Update: October 2018
Diabetes mellitus is undoubtedly one of the most serious pathologies.
endocrine system requiring constant monitoring by
doctor and patient. Everyone who faced this diagnosis,
agrees that the prevailing proportion of medical recommendations and
restrictions apply to a person’s daily diet. In fact, this and
there is a basic treatment on which the further course depends
disease and the general condition of the patient.
If you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, diet is
what you should memorize, but rather print it out and always
keep before your eyes, but the main thing is to strictly observe it. And how not
right are those who believe that a dozen sweets or a few glasses
alcohol nothing will happen. Such breakdowns nullify all
previous efforts and may result in a critical condition,
requiring resuscitation, as well as a complete rejection of
At first, it is recommended to keep a food diary (on paper or
online), recording everything that is used during the day and others
key points of nutrition.
see new type of diabetes not recognized on time
The basic principles of nutrition
In diabetics who are intentionally or unknowingly
diagnosis settings do not diet, due to excessive
the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is lost cell sensitivity to
insulin. Because of this, glucose in the blood grows and keeps on high
indicators. The meaning of diet food for diabetics is
in returning insulin sensitivity to cells, i.e.
the ability to digest sugar.
- Restriction of the total caloric intake while maintaining its
energy usefulness for the body.
- The energy component of the diet should be equal to the real
- Eating about the same time. It contributes
well-coordinated work of the digestive system and normal flow
- Mandatory 5-6 times food intake during the day, with lungs
snacks – especially insulin-dependent
- Одинаковые (примерно) по калорийности основные приемы food.
Most carbohydrates should be in the first half.
of the day
- Extensive use of the permitted range of products in
dishes, without looping on any specific.
- Adding fresh, fiber-rich vegetables from the list
allowed to each dish to create saturation and reduce
absorption speed of simple sugars.
- Substitution of sugar with approved and safe sugar substitutes in
- Preference for vegetable fat desserts (yoghurt,
nuts) because splitting fat slows down the absorption
- Eating sweets only during main meals, and
not in snacks, otherwise there will be a sharp jump in blood glucose.
- Strict limitation up to the complete exclusion of easily digestible
- Ограничение сложных carbohydrates.
- Limiting the proportion of animal fat in the diet.
- The exclusion or significant reduction of salt.
- Overeating, i.e. digestive overload
- Eating out immediately after exercise or
- The exclusion or sharp limitation of alcohol (up to 1 serving per
during the day). Do not drink on an empty stomach.
- The use of diet cooking methods.
- The total amount of free fluid daily is 1.5 liters.
Some features of optimal nutrition for diabetics
- In no case can not be neglected breakfast.
- You can not starve and take long breaks in food.
- Last meal no later than 2 hours before bedtime.
- Meals should not be too hot and too cold.
- When eating, vegetables are eaten first, and then the protein product.
(meat, cottage cheese).
- If there is a significant amount of carbohydrates in a serving,
must be and proteins or correct fats to reduce speed
- Permitted drinks or water is advisable to drink before meals, and not
wash down their food.
- When cooking meatballs is not used a loaf, but you can
add oatmeal, vegetables.
- You can not increase the GI products, further frying them,
adding flour, breading in breadcrumbs and batter, flavoring with butter and even
boiling (beets, pumpkin).
- With poor portability of raw vegetables make baked dishes
of them, various pasta and pate.
- It should be eaten slowly and in small portions, carefully
- Stop eating should be at 80% saturation (according to personal
What is the glycemic index (GI) and why is it needed?
This is an indicator of the ability of products after their receipt in
the body causes an increase in blood sugar levels. Special
urgency of GI acquires with severe and insulin-dependent course
Each product has its own GI. Accordingly, the higher it is, the
the rate of blood sugar rises faster after it is consumed and
Graduation GI separates all products with a high (over 70 units),
medium (41-70) and low GI (up to 40). Product Breakdown Tables
to specified groups or online calculators calculating gi can be found
on thematic portals and use them in everyday
All products with high GI are excluded from food for rare
with the exception of those that are beneficial to the human body,
suffering from diabetes (honey). In this case, the total GI is reduced.
diet by limiting other carbohydrate foods.
The normal diet should consist of foods with low
(mainly) and average (smaller share) indicator of GI.
What is XE and how to calculate it?
The HE or Bread Unit is another measure for calculating carbohydrates.
The name comes from a piece of “brick” bread, which is obtained
with the standard cutting loaf into pieces, and then in half:
such a 25 g piece contains 1 XE.
Many foods contain carbohydrates, while they are all different.
in composition, properties and calories. That is why it is difficult to determine
the daily amount of the rate of consumption of products that is important for
insulin-dependent patients – the amount of carbohydrates consumed
must comply with the dose of insulin.
This counting system is international and allows
select the required dose of insulin. HE allows you to define
carbohydrate component without weighing, but by looking and
natural volumes convenient for perception (piece, piece, glass,
spoon, etc.). Having estimated how much XE will be eaten in 1 session and
measuring blood sugar, patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
may enter the appropriate short-acting insulin dose to
- 1 XE contains about 15 grams of digestible carbohydrates;
- after drinking 1 XE, the blood sugar level increases by
2.8 mmol / l;
- for mastering 1 XE, 2 units are needed. insulin;
- daily rate: 18-25 XE, with distribution for 6 meals
(snacks of 1-2 XE, basic techniques of 3-5 XE);
- 1 XE is equal to: 25 gr. white bread, 30 gr. black bread half
cups oatmeal or buckwheat, 1 medium sized apple, 2 pcs.
prunes and others
Permitted products and those that can be used rarely
When eating in diabetes, the permitted foods are
a group that can be used without restrictions.
|Low gi:||Average GI:|
|Products with border content GI – should
significantly limit while with severe diabetes
Actually refined sugar refers to products with medium
GI, but with a borderline value. This means that theoretically his
can be consumed, but the absorption of sugar occurs quickly, and
therefore, blood sugar rises rapidly. Therefore, ideally, his
should be limited or not used at all.
|Products with high GI (prohibited)||Other prohibited products:|
Equivalent substitution of harmful products for useful analogues
Enter into the diet
|White rice||Brown rice|
|Potatoes, especially mashed potatoes and French fries||Yasm, sweet potatoes|
|Ordinary pasta||Macaroni from flour of firm grades and a coarse grinding.|
|White bread||Sliced Bread|
|Cakes, pastries||Fruits and berries|
|Red meat||White dietary meat (rabbit, turkey), low-fat fish
|Animal Fat, Trans Fat||Vegetable fats (rapeseed, flaxseed, olive)|
|Rich meat broths||Light soups on the second broth from dietetic meat|
|Fat cheese||Avocado, low-fat cheeses|
|Milk chocolate||bitter chocolate|
|Ice cream||Whipped frozen fruit (not ice cream ice cream)|
Table 9 for diabetes
Specially developed for diabetics diet number 9 widely
used in the inpatient treatment of such patients and should
be respected at home. It was developed by Soviet scientists M. Pevzner.
A diet for diabetics includes daily intake up to:
- 80 gr. vegetables;
- 300 gr. fruits;
- 1 cup natural fruit juice;
- 500 ml of fermented milk products, 200 g low-fat cottage cheese;
- 100 gr. mushrooms;
- 300 gr. fish or meat;
- 100-200 gr. rye, wheat with a mixture of rye flour,
bran bread or 200 grams of potatoes, cereals (finished);
- 40-60 gr. fat
- Супы: щи, овощные, борщи, свекольник, окрошка
meat and vegetable, light meat or fish broth, mushroom broth with
vegetables and cereals.
- Мясо, птица: телятина, кролик, индейка, курица
boiled, chopped, stewed.
- Рыба: нежирные морепродукты и рыба (судак,
pike, cod, navaga) in boiled, steam, stewed, baked in
own juice form.
- Закуски: винегрет, овощной микс из свежих
vegetables, vegetable caviar, salt-drenched herring, aspic
dietary meat and fish, seafood salad with butter, unsalted
- Сладости: десерты из свежих фруктов, ягод,
fruit jelly without sugar, berry mousse, marmalade and jam without
- Напитки: кофе, чай некрепкие, минеральная вода
without gas, vegetable and fruit juice, dogrose broth (without
- Яичные блюда: белковый омлет, яйца всмятку, в
Diet on days for a week
The menu for the week, contrary to the skepticism of many people who have just become
on the path of diet nutrition can be very tasty and
diverse, the main thing is still not to make food a priority of life,
after all, not only is man alive.
|Breakfast||Protein omelet with asparagus, tea.||Buckwheat crumbly with vegetable oil and steam
|2 breakfast||Salad of squid and apple with walnuts.||Carrot fresh vegetable salad.|
|Dinner||Beetroot, baked eggplants with pomegranate seeds.||
Vegetarian vegetable soup, meat stew with potatoes in uniform.
|Snack||Sandwich of rye bread with avocado.||Kefir mixed with fresh berries.|
|Dinner||Steak baked salmon and green onions.||Boiled fish with stewed cabbage.|
|Breakfast||Buckwheat with milk, a glass of coffee.||Hercules porridge. Tea with milk.|
|2 breakfast||Fruit salad.||Cottage cheese with fresh apricots.|
|Dinner||Rassolnik on the second beef broth. Salad from
|Vegetarian borscht Turkey meat goulash with lentils.|
|Snack||Unsalted cheese and a glass of kefir.||Vegetable stuffed cabbage rolls.|
|Dinner||Baked vegetables with minced turkey.||Компот из сухофруктов без Sahara. Soft-boiled egg.|
The third day
|Breakfast||Oatmeal with grated apple and sweetened with stevia, glass
йогурта без Sahara.
|Low-fat cottage cheese cheese with tomatoes. Tea.|
|2 breakfast||Fresh apricots smoothies with berries.||Vegetable vinaigrette and 2 slices of rye bread.|
|Dinner||Vegetable stew stew with veal.||Viscous pearl barley soup with milk. Dumplings steam from veal.|
|Snack||Cottage cheese with the addition of milk.||Fruit, poached with milk.|
|Dinner||Salad from свежей тыквы, моркови и горошка.||Stewed broccoli with mushrooms.|
|Breakfast||Whole-grain bread, low-fat cheese and
|Soft-boiled egg. A glass of chicory with milk.|
|2 breakfast||Steamed vegetables with hummus.||Fruits and berries, взбитые блендером с кефиром.|
|Dinner||Vegetable soup with celery and green peas. Minced chicken
|Schi vegetarian. Barley porridge under the fish coat.|
|Snack||Pears stuffed with raw almonds.||Squash caviar.|
|Dinner||Salad with salmon, pepper and natural yogurt.||Boiled chicken breast with eggplant and celery goulash.|
|Breakfast||Steamed puree from fresh plums with cinnamon and stevia. Weak coffee
and soy bread.
|Germinated grains with natural yogurt and bread. Coffee.|
|2 breakfast||Salad with boiled egg and natural squash caviar.||Berry jelly.|
|Dinner||Cauliflower and broccoli puree soup. Beef steak with
arugula and tomatoes.
|Mushroom broth with vegetables. Meatballs with Stew
|Snack||Low-fat cottage cheese with berry sauce.||A glass of green tea. One apple.|
|Dinner||Steamed green bean and fish meatballs in green natural
|Salad with tomato, greens and cottage cheese.|
|Breakfast||Low-fat cheese and 2 pieces of whole grain bread. Orange
|Rice bran with milk and berries.|
|2 breakfast||Salad from сырой свеклы, горчичного масла и грецкого ореха.||Fruit salad with nuts. Dietary bread.|
|Dinner||Pike perch soup with wild rice. Baked avocado with curd
|Soup with beef meatballs and sorrel.|
|Snack||Fresh berries, whipped with nonfat milk.||Zrazy from carrots and cottage cheese, vegetable juice.|
|Dinner||Baked red onion with scrambled eggs of quail eggs.||Steam fish with cucumber, pepper and tomato salad.|
|Breakfast||Cottage cheese and carrot soufflé, weak tea.||Cottage cheese casserole. Ягодный fresh|
|2 breakfast||Warm salad of fresh celery root, pear and kohlrabi.||Bran Bread Burger with Soaked Herring and Leaves
|Dinner||Cold spinach soup. Rabbit stew with Brussels sprouts
|Bean soup on the second beef broth. Mushroom Steam
|Snack||Puff fruit dessert with mascarpone.||A glass of kefir.|
|Dinner||Baked cod with green salad.||Pike perch fillet with fresh vegetables.|
This question remains controversial because of the dire need for them.
a person with diabetes is not tested, but consumed only for the purpose of
meet their taste tastes and habits
meals and drinks. Artificial and natural sweeteners with
100% safety in principle does not exist.
The main requirement for them – the lack of growth of blood sugar or
Currently under strict control of blood sugar as
sweeteners can be used 50% fructose, stevia and
Stevia – добавка из листьев многолетнего растения стевии,
substitute sugar, not containing calories. Plant synthesizes
sweet glycosides, such as stevioside – a substance that gives
листьям и стеблям сладкий вкус, в 20 раз слаще привычного Sahara.
Can be added to ready meals or used in cooking.
food. Stevia is believed to contribute to the restoration of work
pancreas and helps produce your own insulin, not
affecting blood sugar.
Officially approved as a sweetener by WHO experts
in 2004 the daily rate – up to 2.4 mg / kg (not more than 1 tablespoon per day).
If the substance is abused, toxic effects may develop.
allergic reactions. Available in powder, liquid
extracts and concentrated syrups.
Fructose 50 %. For fructose metabolism, insulin is not needed,
therefore, in this regard, it is safe. It has 2 times less
calorie and 1.5 times more sweet compared to
habitual sugar. It has a low GI (19) and does not cause rapid growth.
Consumption rate no more than 30-40 gr. per day. When used
more than 50 grams. fructose per day decreases sensitivity
liver to insulin. Available in powder form, tablets.
Натуральный пчелиный honey. Contains glucose, fructose and small
the proportion of sucrose (1-6%). Insulin is required for the metabolism of sucrose.
However, the content of this sugar in honey is insignificant, and therefore
The load on the body is small.
Rich in vitamins and biologically active substances, increases
immunity. With all this – it is a high-calorie carbohydrate product.
with high GI (about 85). For mild diabetes, 1-2 is acceptable.
tea boats honey with tea per day, after eating, slowly dissolving,
but without adding to the hot drink.
Supplements such as aspartame, xylitol, suklamat and saccharin in
currently not recommended by endocrinologists due to adverse
effects and other risks.
It should be understood that the rate of absorption of carbohydrates, as well as
sugar content in foods may vary from average calculated
values. Therefore, it is important to control blood glucose before eating and
2 hours after meals, keep a food diary and in this way
находить продукты, вызывающие индивидуальные скачки blood sugar
To calculate the GI of ready meals, it is more convenient to use a special
calculator because the cooking technique and various additives
can significantly increase the initial level of GI of the original
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог