase
sanitary level all over the world.
Methods of transmission
Pathogens are released from the intestinal cavity of an infected person.
along with feces and then enter the body healthy
people. Therefore, the main method of transmitting dysentery is from the patient.
human healthy oral-fecal way. But when infected
shigella not all can show signs of acute intestinal
infections, some people act exclusively carriers.
Clinical symptoms are not detected, but for others
bacteria carriers are dangerous.
The third group – patients who are already at the stage
recovering from severe dysentery, but all
still emit a certain amount of bacteria into the surrounding
Pathogens easily enter the healthy body
- with food (unwashed vegetables and fruits, lack
thermal or mechanical processing);
- with water (ingestion of water contaminated with shigella
in places not required for swimming);
- at the time of contact with objects and surfaces, which
previously dealt with the patient (dishes, door handles, toys, and so
проявиться в flow первых 2−7 дней с момента попадания
dysenteric sticks in the intestines. Amazing effect can
render not all bacteria that have entered the body, some of them
dies even in the stomach under the influence of the acidic environment excreted
juice. Intestinal microflora also has a detrimental effect on
infection, however, after that, some shigella remains
which manages to penetrate the mucous membrane.
Getting and fixing themselves in a safe environment for them, bacteria
actively multiply, while producing toxic substances –
cytotoxins and exotoxins.
A healthy body with a strong immune system is trying
suppress pathogens by using special
cells – macrophages and neutrophils. Due to the death of shigella in tissue
endotoxin secreted. All these processes explain the clinical
picture of dysentery.
An active inflammatory process begins in the intestinal cavity.
with infection. As a result, its normal is disturbed.
Work – motility, absorption of useful substances. Therefore disease
general state of health worsens, and symptoms are presented beside
Types and forms of gravity
Depending on the overall pattern of symptoms and symptoms
dysentery causing its pathogen emit various forms
diseases. A separate category is the bacteriocarrier,
in which clear signs do not appear, but in the intestine
an infected person constantly has a certain amount
dangerous pathogen. Other patients may have
- острая форма — развивается и дает о себе знать
very quickly, with severe symptoms (as
local and general), with proper timely treatment
the state of health in the shortest possible time improves;
- хроническая — имеет вялотекущий,
progressive nature, periodically exacerbated or
dull, depending on this stool can normalize
completely, and the symptoms temporarily disappear during remission.
Doctors determine the severity
patient depending on the signs and general level
intoxication of the patient. They distinguish light and heavy, as well as medium
severity. In mild form, intoxication is mild,
treatment gives quick results and full recovery already on 4−5
With a moderate severity of the disease, toxic poisoning
Shigella substances can provoke more than a worsening
state of health, and disruption of the central nervous system.
Recovery lasts about 2 weeks from the start of the corresponding.
therapy. Severe form – the most dangerous, leads to fast
lethal without properly prescribed drugs. Treatment
delayed for 5-6 weeks with mandatory hospitalization
Another classification is based on which department
кишечника относится локализация diseases. The most common
view – kolitichesky, developing with the defeat of the walls only
large intestine. Gastroenteric variant affects
small intestine and stomach.
Gastroenterocolitic dysentery is caused by Shigella in
small, large intestines and mucous membranes of the stomach
at the same time.
Symptoms and signs
Минимальный период, в flow которого могут появиться признаки
acute infection is 1-2 days, the maximum – from 5 to 7
days. The overall clinical picture depends on various factors:
the age of the patient, the state of immunity, the presence of other
simultaneous diseases such as pathogen.
В первые дни обнаруживаются выраженные
- nausea and vomiting;
- lethargy and weakness;
- loss of appetite;
- учащение испражнений до 25−30 раз в flow дня;
- change in stool character (discharge becomes fluid,
there are green impurities, mucus, sometimes blood streaks);
- temperature rise to 39−40 degrees.
The patient may complain of recurrent pain in the lower part.
belly. Due to the frequent urging to the toilet and the strong straining of
children may experience rectal prolapse and inflammation
mucous membrane. At the time of probing the abdomen and intestines can
Hear the bubbling and rumbling.
In severe lesions, the hypertoxic form is diagnosed,
accompanied by convulsions of limbs and even loss of consciousness.
Integuments become bluish, legs become cold as a result
circulatory disorders, blood pressure drops sharply. Such
symptoms may be present from the early days of Shigella in
flow 3−4 days. If treatment is started in a timely manner, well-being
improves, bowel movements gradually stop until normal
Too frequent stools can
provoke additional symptoms. Large volume
excreted feces leads to dehydration
(water and electrolyte disorder). The patient becomes dry
language, begins tachycardia due to irregularities
of cardio-vascular system. Mild fever can
absent, and when severe leads to fainting and delusional
states. The patient has hallucinations.
In chronic dysentery, body temperature rarely rises to
The periods when the aggravation comes with pains and
spasms, constipation and intestinal disorders, and then when
the state is temporarily normalized. The remaining symptoms are mild
are expressed, but the disease progresses slowly.
Contact the hospital as soon as possible to
the disease has not become neglected. The doctor must evaluate not
only the symptoms in a particular patient, but also the general endemic
situation in the region. The defining signs are profusion and
stool frequency, its color, the presence of impurities and mucus. After
visual examinations and conversations are assigned laboratory tests and
исследования для диагностики дизентерии:
- stool analysis to determine the level of red blood cells in it and
white blood cells, as well as neutral fats, muscle fibers,
- bacteriological seeding feces and in some cases emetic
- serology and complete blood count;
- if necessary sigmoidoscopy (using
equipment for determining the inflammatory process in
In modern clinics are popular express methods
prescribe treatment to the patient.
Such techniques are immunofluorescent or
linked immunosorbent assay. The proctologist may be included in the examination.
and a gastroenterologist.
The disease can progress rapidly, which means it feels
the patient is able to deteriorate rapidly. In the absence of competent
treatment may have serious complications, and in severe forms –
death. The need for hospitalization is determined by the doctor in
depending on the form and degree of complexity, as well as on the basis
If a decision is made about home treatment, the relatives of the patient
must carefully follow the rules of personal hygiene, have
perception of transmission and prophylactic
measures. It is mandatory to hospitalize patients who have
damage to the cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous
systems. Under constant medical supervision should be
patients who are particularly active in spreading dangerous bacteria
(employees of food enterprises, doctors, teachers,
For patients with dysentery, a separate infectious disease ward is allocated.
offices. In the early days, the doctor may prohibit visits by loved ones due to
high probability of infection. If visiting is allowed,
It is recommended to come to the hospital in a bandage, do not touch it
items in the ward (dishes, bed, towels).
When treating symptoms of dysentery
it is necessary:
- stick to bed rest until full cast
health indicators back to normal;
- limit yourself from emotional stress and anxiety,
hypothermia, prolonged mental work
- exclude sports activities;
- get enough sleep, paying sleep at least 10 hours a day.
A prerequisite for complete recovery and successful struggle with
infection – the appointment of antibiotics.
The faster the patient begins to receive them, the less chance he will have
bacteria and complications can be avoided. Most commonly appointed
Furazolidone, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin.
Special compounds are also used to destroy bacteria.
bacteriophages. The drug enters the intestine, then directly
in shigella and completely destroys cells. Remaining content
comes out with feces.
In the complex treatment will require drugs for symptomatic
therapies: solutions to restore electrolyte-salt balance
and eliminate the effects of toxins on the blood, as well as formulations for
normalization of intestinal microflora.
Diet and restrictions
In the process of treatment of intestinal infections must adhere
special diet, otherwise the result will have to achieve a long time. Doctor
должен объяснить подробно, из чего может состоять меню the patient.
The main task is to saturate the body with all the necessary vitamins and
useful components, but it does not create a load on
Inflamed intestinal mucosa.
You need to eat at least 6 times a day, taking food in small
quantities. All products must be thoroughly cooked,
wash. Meals are best consumed warm. At least 2 liters of clean water
– a mandatory condition of treatment to prevent dehydration and
speeding up the process of removing toxins from the body.
It is strictly forbidden to use:
- fatty and rich broths, soup, soup;
- fatty meat dishes and fried steaks;
and smoked meats;
- canned food, including homemade;
- bread and baking;
- barley and wheat porridge;
- milk products;
Should not be in the menu of carbonated and alcoholic beverages,
sour cream and fast food. Instead, the diet will be very helpful.
low-fat broths based on chicken or fish, chicken fillet or
boiled turkey, veal and white crackers. The body is good
will respond to buckwheat, boiled rice, dogrose broth,
black and green tea.
Very useful for dysentery kissel. It has a soft
enveloping effect on the stomach and intestines, thanks to which
reduces pain and discomfort.
Traditional medicine is ready to offer many simple and effective
prescriptions for the treatment of dysentery. It is desirable about any accepted
measures to consult a doctor in order not to harm himself
to myself. The following recipes are distinguished:
- A decoction of oak bark has anti-inflammatory and
natural antibacterial action. Need 2 tablespoons
raw materials pour a glass of boiling water and cook for 30 minutes over low heat.
Strained composition drink 25−30 ml 40−50 minutes before meals
по 4 раза в day.
- Bird cherry infusion
– natural astringent, which quickly provides
anti-inflammatory effect. 400 grams per 20 grams of fruit
ml of boiling water, pour and insist 2 hours in a dark place. Drink by
quarters of a glass three times a day before meals for half an hour.
- Chamomile infusion is a powerful natural antispasmodic and antibiotic.
Pour 2 tablespoons of dried flowers with 250 ml of boiling water, leave to
20 minutes in a water bath. Then insist 1 hour, strain and drink by
3 tablespoons, dividing the reception of the infusion into 4 parts flow
of the day
- The decoction of the plantain has a detrimental effect on
breeding in the intestines of shigella and removes their toxic products
life activity. 5 grams of chopped fresh leaves to steam in
100 ml of boiling water and put in a water bath for 15 minutes. Insist not
less than 2 hours, filter and drink before a meal for half an hour: children before
13 years – 2 dessert spoons, adults – 2 tablespoons per
flow дня 4 раза.
Дизентерия опасна не только своим сложным flowм, но и
subsequent possible complications.
Therefore, it is important to diagnose it in a timely manner, and better –
to warn. Preventive measures are strict
hygiene and sanitation. To this must be taught
children from a very young age. After toilet and walking outside
hands should be washed with warm water and soap. The menu should
present only fresh products with a valid period
shelf life stored in optimal conditions.
It is important for children to explain that drinking water in dirty waters is extremely
It is dangerous, as well as use it from the plumbing in the heat of summer. Disease
can be overcome, but full recovery requires strength and patience.
Although health can be improved already by 3-4 days
after the start of therapy, the recovery of the mucous membrane will take at least
Dysentery at pregnant women bears big health hazard and lives not only the child, but also mothers. Therefore it is extremely important to address to the expert in time and immediately to diagnose an illness. Thus difficult treatment is carried out in a hospital under fixed supervision of the medical personnel. Self-treatment can have pernicious effect on a current and an outcome of pregnancy.