Update: December 2018
- Foreign body
- Unsuitable food
- Fistula (communication) between the esophagus and the airways
- Food bronchial asthma
Coughing is traditionally considered a sign of respiratory problems:
трахеи, бронхов, lungs. But на самом деле, ситуация может быть
far from so obvious. For example, if we are talking about coughing during
food, the reasons are the most diverse – from allergies to
pathology of the digestive system. Consider them in more detail.
Or, as our grandmothers said, “fell into the wrong throat.” Cough
occurs acutely, often – in the “half-word”, a strong attack. Man
it is difficult to breathe, and often it can be seen even from the side. After
coughing discomfort for some time,
When a foreign body gets into the airways, you should not knock
man on the back – all that can be achieved with this – pieces of food
�”Fail” even deeper. Most often the victim succeeds
cough up by yourself. If a в течение 30 секунд откашляться не
it turns out, it is noticeable that a person cannot breathe, his face from
red becomes pale and begins to turn blue – you need to immediately
Heimlich maneuver in adults
ATстаньте за спиной пострадавшего, обхватите верхнюю часть
belly, covering the fist of one hand with the other hand, sharply press, so,
so that your hands move up and “towards you”. Make a series and 5
such movements. If a инородное тело не вышло из дыхательных путей,
repeat. Repeat the need until a person can
cough or not faint – then you have to start
Reception Heimlich children
If a ребенку 1 – 8 лет. Sit down, bend the baby belly through
thigh, so that the head was below the level of the body. Ground
palm knock between the shoulder blades, commensurate with the force of impact and
age of the child.
Children under one year old are laid face down on the forearm of an adult,
support the lower jaw with your fingers, tap the base of the palm
between the shoulder blades. When a foreign body goes down the throat – remove it
with your fingers.
Too spicy, cold, dry, sour food, alcohol can
irritate the back of the throat, causing coughing. When used
irritating foods tickle in the throat, and the cough occurs immediately,
it passes quickly too, it is enough to drink warm water.
Or inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa. May be acute or
chronic. At the same time, the back wall of the pharynx is very sensitive:
tickling, discomfort, tickling in the throat are constantly disturbing, and
unsuitable food irritates the inflamed mucosa even more, and
there is a cough. Products that cause coughing are the same:
слишком пряная, острая, кислая еда и alcohol.
Throat lozenges that reduce swelling can alleviate the condition.
Dysphagia – это нарушение глотания и прохождение пищи по
the esophagus. When a food ball or part of it is thrown into
nasopharynx or gets into the respiratory tract, a cough appears. But
if adults can complain about discomfort when swallowing, or
the unpleasant feeling that food is “stuck” on the way to the stomach, then
маленькие дети это сdo не могут, и единственным проявлением
problem becomes a cough during or immediately after a meal.
According to the level of occurrence, dysphagia can be:
- oropharyngeal – disturbed the process of swallowing;
- esophageal – problem in dysfunction of the lower part
Cough и поперхивание характерны для глоточной дисфагии, поэтому
let’s talk about it in more detail. The reasons for its occurrence may
ATоспаление мышц ротоглотки
- peritonsillar abscesses,
- burns with alkalis and acids.
Impaired interaction between the nervous and muscular
- Parkinson’s disease,
- bulbar and pseudobulbar paralysis,
- muscular dystrophy.
Mechanical obstacles to food
- thyroid enlargement with thyroiditis, hypothyroidism,
diffuse toxic goiter;
- lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes);
- head and neck tumors with lymph node metastases;
- oropharyngeal tumors;
- pharyngeal diverticulum;
- cervical osteophytes.
In young people and children, the most common cause becomes
inflammation. In elderly people – disorders of the central nervous
системы: stroke, деменция, болезнь Паркинсона.
With this type of dysphagia, the patient complains of:
- difficulty in swallowing;
- ingestion of food, especially liquid, in the nose,
- coughing while eating;
- asthma attacks.
If a есть подозрения, что кашель во время еды вызван именно
esophageal dysphagia, first need to be examined. With this
a variety of reasons to engage in self-diagnosis is simply dangerous.
After выявления причины врач предложит конкретные методы лечения, а
It’s impossible to tell how to treat dysphagia “in general”
which will help with inflammation will prove completely ineffective when
stroke and so on.
In part, to alleviate the condition in case of swallowing disorders,
by going to soft or semi-liquid food. Food should be warm. AT
international recommendations are advised to add lemon to food
acid – it improves the swallowing reflex. ATо время еды и 1-2
hours after it a person must be in a vertical
The mode of the day, in which food is given a special time, is beautiful
laid table, snacks – all these things which are half forgotten today are not
only stimulate the appetite, but also facilitate the process of eating and
If we are talking about babies, the only thing that can be
do it yourself – change the position of the baby during
feeding, so that the head was above the rest of the body,
stop feeding lying down and do not forget to keep the baby “column”
AT тяжелых случаях, особенно после инсульта, придется ставить
probe or form a feeding gastrostomy.
Fistula (communication) between the esophagus and the airways
Tracheoesophageal fistulas form between the esophagus and the trachea,
broncho esophageal fistulas, respectively, between the esophagus and the main
bronchus May be congenital or acquired – caused
inflammation, trauma, disintegration of the tumor.
ATрожденные свищи чаще всего диагностируются быстро: кашель во
baby’s meal time occurs at the first feeding, baby
begins to choke, departs copious, frothy sputum. Pretty
pneumonia is developing rapidly. If the fistula is narrow and milk is in
airway gets a little, the manifestations are not so
bright: cough with sputum while eating the child will continue, but
more frequent will be prolonged bronchitis.
Tracheoesophageal and bronchoesophageal fistulas in children can
appear because of a foreign body that the child has breathed or
swallowed. �”Stuck” in the trachea or esophagus, the object (coin,
a bead, a ball from the designer) causes a bedsore from which
then a fistula forms – a hole between the esophagus and the respiratory
Through the fistula food enters the respiratory tract and during meals
cough begins (especially if the food is liquid). Strong attack
may be accompanied by wheezing. Later, shortness of breath appears,
food that constantly gets into the airway causes chronic
inflammation that is manifested by bronchitis, pneumonia, abscess
In adults, fistulae most often appear when a tumor decays.
esophagus or bronchopulmonary cancer. Then the appearance of coughing in
eating time is preceded by a sharp emaciation, general weakness, perhaps –
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a complex of symptoms
which arises due to throwing the contents of the stomach into the esophagus. For
This needs a combination of 2 main factors – increased
acidity of gastric juice and dysfunction of the sphincter between
esophagus and stomach. Getting into the esophagus, acid not only causes
inflammation and heartburn, but often reaches the back of the pharynx,
epiglottis, irritating them, which causes coughing and soreness in
При GERD кашель появляется не только во время еды, но и в
prone position, especially at night and in the morning, when bending. Other
symptoms of this disease:
- belching sour;
- epigastric pain (upper abdomen);
- chest pains
- frequent pharyngitis, laryngitis.
Typically, for the diagnosis of sufficiently characteristic complaints, but for
confirming the diagnosis make endoscopic examination of the esophagus
What to do?
We’ll have to start with a lifestyle change:
- stop smoking
- lose weight – excess fat increases abdominal pressure
- stop drinking carbonated drinks, sour juices, coffee;
- stop eating spicy, spicy, onion, garlic, chocolate, mint;
- food should be warm, not overly hot and not
- stay up 3-4 hours after eating;
- do not wear clothes that tighten the belly;
- lift the head end of the bed;
- if possible, give up drugs that lower the tone of the lower
esophageal sphincter: progesterone, nitrates, calcium antagonists,
antidepressants, theophylline; as well as non-steroid
Drug treatment is prescribed if it develops.
reflux esophagitis: chronic inflammation of the esophagus. It consists of
the main course (4 – 12 weeks) and the supporting course (6 months
- antacids (phosphalugel, almagel, maalox, etc.)
- prokinetics – agents that normalize motility (domperidone,
- histamine H2 receptor blockers (ranitidine, famotidine);
- proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole,
The maintenance course consists of the same groups of drugs, but
lower dosages are used.
Поскольку GERD часто провоцирует дисплазию (перерождение) клеток
esophagus and increases the likelihood of cancer, preferably a dispensary
observation and endoscopy every 1-2 years.
Food bronchial asthma
As one of the manifestations of food allergy occurs approximately in
3% of cases of intolerance to certain products.
Allergies can cause the most diverse food – from all
famous fish, honey, nuts and chocolate to beer and seemingly
completely harmless kefir – in the last two cases, allergies
cause the fungi contained in these products. Provoke
intolerance can and dyes, flavor enhancers, flavors
Cough after eating, caused by an allergic reaction or
food asthma, can occur both immediately after a meal, and
after 4 to 12 hours. Often it is accompanied by the so-called
oral allergic syndrome: swollen lips, tongue, palate, pharynx.
Dry cough is typical, sputum is almost not separated, attack
long, exhausting. ATо время приступа больному может не хватать
air that provokes anxiety right up to panic. If a
allergy causes laryngeal edema, patient has a voice, cough
becomes rude, barking.
If you suspect food allergies, in addition to the known allergen,
It is recommended to exclude from the diet:
- fish and seafood,
- smoked meat
- bird (except turkey),
- offal: liver, kidneys, lungs;
- mayonnaise, vinegar, mustard, horseradish;
- tomatoes, eggplants, radish, radish;
- whole milk;
- strawberries, melons, pineapples and other exotic fruits;
- yeast dough;
- honey, propolis, pollen and other bee products;
Such a wide list of prohibitions is justified by the possibility of
cross-allergy – when allergens of some products
chemical structures are similar (for example, in people with intolerance to
tree pollen may be allergic to apples, cherries, peaches,
in case of intolerance to cereal pollen may be allergic to
vermouth). Usually, along with the “experience” of allergy, the number of
If a стаж аллергии невелик и точно известен аллерген, может быть
specific desensitization is effective – when injected into the body
allergen in minimal quantities, gradually “accustoming” to it. But
when cross-allergy occurs, the method becomes
If a кашель после еды вызван аллергией, прекратить его можно с
using antihistamine drugs:
- chloropyramine (suprastin),
- cetirizine (zyrtec),
- fexofenadine (telfast).
For того, чтобы эффект наступил быстрее, таблетку лучше класть
under the tongue and hold until dissolved.
If a кашель сопровождается сильным отеком лица и шеи и есть
signs of laryngeal edema (difficulty breathing, rough, barking cough,
hoarseness) – urgently need to call an ambulance.
Understand why the cough appeared in a particular person
it can be difficult even for a specialist, considering how many diseases he has
causes. Therefore it is better not to waste time on self-diagnosis, but
consult a qualified doctor.