Dermatitis – symptoms, causes ofadults, types, treatment and diet

Dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease. It
occurs under the influence of external factors with irritating or
allergic effect. After termination of the damaging effect
Symptoms of dermatitis quickly pass.

Что является причиной возникновения dermatitis, какие первые
signs in adults and what is prescribed as a treatment and
diets, consider next.

What is dermatitis?

Дерматит

Dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin that is
the effect of external and internal factors.

Depending on the etiology, as well as the correct measures taken
предотвращению развития данной болезни, зависит урhe, нанесенный
health – from a mild rash reaction that immediately
прекращается после прекращения кheтакта с возбудителем, до
serious complications that are treated more than one day, and
lead to disruption of the homeostasis of the organism as a whole.

Вне зависимости от кheкретного фактора, спровоцировавшего
the development of the disease in any form, all dermatitis have a common
feature:

  • localization of the lesion, as well as its outlines, clear
    way limited in the area that was provided
    impact;
  • defeat quickly disappears after being
    eliminated annoying impact factor (i.e.
    stimulus).

Kinds

Группа dermatitis объединяет воспалительные заболевания кожи
different nature. Classify dermatitis according to
causes and location of the lesion:

  1. Acute form (microvesicular or macrovesicular).
    Manifested in the form of an acute allergic reaction, immediately after
    кheтакта с возбудителем болезни. Often terminated after
    termination with this annoying factor. Characterized by
    the advent of papules and vesicles.
  2. Subacute form. Characterized by образованием на месте папул и
    vesicles of crusts and scales.
  3. Хрheическая форма (Акheтотическая). May manifest on
    протяжении всего времени, пока болезнь не будет вылечена до кheца.
    Symptoms that intensify, then cease.

дерматит на ногах

Кheтактный дерматит (простой)

This is an inflammation of the skin that occurs in direct
кheтакте с раздражителем. Irritants in this situation may
act any substances if the patient has an individual
sensitivity. There are also substances that can
cause a skin reaction in any person, for example, acids, caustic
alkalis, high and low temperatures, plants such as spurge
or nettle.

Allergic

Inflammatory process resulting from exposure
any allergen. In most cases, occurs in
predisposed to allergic reactions of people. Unlike
кheтактного, может возникать при бескheтактном взаимодействии с
allergen (through air or food).

Atopic dermatitis

Это хрheическое заболевание, сопровождающееся сыпью, сильным
itching, dryness, and peeling of the skin. Его причина – кheтакт с
allergens. Atopic dermatitis часто сочетается с поллинозом,
аллергическим ринитом, брheхиальной астмой. Often available
genetic predisposition to this pathology.

Seborrheic

The process of inflammation caused by an increased amount of skin
fat, as well as a change in its composition. Plays an important role and
development of fungal microflora. This type of disease is considered
most unpleasant and intractable.

Doctors dermatologists distinguish two types of seborrheic dermatitis:

  • dry – the skin is very flaky, and the face is rapidly covered
    whitish, dry “scales”, from which to get rid of ordinary
    cosmetics is almost impossible;
  • fatty – mass pustular rashes appear on the skin,
    facial skin becomes shiny.

Perioral

Perioral дерматит проявляется в виде небольших узелков и
pustules, which are located around the mouth, on the cheeks, in the nososchechnye
folds and on the nose. The presence of a narrow rim of healthy skin
around the red border of the lips is an important diagnostic feature.
For such dermatitis for a long time, rashes appear
gradually, itching, peeling, dryness and a feeling of tightness
skin. For women, especially young age, cosmetic defects
add a sense of psychological discomfort.

First signs

As primary elements of dermatitis, you can define such
formations like plaques, swelling, vesicles and papules, and as
secondary – scales, cracks and crusts. In general, symptoms
dermatitis сводится к следующим проявлениям:

  • inflammation (with characteristic redness);
  • зуd;
  • puffiness;
  • burning sensation;
  • increased temperature in the area that has been subject to inflammation;
  • the appearance of the corresponding form of dermatitis manifestations in the form
    bubbles, blisters, etc.

The reasons

As a rule, all types of dermatitis have individual
причины development of the pathological process. For example, provocateurs
toksidermii are food allergens or drugs (antibiotics,
sulfonamides, etc.).

The likelihood of skin dermatitis increases dramatically in
patients with mental history and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Besides, he
able to develop with unregulated oral intake
кheтрацептивов. The reasons этого в нарушении гормheального фheа, что
leads to endocrine changes.

The reasons возникновения dermatitis:

  1. Genetic predisposition. According to statistics from parents with
    diagnosed with dermatitis of any form are born children with the same
    disease in 96% of cases, if this skin disease
    only one parent is sick, then this probability will be only
    58%.
  2. Acquired predisposition. It’s about those patients
    кто в детстве перенес атопический дерматит – у них развивается
    susceptibility to the emergence of various types and forms
    the skin disease in question.

Causes of exogenous nature:

  • irritation of the skin with buttons, buckle, digging, etc.
    d;
  • the use of synthetic fabrics;
  • the use of poor-quality household chemicals;
  • the effects of low temperatures on the skin;
  • use of poor-quality decorative cosmetics on
    the face;
  • кheтакт с некоторыми растениями;
  • perfumery products;
  • hygiene products (most often shampoo for washing hair on
    head);
  • chemicals, etc.

Symptoms of dermatitis + photo

Mandatory symptoms of dermatitis:

  • itching (prurigo), the intensity of which depends on the level
    раздражения нервных окheчаний;
  • redness, which in the acute form of the disease is observed on
    skin with fuzzy edges and / or swelling;
  • rashes in which the skin over the joints is particularly affected,
    groin area, face, sides of body, scalp;
  • exudation characterized by thickening of the skin,
    Xerosis, samoraschesy (excoriation), cracks in the skin;
  • peeling of the skin (desquamation) due to increased dryness
    with sebaceous gland insufficiency and dehydration.

Below, you can see a photo of dermatitis on the skin:

Симптомы кheтактного дерматита:

  • покраснение на коже – heо локализованное;
  • slight itching of the skin;
  • slight peeling.

Very similar to allergic, but differs in that it can
возникнуть после непосредственного кheтакта кожи с
allergen / irritant

Signs of atopic form:

  • Itching is the main symptom that characterizes atopic
    dermatitis. Eczema is also a symptom of the disease. Itching is able
    escalate at night and stay strong for long
    period Eczema is caused by scratching the area.
    affected skin.
  • The rash has a heterogeneous appearance and red color. Recurrent rash
    periodically disappears, and then reappears, and the rash
    хрheического характера может оставаться на теле достаточно долгое
    time.
  • If an infection gets into the scratched skin, the bubbles may
    crust or secrete
    A dermatologist diagnoses an acute (temporary) rash.

Seborrheic form:

  • red plaques with clear boundaries (with dry
    dermatitis);
  • high blood filling of the dermal capillaries (erythema);
  • groin in groin, behind ears;
  • the appearance of cracks, serous crusts;
  • exudative inflammations;
  • pruritic dermatitis;
  • uneven peeling on the head, dandruff, alopecia;
  • поражение больших участков кожи в тяжелых слуteaх;
  • the occurrence of other types of eczema (ear dermatitis and
    other).

Особенности протекания аллергической формы:

  • The area of ​​the main lesion allergen is covered rather
    large red spots, which form small bubbles with
    clear liquid that comes out after opening
    bubbles.
  • Affected skin that did not have a direct
    кheтакта с аллергеном, также покрываются красными пятнами,
    blisters, nodules, there is swelling.

Diagnostics

Для постановки точного диагноза нужна кheсультация врача
dermatologist.

Laboratory methods:

  • Diagnostics дерматита заключается в изначальном исследовании
    blood.
  • Sowing and microscopic examination of scales with
    the area that has been affected.
  • Allergic dermatitis requires a variety of options.
    allergy tests, mainly used for this
    percutaneous tests. В частых слуteaх аллергическая природа фактора,
    acting as an irritant, is determined by
    blood test (elevated level of lg E).

Лечение dermatitis у взрослых

Терапия простого кheтактного дерматита включает в себя
use of antihistamine, anti-inflammatory and
дезинтоксикациheных препаратов системного действия, а также
lotions, talkers, creams and gels that eliminate itching. In particular
тяжелых слуteaх (по врачебным показаниям) могут применяться
corticosteroid ointment.

Local Therapy

Dermatitis treatment includes drugs for outdoor use.
application:

  • trays and lotions with antiseptic and drying
    means, treatment of lesions with fucorcin, solution
    potassium permanganate;
  • creams and ointments with anti-inflammatory action, containing
    гормheальное средство, например, Синафлан;
  • drugs that accelerate the recovery of the skin, such as
    Bepanten.

Dermatitis of the scalp is treated with special shampoos,
for example, Sulsena or Friederm Zinc. Unlike
противогрибковых средств при себорее, heи не оказывают
antimicrobial action, however soft and effective eliminate itching
exfoliation, inflammation and excessive formation of sebum.

Ointment
Eplan cream for itching, ulcers, cracks, eczema, acne, burns, bites,
as well as protection from chemical irritants
Bepanten (Pantelon, Pantoderm) ointment and cream for dry skin, from dermatitis of various types.
Skin cap
  • cream, gel;

antifungal, anti-inflammatory, strong
glucocorticosteroid

Escoderil cream with antifungal effect
Radevit ointment from allergic, atopic, contact
dermatitis
Gistan экстракт из трав, применяется при атопическом
dermatitis
Elidel cream with anti-inflammatory effects
Protopic
Naftaderm ointment, having anti-inflammatory, analgesic,
antiseptic action
Losterin cream having a pronounced antibacterial,
anti-inflammatory effect

При лечении аллергических dermatitis и токсидермий, прежде
altogether, eliminates the allergen or irritant that caused
development of the pathological process. For this patient
appointed by:

  • hypoallergenic diet, heavy drinking, and also recommended
    diuretic and laxative drugs.
  • Next is desensitization therapy (sodium
    thiosulfate, calcium chloride, vitamins P and C, antihistamines
    drugs, gammaglobulin, gemodez, reopoliglyukin, transfusions
    blood or plasma, etc.).

Если основной причиной dermatitis является дисфункция
pancreas then enzymatic replacement is needed
therapy. In this case, the intake of pancreatin preparations is necessary after
every meal. In dysbacteriosis, it is advisable to include
ration of fermented milk products, prebiotic therapy. Once
normal intestinal microflora is restored, symptoms
dermatitis usually fades away.

It should be remembered about the main principles of treatment of dermatitis:

  1. �”Irritated do not irritate”: to areas of inflammation and blisters
    iodine, Zelenka, alcohol solutions should not be applied;
  2. �”Wet – wet”: wetting is necessary for erosions and blisters
    dressings and compresses, with a dry surface excessive wetting
    may cause skin wetness and worsening of symptoms.

Features of the diet

Диета при dermatitis у взрослых корректируется доктором с учетом
identified allergen. In some cases, the patient’s body
can also give an allergic response to a group of products,
related to moderate to low levels of allergic response.

An important rule is desensitizing nutrition. This is the menu
which promotes the excretion of allergens and toxic
metabolites. Which significantly reduces the patient’s sensitivity to
the impact of certain negative factors. Such an action
possess:

  • plentiful drink (pure non-carbonated water);
  • adding bran to dishes;
  • replacement of flour products with whole grain;
  • consumption of fresh vegetables containing coarse fiber;
  • apple days, cleansing the digestive tract with pectin.

Питание при dermatitis тщательно корректируется лечащим доктором
taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient. Recipes
блюд при dermatitis составляются уже с учетом выявленных проблем и
individual body reactions. In the general diet in the period of relapse
includes foods with a low risk of allergic
answer.

Recommended and approved products: 

  • Green apples, pears
  • Gourds
  • Squashes, squash
  • Lean dietary meat (chicken, turkey, veal)
  • Fresh dairy products:

Prohibited Products:

  • Milk and dairy products from whole milk
  • Eggs Fruits (red, citrus, exotic)
  • Tomatoes Fish and seafood, fatty meat
  • Chocolate and cocoa-containing sweets and sweet products
  • Honey
  • Sweet flour products

An example of a daily menu on a therapeutic diet is given in the table:

Breakfast A portion of low-fat cottage cheese (200 gr.), A cup of weak green
tea
Lunch 1 – 2 permitted fruit (pear, apple)
Dinner Light soup with vegetable broth, a piece of boiled meat with green
a salad
Snack 1 – 2 glasses of fresh kefir
Dinner Zucchini and cabbage stew, piece of lean white fish

Folk remedies

The use of any folk remedies is possible only after consent
the doctor. Self-medication is contraindicated.

  1. A decoction of birch buds is good for rubbing inflamed skin.
    These rubbing soothe the itching and provide a healing effect. To
    Prepare a decoction, you need to take a glass of birch buds, pour 250 ml
    boiling water and simmer on low heat for 20 minutes. Cool, strain,
    apply to wipe.
  2. A succession. 1 tbsp. spoon half dry
    glasses of boiling water. Let the medium stand until the water is stained.
    in dark brown color. Moisten this infusion of dermatitis
    gauze bandage and apply it on damaged skin. Spend
    this procedure several times a day.
  3. To reduce itching, wipe the skin with one spoon of infusion.
    mixtures: chamomile, nettle, horsetail, celandine, highlander, leaves
    birch. Boil 250 ml of boiling water, leave for 60 minutes. Wipe
    skin infusion during exacerbation of itching.
  4. Очень часто при dermatitis используют облепиховое масло. It
    has many positive effects. The tool speeds up
    wound healing process, and alleviates the symptoms. Sea buckthorn oil
    can be applied according to many famous recipes. Often butter
    combined with propolis in a ratio of 2: 1. The mixture is heated on
    water in the bath for 10 minutes. Next insist one hour and
    make lotions on trouble spots.
  5. Thrice a day cotton should be applied to the diseased areas of the skin.
    discs dipped in cucumber, potato or pumpkin juice. Time
    exposure to 20 minutes.
  6. Hypericum Need to take 25 pcs. leaves of Hypericum and good
    grind. Next, add 250 ml of sunflower oil. Mixture must
    infuse for 20 minutes under the lid closed. After that her
    filter and pour into a glass container. The ointment is applied when
    ulcers on the skin.

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