Depression – symptoms, early signs ofadults, types, causes of depression and treatment

Депрессия — это аффективное расстройство, сопровождающееся
persistent depressed mood, negative thinking and slowing down
movements. Is the most common mental
frustration. According to recent studies, the probability
The development of depression during life ranges from 22 to 33%.

People suffering from depression do not perceive the joy of their surroundings.
the world, like everyone else, their thinking is aimed at aggravating
negative manifestations of reality, any minor troubles
they perceive hyperbolized.

What is this disorder, why people tend to dive into it
condition and what symptoms a person faces, consider

What is depression?

Depression is a mental disorder for which
peculiar depressive triad, which includes a decrease
mood, disturbed thinking (pessimistic view of all
what is happening around, loss of the ability to feel joy, negative
judgments), motor lethargy.

According to statistics today, depression occurs in 10%.
population of our planet. Due to the lability of mental
women’s pathology is observed most often after
40 years. This is due to failures in the hormonal background and the onset

A depressed person is in such a sensual state
which constantly insists – “there is no escape.” But it really isn’t
So!!! Выход есть всегда, и даже самая тяжелая стадия
amenable to лечению!


There are two main types of depression:

  • exogenous – in which case the disorder will be provoked
    any external stimulus (for example, job loss or
    death of a relative);
  • endogenous – depression is caused by internal problems, often

Psychologists distinguish the following types of depression:

  1. Дистимия — хроническое депрессивное mood. Characterized by
    bad mood, fatigue, lack of appetite and sleep. The
    view can be observed with postpartum depression and
    manic-depressive psychosis.
  2. Recurrent depression – symptoms of the disorder appear
    about once a month and persist for several days.
  3. Reactive depression is characterized by spontaneity.
    возникновения на фоне появления серьёзных стрессовых
  4. Neurotic occurs through emotional disorders,
    in which the dominant link is occupied by neuroses.
  5. Manic-depressive disorder – a disease
    characterized by the onset of bouts of depression or
    manic seizures. It is characteristic that such a disorder is not
    is long-term – patients feel quite normal in
    periods of remission lead a normal life and are no different
    from healthy people.
  6. Послеродовая депрессия — это депрессивное состояние,
    developing in the first days and weeks after giving birth to those prone to
    similar pathology of women.

Early signs of depression

In each case of the disease, signs of onset of depression
may be different and expressed in varying degrees. All set
These signs are conventionally divided into four main groups.

The initial signs of depression are:

  • emotional signs;
  • violation of the mental state;
  • physiological signs;
  • violation of behavioral status.

On the beginning of the disease indicate:

  • decrease in interest in hobbies, neglect
    simple duties, too lazy to go to work, the desire for more
  • fatigue, decreased libido, mild physical
    malaise, morning sickness;
  • increased touchiness, the feeling that others about the person
    negative opinion that they are carping about;
  • bad mood, increased nervousness, intense
    state of anxiety;
  • changing the usual routine, difficulty falling asleep,
    gratuitous headache;
  • thinking to avoid problems, increase fears,
    alcohol abuse.

The severity of symptoms depends on the duration of the disease and
the presence of prior physical and mental disorders.


There is also a depression against the background of progressive somatic
diseases – for example, against the background of thyroid abnormalities or
from severe pain and awareness of the inevitable disability in arthritis,
rheumatism, oncology.

Depression can be caused by some mental
disorders — for example, this condition is often diagnosed in
больных шизофренией, алкогольной и наркотической

Various medicines, especially those that are used
for treating high blood pressure may cause
depressed. For unknown reasons, corticosteroids (hormones) are often
cause depression when they are as a result of the disease (for example,
синдрома TOушинга) вырабатываются в большом количестве.

В большинстве своем это состояние вызывают вполне простые и
clear reasons:

  • overwork;
  • pressure of others;
  • the impossibility of a long period to achieve the desired;
  • failure in your personal life or career;
  • disease;
  • loneliness and stuff.

If you understand that in your life came a black stripe then
try to mobilize all forces not to become a victim

Rest, focus, even on small ones, but still –
joy, struggle with difficulties, and do not give in to them.

People prone to depression

There are 3 types of personality that are more prone to
depression development:

  • static-characteristic personality (characteristic: exaggerated
    conscientiousness, excessive accuracy and diligence);
  • melancholic personality (characteristic: pedantry, the desire to
    order, constancy, excessive demands on themselves);
  • hyperthymic personality (characteristic: self-doubt,
    constant experiences, low self-esteem).

Symptoms of depression in adults

The main manifestation is the so-called depressive triad,
including sustained deterioration in mood
thinking and decreased motor activity.

Typical (main) symptoms of depression are:

  • depressed mood that does not depend on external
    circumstances lasting two weeks or more;
  • persistent fatigue during the month;
  • anhedonia, which manifests itself in loss of interest from earlier
    enjoyable activity.

Additional symptoms of the disease:

  • pessimism;
  • sense of worthlessness, anxiety, guilt, or fear;
  • inability to make decisions and concentrate
  • low self-esteem;
  • thoughts of death or suicide;
  • decreased or increased appetite;
  • sleep disturbance, manifested in insomnia or sleep.

Thoughts in a patient with depression become negative,
negative and directed against themselves. Peculiar to man
fixing the denial of himself he considers himself
ненужным, никчёмным, обременяющим родных и близких людей. For
it is characterized by difficulty in making any decisions.


Important! Some symptoms are characteristic for anxiety and others.
disorders, therefore, do not make a diagnosis yourself and do not
self-medicate !!!

Symptoms of depression in men and women

Симптомы у женщин проявляются более отчётливо, нежели у
men, which is associated with the physiological characteristics of the brain
the brain. A man may be depressed for many
years and hide it. In women, the symptoms are visible.
достаточно отчётливо, поэтому если обнаруживаются первые
signs of localization of the disease, it is necessary to turn immediately to
to the doctor.

Symptoms and signs
  • Feeling of suffering, longing, despair;
  • Anxiety;
  • Irritability;
  • Feeling of trouble;
  • Guilt;
  • Discontent with oneself;
  • Low self-esteem;
  • Loss of ability to worry or anxiety for loved ones;
  • Reduced interest in the environment.
  • after sleep there is no sense of cheerfulness, a sense of active principle
  • pain in the whole body;
  • feeling of tiredness, lack of sleep, weakness;
  • permanent headache;
  • chest pain, pressure sensation in the region of the heart;
  • бессонница, невозможность встать, сон с перерывами;
  • loss of appetite or vice versa;
  • wrong perception of sounds, colors;
  • weak potency;
  • dry mouth;
  • increased thirst.
  • Passivity;
  • Loss of interest in other people;
  • Tendency to frequent solitude;
  • Refusal to participate in targeted activity;
  • Употребление алкоголя и psychotropic substances.
  • feel dissimilar to society;
  • see no meaning in their lives;
  • slowing thought processes;
  • difficulty concentrating;
  • inability to make decisions at the right time;
  • avoiding responsibility, fear for their actions;
  • an obsessive return to the same thoughts;
  • thoughts of suicide.

Important: The most serious symptom of depression is thought to be
deaths and in 15% of cases patients have clear and stable
suicidal thoughts. Often patients are voiced when planning their
murder – this should be an unconditional reason for


In a conversation with a patient, the doctor first of all draws attention to
long periods of depression, reduced interest,
motor lethargy. Complaints play an important diagnostic role.
patients on apathy, loss of strength, increased anxiety, suicidal
thoughts. There are two groups of signs of a depressive process,
which the doctor takes into account in the diagnosis. This is positive and negative.
affectivity (emotionality).

With беседе с пациентом психолог или психотерапевт выявляют
The following criteria:

  • Depressed mood.
  • Feeling tired
  • Increased concern.
  • Lack of desires and interests.
  • Reduced sexual interest.
  • Frequent nervousness and photophobia.
  • Careless attitude to personal hygiene and daily
  • Constant need for rest.
  • Irritability, anxiety and nervous tension.

The above symptoms are starting. If last a long time
lead to mania.

TOак лечить депрессию у взрослых?

Depression is often perceived both by the patient and
others as a manifestation of bad character, laziness and selfishness,
licentiousness or natural pessimism. Should remember that
depression is not just a bad mood, but a disease that
requires expert intervention and is good enough amenable to
treatment. The sooner the correct diagnosis is made and started
proper treatment, the greater the chance of a quick recovery.

The treatment regimen is selected individually, after examination by a doctor and
conducting them the right tests. Some kind of averaged protocol
which can be recommended to carry out autotherapy, no. Therapy
may include one or all of the following elements:

  • Medication treatment.
  • Psychotherapy.
  • Social therapy.

The time of treatment for each patient requires its own, which depends on
features of the psyche and the severity of the condition


In the treatment of various types of depression medications are used.
antidepressants. They restore optimal balance
biologically active substances and the normal functioning of the brain, helping
cope with depression. The success of drug treatment is largely
depends on the patient.

Antidepressants при лечении выступают, как основные препараты. TO
they include:

  • Melipramine,
  • Amitriptyline,
  • Fluoxetine,
  • Sertraline,
  • Paroxetine,
  • Tianeptine
  • Milnacipran,
  • Moklobemid.

Used properly, they are safe class.
psychotropic substances. The dose at the same time is selected individually.
Remember that the effect of antidepressants will appear slowly, therefore
on the positive, wait for its manifestation.

Vitamins and Minerals

In the treatment of depression is also actively assigned to receive
следующих витаминов и микроэлементов:

  • B vitamins;
  • calcium;
  • magnesium;
  • omega-3;
  • vitamin d (calciferol).

If within 4-6 weeks after you start taking the medicine, you do not
you feel a positive effect, or you have side
effects, consult your doctor.

Depression Psychotherapy

Three approaches are most effective in treatment: cognitive
psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, as well as behavioral
psychotherapy. The goal of therapy is to recognize the conflict and help constructively
allow it.

  • Поведенческая психотерапия

Behavioral psychotherapy solves current problems and
eliminates behavioral symptoms (isolation from others,
monotonous lifestyle, refusal of pleasure, passivity, and

  • Rational

Rational психотерапия заключается в логическом
Evidence-based conviction of the patient to review
attitude to yourself and the surrounding reality. Wherein
methods of clarification and persuasion are applied, as well as methods
moral approval, distraction and switching attention.

  • TOогнитивно-поведенческая терапия

Особенность применения TOПТ при депрессии состоит в том, чтобы,
Do not use drugs to start treatment. The point is to separate
negative thoughts, the patient’s response to an event and
situation as such. During the session, using various unexpected
questions the doctor helps the patient to look at
happening action and make sure nothing really
terrible does not happen.

The result is a change in thinking that positively affects
on the behavior and general condition of the patient.


Product Leaders Helping Overcome Depression:

  • vegetables, fruits, having not only a rich vitamin complex,
    but also bright colors (bell peppers, oranges, carrots, beets,
    persimmon, bananas);
  • sea ​​fish with high fat content in meat;
  • chicken broth and white poultry meat;
  • dishes from frozen (not canned) sea
  • cheese of all types and varieties;
  • dark chocolate with a high content of cocoa beans;
  • nuts;
  • buckwheat, oatmeal;
  • the eggs.

Antidepressant Drinks:

  1. A relaxing drink can be made from lemon balm and
    oranges. Тщательно отожмите сок из четырех oranges. Take
    two handfuls of fresh lemon balm leaves, chop and grind it and
    combine with orange juice. The drink is very tasty and elevating
  2. The same effect has a fruit drink on a banana.
    basis. In the bowl of the blender, put the pulp of a banana, a spoonful of core
    walnut, a spoonful of germinated wheat grains, pour a hundred
    fifty ml of natural milk and a spoonful of lemon juice.

Signs of getting out of depression are the emergence of an interest in life,
joy, meaning of life, relief of bodily sensations associated with
this disorder, the disappearance of the desire to commit suicide. TOакое-то
the time after exit from this state remains reduced
empathy, elements of egocentrism,

What usually impedes applying for psychotherapy

  1. Low awareness of people about what
  2. Fear of a stranger’s initiation into personal, intimate
  3. Skeptical attitude that the “talk” can give
    tangible therapeutic effect.
  4. The idea that with psychological difficulties you need
    handle yourself and turning to another person is
    a sign of weakness.

Contact a specialist should be urgently if
the state seems unbearable, the desire to live disappears, and appear
thoughts of hurting yourself.


Forecast определяется видом, тяжестью и причиной depressed.
Реактивные расстройства, как правило, хорошо поддаются treatment. With
neurotic depression has a tendency to prolonged or
chronic course. condition patients with somatogenic
affective disorders determined by the characteristics of the main
diseases. Endogenous depression is not amenable to non-drug
therapy, with proper selection of drugs in some cases
there is a steady compensation.

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