Diseases of the thyroid gland: symptoms andtreatment

Diseases of the thyroid gland: symptoms and treatmentWhat do you need
man for complete happiness? Being healthy both physically and
mentally. The physical and mental state is closely interconnected.
connected. A hormonal background regulates these conditions. Diseases
thyroid is common among the population that’s why
Thyroid health should be given special attention.

General information about the body

The thyroid gland is the organ of the small endocrine system
size (approximately with a baby cam), which is located
on the front of the neck. It consists of two segments with the connecting
cloth between them. It can be said that in form this gland
resembles a butterfly.

Общие сведения о щитовидной железеThe thyroid is responsible for
production of hormones containing iodine: thyroxin and
triiodothyronine. They regulate metabolism, body growth
human, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal
tract and reproductive system. Iron also produces a hormone that
responsible for the regulation of calcium in the body – calcitonin.

You should know that the iron itself does not manage the amount
hormone production. Thyroid-regulating thyroid activity
the hormone that secretes the pituitary gland, the gland in the head
the brain.

In a healthy person, slight fluctuations are possible.
hormones. And in order to understand whether a person is healthy, medical professionals
investigate the concentration of total and free fraction T3 (thyroxin) and T4
(triiodothyronine), along with this and the concentration of TSH (thyrotropic

The concentration of hormones in a healthy person:

  • triiodothyronine (T3) total (1.08–3.14 nmol / l);
  • triiodothyronine (T3) free (2.6–5.7 nmol / l);
  • thyroxin (T4) total (55–137 nmol / l);
  • thyroxin (T4) free (9−22 nmol / l);
  • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.4–4.0 mU / l).

If the patient or the attending physician has doubts, then
a blood test needs to be done again to make sure
diagnosis or absence of pathology.

Thyroid disease can develop in two directions:
reduced endocrine function (hypothyroidism) or increased endocrine
functions (hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis). Some pathologies arise
due to increased levels of iodine in the body, which can provoke
cretinism or endemic goiter.

First symptoms

More often страдает щитовидная железа у женщин. Symptoms
заболевания и treatment должны в обязательном порядке
be monitored by a doctor. To prevent and stop development
disease, you need to listen to your body, watch for
changes in it.

Выделяют следующие признаки болезни щитовидной
glands in women:

  1. Weight gain or loss. There are situations
    varied. The girl watches nutrition, does not eat high-calorie foods,
    constantly loads itself physically. But weight is growing. And maybe
    the reason is that the thyroid gland has become less active, and learn
    this will be possible only after passing the diagnosis. Or vice versa –
    the girl is exhausted, rather quickly loses weight and looks from it
    tired Withчина может скрываться в гиперактивности органа.
  2. Withзнаки болезни щитовидной железы у женщинEducation on
    Это может be зоб. It develops like hypothyroidism,
    so with hyperthyroidism. It indicates goiter about the presence of nodules in
    ill thyroid gland that indicates incorrect work
  3. Failure of the heartbeat, low or high
    The thyroid gland controls the functioning of organs and their systems.
    This includes the cardiovascular system. Violations in
    the functioning of the gland can provoke arrhythmia, tachycardia and
  4. Drowsiness, fatigue. With сбое в работе железы
    a person feels tired, he can constantly be sleepy without
    apparent reasons. This also leads to negative effects.
    on mood and mental state. Человек может be
    upset, annoyed, feeling anxious. Often in such cases
    tends to sleep, but cannot sleep.
  5. Hair loss. Such a symptom occurs if
    malfunctioning thyroid. Symptoms and treatment у женщин
    must be strictly controlled, because it is dangerous to health and
    may cause adverse effects.
  6. Feeling hot or chill. Iron also affects
    thermoregulation in the body. Therefore, in hypothyroidism, a person may
    feel cold, and he will always have a chill. And at
    hyperthyroidism occurs fever, profuse
    perspiration, constant heat sensation.
  7. Withзнаки болезни щитовидной железыMuscle weakness
    hand shake.
    The patient may feel not just weakness and
    drowsiness, and muscle pain, discomfort with any
    physical exertion.
  8. Reduced vision quality. With заболевании щитовидки
    vision drops. A person can also see everything blurry, eyes will be
    feel constant fatigue.
  9. Violation of the gastrointestinal tract.
    Persistent constipation or diarrhea may indicate what you need.
    Refer also to the endocrinologist.
  10. Irregular menstruation. They are an indicator
    health status of organs and their systems, including
    thyroid gland.

Thus, in case of malfunction of the gland, signs appear
other diseases that is fraught with not very good consequences.

Without understanding the cause of the disease, a person may to treat
not at all what is needed, and this will lead to advanced stages of the disease
and more problems. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to
all signs of the appearance of the pathology of this organ. If manifest
several symptoms in total, you need to urgently turn to

Withчины заболевания

Some diseases are caused by human exposure.
external factors (radiation, ultraviolet radiation, pollution
воздуха и воды и etc. ) или же появления мутаций в генах. Mutations
can be formed either spontaneously or under the influence of
mutagens. Not always a person can prevent the development of the disease,
even leading a healthy lifestyle. However, you should know that
can cause the appearance of pathology in the thyroid gland.

Withчинами возникновения заболеваний щитовидки

  1. Withчины заболевания щитовидной железыGenetics. Problems
    in the work of the gland can be inherited. It’s connected with
    the fact that mutations occur in the genes, resulting in a violation
    the functioning of the body.
  2. Iodine deficiency or iodine excess in the body. More often
    It all depends on nutrition, especially among fanatically slimming people.
    Может развиться заболевание thyroid gland.
  3. Living in a particular region. In remote from
    seas and oceans regions are inhabited by a large number of people with
    патологическим состоянием thyroid gland. The development of gland disease in
    Doctors explain such people by using a small amount
    iodine-containing products, namely seafood.
  4. Withём гормональных лекарств. Often taking medications
    affects hormones.
  5. Stress and frustration. Mental component
    health directly affects the physical condition and vice versa.
    Constant stress causes disturbances in the nervous system, and
    this in turn has an effect on pituitary gland production
  6. Infections and chronic diseases. Permanent
    malfunctions of the human body can lead to several other
    патологий, к ним относится и болезнь щитовидной glands.

Disruption of work

According to statistics, every tenth resident is diagnosed
патологическое состояние thyroid gland. According to the World Organization
health problems are most affected by women,
this risk after 30 years increases significantly.

Graves Disease

Graves DiseaseThis disease has several names:
basedovoy disease diffuse goiter. This pathology is characterized
excessive production of its own hormones, which leads to
poisoning of the body, there is thyrotoxicosis.

More often это наследственное заболевание. But there are
other factors that may affect the development of Graves disease:
mental injuries, infectious diseases, craniocerebral
injuries, diseases of the nasopharynx.

In women, this disease occurs 8 times more often than in men.
The age at which this pathology occurs is approximately from
30 to 60 years. Also, bazedovoy disease can occur in
adolescents, pregnant women in menopause.


One of the clear signs of diffuse goiter are bulging
eyes and goiter Also there should be carried such

  • cardiovascular diseases;
  • increased metabolism, drastic weight loss;
  • Withзнаки диффузного зобаexcessive sweating
  • frequent headaches, weakness, insomnia;
  • diarrhea, nausea, vomiting;
  • enhanced eye gloss, the lag of the century from the edge of the iris when
    looking down, pupil dilation, pain in the eyes, in some cases
    vision loss;
  • frequent caries, periodontal disease.

With появлении нескольких симптомов следует обратиться к
endocrinologist. After all, timely initiated therapy will help protect
the body from the negative effects.

Treatment of this disease has three options:

  1. Лечение болезни ГрейвсаМедикаментозное treatment. More often
    just for drug therapy apply mercazole and
    methyl thiouracil.
  2. Radioiodine therapy. It consists in the introduction into the body
    radioactive iodine that kills thyroid cells and its
    опухоли, что вышли за предел размещения glands.
  3. Surgical intervention. Operative intervention
    проводится только тогда, когда медикаментозное treatment не приносит
    a positive result, and the overall state becomes
    dangerous to human health.

Hashimoto disease

Hashimoto disease Hashimoto disease появляется при дефектах
the immune system when antibodies start taking organ cells
for alien and destroy them. With этой болезни развивается
hypothyroidism. More often заболевание хроническое, может передаваться
genetically. Studies of a Japanese doctor by whose name and
was called ailment, showed that organ pathologies can develop
not only with a lack of iodine in the body, but also with its excess.
Thus, the main work of the gland for the development of

Hashimoto disease не так заметна, как предыдущая, визуально её
The signs are quite difficult to identify. But there are a few
symptoms pointing to it:

  • fatigue, drowsiness;
  • weight gain;
  • dry and brittle hair;
  • constipation;
  • chills;
  • irregular and painful menstruation.

If there are such abnormalities in the state of the thyroid gland,
симптомы болезни и treatment будут также отличаться от такой
pathology like diffuse goiter. Therapy can be

  • The use of thyroid drugs. This is hormonal
    drugs that contain thyroxine, triiodothyronine,
    thyroidin, L-thyroxin.
  • Хирургическое вмешательство. Operate with a strong
    enlargement of the gland when a vessel is squeezed,
    respiratory tract.
  • The use of drugs selenium. These drugs
    used as additives. Studies have shown that they reduce
    the amount of antibodies that destroy the thyroid cells, and significantly
    improve patient health.

Thyroid nodes

Nodes can be located both inside the gland and on top of it.
There are just solid, and there are filled with liquid. More often
these are benign tumors, but less often with improper or
late treatment they can transform into cancer

They occur with iodine deficiency, and therefore the signs will be
similar to the previous disease: drowsiness, fatigue, recruitment
weights, etc.

Thyroid nodes

More often узелки не трогают, а просто наблюдают за ними. With
strong increase already moving to surgical

Pathology diagnosis

With описанных признаках необходимо обратиться к endocrinologist.
He will prescribe the necessary tests and ultrasounds to determine the condition
health A blood test will show the concentration of hormones, and with the help
An ultrasound scan can be used to investigate whether there are significant increases or
nodules in the thyroid gland.

You can conduct a survey at home
on their own.

Pathology diagnosis щитовидной железыOne of the most
Known methods – this iodine grid. Need to draw it on
forearm and after a while (2−3 hours) look, not
did she disappear If iodine absorbs too quickly, it can
testify that a person has hypothyroidism. If mesh
has a clear outline, then hyperthyroidism is possible.

You can also check for thyroid disease in the eyes.
It is necessary to note the time and count the number of blinks per minute.
Norm – 20-30 times. If blinking is slower, then maybe
there is a fading century that is a sign

If hair is observed to become less frequent, then urgent
need to contact an endocrinologist.

Another way – check for goiter. Need to go to the mirror
with a glass of water. Take some water in your mouth, lift your chin and
take a sip. If any education is noticed between the middle part
throat and collarbone, then this is a clear reason to see a doctor.

Preventive measures

The thyroid is an iron that controls the work of all
organs, so you need to know about diseases of the thyroid gland, their
symptoms in women and treatment. To avoid health problems,
Doctors recommend following these rules:

  1. Preventive measures болезни щитовидной железыBalanced
    to eat
    It is necessary to include in the diet foods rich in iodine
    (sea kale, fish, seafood, iodized salt).
  2. To refuse from bad habits. Smoking and excessive
    drinking alcohol will definitely not have a positive effect on the endocrine
    body system.
  3. Follow the daily regimen. Downed mode leads to
    drowsiness, malfunction of human organs, including
  4. Avoid stressful situations. Any quarrel, neurosis,
    emotional experiences can negatively affect the operation of the thyroid
    glands. Therefore, we must try to avoid stressful situations, they
    health is not worth it.

Thus, the causes of thyroid dysfunction
glands quite a lot. Need to remember the recommendations, pass
regular diagnosis, then the chances of developing thyroid disease
the glands will contract significantly.

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