Conjunctivitis – photos, signs, symptoms andtreatment of conjunctivitis in adults

Конъюнктивит (разг. Коньюктивит) — это
poliological inflammatory damage of the conjunctiva – mucous
shell covering the inner surface of the eyelids and
sclera. The cause of bacteria can cause (especially dangerous
chlamydia) or the same viruses that cause a cold, sore throat or
measles. Ежегодно в мире конъюнктивитом страдают
millions of people. These diseases cause many pathologies and
pathological conditions. The treatment scheme for each separately
The case may be different, mainly depends on the factors
provoked the development of the disease.

In most cases, the disease is considered infectious. Required
follow the rules of personal hygiene in order to avoid contamination of others.
The article takes a closer look: what kind of eye disease is it?
the main causes, types and symptoms of conjunctivitis, as well as
эффективные методы лечения у adults.

What is eye conjunctivitis?

Конъюнктивит глаз

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye.
(конъюнктивы), вызванное аллергией, бактериями, вирусами,
fungi and other pathogenic factors. Manifestations of this
diseases can cause redness and swelling of the eyelids, the appearance
mucus or pus, tearing, burning and itching and
пр. Конъюктивиты являются наиболее распространенными
eye diseases – they make up about 30% of the entire eye
pathology.

What is conjunctiva? This is the mucous membrane of the eye that covers
the back surface of the eyelids and the front surface of the eyeball
down to the cornea. It performs quite important functions.
которые обеспечивают нормальное функционирование органа view.

  • Usually it is transparent, smooth and even shiny.
  • Its color depends on the underlying tissues.
  • She takes over the daily tear production. Singled out by her
    слезы хватает для увлажнения и защиты глаза. And only when we
    weep the main large lacrimal gland joins in work.

Conjunctivitis, in addition to spoiling the appearance of redness of the eyes and
permanent involuntary tearing, causes a number of extremely
unpleasant symptoms with which to continue to live in a normal rhythm
is impossible.

Classification

There are several classifications of this disease that take
based on different signs.

By the nature of the disease:

Acute conjunctivitis of the eye

Acute conjunctivitis характеризуется стремительным развитием
diseases with severe symptoms. More often
such a variant of the development of the disease is noted in case of defeat
infectious pathogen. Patients don’t notice any
precursors, since the main symptoms are increasing almost
right away

Chronic conjunctivitis

This type of inflammatory process in conjunctiva
eyes runs for a long time, and the person imposes
numerous subjective complaints, the severity of which is not
correlated with the degree of objective changes in the mucous
shell.

Due to inflammation, the following types of conjunctivitis are distinguished:

  • Bacterial – pathogenic and
    opportunistic bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci,
    пневмококки, гонококки, дифтерийная и синегнойная
    wand);
  • Вирусный – провоцируют вирусы герпеса, аденовирусы и
    others;
  • Грибковый – возникает, как проявление системных инфекций
    (aspergillosis, candidomycosis, actinomycosis, spirocrichillosis) or
    provoked by pathogenic fungi;
  • Хламидийный конъюнктивит  – возникает из-за попадания
    chlamydia on the mucosa;
  • Allergic – occurs after the introduction of the allergen in the body
    or irritant to the mucous membrane of the eyes (dust, wool, nap, varnish,
    paint, acetone, etc.);
  • Дистрофический коньюктивит — развивается вследствие
    occupational hazards (chemical
    reagents, paint, varnish, gasoline vapors and other substances, gases).

Depending on the nature of the inflammation and morphological changes
in the mucous membrane of the eye, conjunctivitis is subdivided into
following types:

  • Purulent conjunctivitis, which proceeds with the formation of pus;
  • Catarrhal conjunctivitis that proceeds without the formation of pus, but
    with abundant mucous discharge;
  • Papillary develops on the background of an allergic reaction to
    eye medications and represents education
    small grains and seals on the mucous membrane of the eye in the upper
    century;
  • Follicular develops according to the first type of allergic reaction
    and represents the formation of follicles on the mucous membrane
    eyes;
  • Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is characterized by numerous
    кровоизлияниями в слизистую оболочку eyes;
  • Filmy develops in children on the background of acute viral
    respiratory diseases.

Regardless of what caused the onset of the disease,
It is important to quickly and correctly begin treatment. It can be like
drug and folk. The choice is made on the basis of the degree
ophthalmic inflammation and condition of the patient.

The reasons

Currently, there are many causes for inflammation of the eye mucosa and
determining the factors that led to inflammation is enough
difficult task. But the success of the treatment of this disease depends
it is from the correctness of determining the causes inflammation.

The incubation period of conjunctivitis, depending on the species,
ranges from a few hours (epidemic form) to 4-8 days
(viral form).

So the most common cause of conjunctivt can be
name the following:

  • Being in a room where different aerosols are used and
    other substances of chemical origin
  • Long stay in the zone of high pollution
  • Disrupted metabolism in the body
  • Diseases such as meybomit, blepharitis
  • Avitaminosis
  • Impaired refraction – myopia, hyperopia,
    astigmatism
  • Inflammation of the sinuses
  • Too bright sun, wind, too dry air

If conjunctivitis has developed on professional grounds, then very
it is important to observe preventive measures to eliminate the harmful effects
annoying factors.

Symptoms of conjunctivitis: how it looks in the photo

Disease чаще всего поражает оба глаза right away However sometimes
inflammatory reaction in each eye is expressed
differently. Conjunctivitis (conjunctivitis) has the following
common signs and symptoms:

  • The state of swelling and redness of the eyelids and folds;
  • The appearance of a secret in the form of mucus or pus;
  • The appearance of sensations of itching, burning, tearing;
  • Emerging feeling of “sand” or presence in the eye
    foreign body;
  • Fear of light, blepharospasm;
  • Feeling of difficulty opening the eyelids in the morning due to their
    gluing secretion that can serve as the main
    a sign of conjunctivitis;
  • Reduction of visual acuity in the case of adenoviral
    keratitis and others

Symptoms of the disease may vary, depending on whether
что явилось причиной inflammation.

Among the associated signs of conjunctivitis, based on
which the doctor identifies the overall clinical picture of the disease, his
type and cause are distinguished:

  • cough;
  • high and high body temperature;
  • headache;
  • muscle pain;
  • increased fatigue;
  • general weakness.

Increased body temperature, cough, etc., as a rule
свидетельствует об инфекционной причине развития заболевания eye.
Therefore, the treatment will be aimed at eliminating the original source.
disease and strengthen the immune system.

Below in the photo, you can see the characteristic redness of the eyes when
conjunctivitis:

фото 1

фото конъюнктивита: характерный признак - покраснение глаза

 Symptoms
Acute conjunctivitis  The main symptoms of conjunctivitis occurring in acute
form:

  • Tearing due to excessive production
    tear fluid.
  • The cut in the eyes is the result of irritation of the nerve endings,
    which is rich in both conjunctiva and the eyeball itself.
  • Burning sensation.
  • Photophobia results from increased sensitivity
    to sunlight.
  • Eyelids swollen due to edema.
  • The conjunctiva is red, swollen.
  • If the bacteria that cause acute conjunctivitis are
    pus, then pus is secreted, eyelids stick together.
  • Runny nose and general symptoms (fever, weakness,
    fatigue, decreased appetite).
Chronic conjunctivitis Develops gradually, characterized by persistent and long
over. Characteristic features:

  • patients complain of discomfort
  • foreign body sensation in the eye,
  • corneal clouding;
  • eyelids slightly reddened.

When you are in the bright sun, all these symptoms intensify,
because of what the patient prefers to wear dark glasses.

Bacterial conjunctivitis

Bacterial, the cause of which are
bacteria, often staphylococci and streptococci. It manifests itself in
form of purulent discharge and swelling of the conjunctiva. Sometimes highlighting
so abundant that it becomes extremely difficult to open eyelids
After sleep.

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Signs of

Regardless of the bacteria that triggered the inflammatory process,
primary symptoms are about the same on the mucous suddenly
a turbid, grayish-yellow discharge, sticking the eyelids along
in the morning Additional symptoms of conjunctivitis:

  • pain and pain in the eyes
  • dry mucous and eyelid skin.

Almost always one eye is affected, but with non-compliance
rules of hygiene, the disease moves to another.

Treatment in adults

If the infection is caused by bacteria, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics.
in the form of eye drops, and the disease will pass within a few
days Often doctors recommend Floksal. It differs pronounced
antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria,
that most often cause infectious and inflammatory lesions
eye.

It is important to remember that when bacterial conjunctivitis drops are needed
bury 2-4 times a day until the symptoms disappear, but not
less than 7 days in a row, even if the painful manifestations are relieved
практически right away

Viral conjunctivitis

The cause of infection is smallpox, measles, herpes, adenovirus,
atypical trachoma virus. Conjunctivitis is very contagious,
provoked by adenoviruses and herpes viruses, such patients
Forms need isolation from others.

Symptoms конъюнктивита:

  • Severe inflammatory reaction of the conjunctiva (edema,
    redness due to vasodilation).
  • Inflammation of the conjunctiva occurs almost simultaneously in
    both eyes
  • Despite the pronounced inflammatory reaction, abundant purulent
    no discharge.
  • As a rule, eye inflammation accompanied by
    повышением температуры и воспалением близлежащих
    lymph nodes.

How to treat conjunctivitis of viral etiology?

How to treat viral conjunctivitis in adults now
There is no one-time answer. Should remember that
treatment should be directed to the destruction of pathogens
diseases that can be varied.

The basis of treatment is antiviral drugs,
intended for general and local use. To local include
drops, ointment containing tebrofen or oxolin. As well as a solution
interferon.

For acute use, eye drops are used tobrex, okazin up
six times a day. For severe swelling and irritation, use
anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drops: alomid,
Lekrolin twice a day. In acute conjunctivitis prohibited
blindfold and blindfold increase the risk
development of corneal inflammation.

Allergic conjunctivitis of the eye

Allergic conjunctivitis is one of
multiple manifestations of allergies. This type of conjunctivitis
often affects both eyes. The cause may be different
allergens – infectious agents, drugs (atropine,
quinine, morphine, antibiotics, physostigmine, ethyl morphine, etc.),
cosmetics, household chemicals, physical and
chemical factors in the chemical, textile,
flour milling industry

Symptoms конъюнктивита аллергической формы:

  • severe itching and burning of the eyelids and mucous membranes of the eyes,
  • severe swelling and redness
  • lacrimation and photophobia.

How to treat conjunctivitis?

The basis of treatment in this case are anti-allergic
препараты по типу Зиртек, Супрастин и т.д
Дополнительно проводится лечение антигистаминными средствами
local action (Allergoftal, Spersallerg), as well as drugs,
reduce mast cell degranulation. (Alomid 1%, Lecrolin 2%,
Kuzikrom 4%). They are used for a long time, introducing 2
times a day.

In severe cases it is possible to use local
drugs containing hormones, diphenhydramine and
interferon.

Complications

When the body does not get help in fighting the disease, great
the likelihood that there will be complications to cope with
will be much harder than with the disease itself.

  • воспалительные заболевания век (в т.ч. хронический
    blepharitis)
  • scarring of the cornea and eyelids,
  • allergic, chemical and other conjunctivitis may
    complicated by the addition of a bacterial infection.

Diagnostics

Consult a specialist if you know for sure
what is conjunctivitis, and noticed his signs. Disease
remains infectious for two weeks after the first
symptoms. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment help
prevent contamination of others.

  1. Immunofluorescence reaction (abbreviated as RIF). This method
    allows you to determine the presence of antibodies to the pathogen in
    smear imprint. Used, as a rule, to confirm
    Chlamydia etiology of the disease.
  2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Required for confirmation
    viral infection.
  3. Microscopic examination of smears prints. Allows
    see bacterial agents and further define them
    sensitivity to antibacterial drugs (during
    bacteriological test).
  4. If there is a suspicion of the allergic nature of conjunctivitis,
    conduct a study on the detection of IgE antibody titer, as well as
    a number of allergy tests.

Only after a complete diagnosis, the doctor will be able to say exactly how
treat chronic or acute conjunctivitis.

How to treat conjunctivitis in adults

The eye can only be considered healthy when
the cause of the pathology (pathogen) has been eliminated and eliminated
painful consequences. Therefore, the treatment of inflammatory diseases
The eye is complex.

The conjunctivitis therapy regimen is prescribed by an ophthalmologist with
taking into account the pathogen, the severity of the process, the existing complications.
Топическое лечение конъюнктивита требует частого промывания
конъюнктивальной полости лекарственными растворами,
инстилляции лекарственных средств, закладывания глазных мазей,
выполнения субконъюнктивальных инъекций.

1. Antiseptic preparations: Pikloksidin and Albucidine 20%

2. Antibacterial (etiotropic therapy):

  • staphylococcus, gonococcus, chlamydia (erythromycin ointment)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa (tetracycline ointment and / or chloramphenicol
    drops)
  • virus-associated conjunctivitis (use systemic
    immunocorrective and immunostimulating treatment, and locally
    use wide-spectrum antibacterial drugs, for
    prevention of secondary bacterial damage)

3. Anti-inflammatory drugs (either steroid or
nonsteroidal origin) topically and systemically used for edema
and hyperemia: Diclofenac, Dexamethasone, Olopatodin, Suprastin,
Fenistil in drops.

If acute conjunctivitis is detected, treatment is
disposal of pus:

  • For these purposes, furatsilin solution (1: 500) is used,
    pale pink manganese solution or boric acid solution 2%.
  • Flush eyes every 2-3 hours, after which
    bury antibacterial drops.
  • If the acute form is caused by coccus flora, the doctor prescribes
    antibiotics and sulfonamides.

If purulent conjunctivitis in adults has hit one eye –
wash and process will still have both.

Drops

The first of the list – hormonal agents, the last –
anti-inflammatory.

Drops для глаз, которые применяются при conjunctivitis:

  • Vigamoks;
  • Gentamicin;
  • Tobrex;
  • Vitabact;
  • Ziloxane

To relieve inflammation after the abatement of the acute process can
apply funds:

  • Maxidex;
  • Tobradex;
  • Polydex;
  • Indokolir;
  • Diklo-F.

As already mentioned, the nature of the disease (viral, bacterial
or allergic) can only install an ophthalmologist at
full-time examination. He prescribes the final treatment regimen (with
need to correct it), self-medication can lead
to the development of complications or the transition of the disease into a chronic form.

In conclusion, I would like to note the fact that conjunctivitis
may be the most harmless lesion of the eye, but in some cases
can have significant consequences – up to irreversible loss
view.

Treatment of conjunctivitis folk remedies

With this disease in parallel with the treatment of medicinal
drugs can additionally be used folk remedies for
adults. For example, you can use not only furatsilina solution
for washing, but also decoctions of herbs, tea. Than wash your eyes, you can
decide based on the availability of certain funds in the house.

  1. Prepare a mixture of carrot and parsley juice in the ratio
    3: 1. Drink for the treatment of conjunctivitis 0.7 cups 3 times a day
    before eating.
  2. Chamomile has long been used as an antiseptic, and with conjunctivitis
    From infusion of flowers make lotions. Distinctive feature
    plants favored sparing action that does not harm even
    pregnant 1 teaspoon of chamomile flowers pour 1 glass
    boiling water. Insist half an hour. Moisten a gauze pad and
    apply to eyes 4 times a day
  3. Pour 2 teaspoons of wild rose berries with 1 cup of boiling water, warm
    na low heat for 5 minutes and insist 30 minutes. Do gadgets when
    discharge of pus.
  4. Dill juice is another home remedy.
    conjunctivitis. From the stalks of dill squeeze the juice and saturate them
    cotton swab. Next, the tampon is applied to the sore eye for 15
    minutes The lotion is placed 4 to 7 times a day (depending on
    stages of the disease). The course of treatment is at least 6 days.
  5. Brewing strong black tea is cooled to room
    temperature To make compresses on the inflamed eyes.
     The number of procedures is not limited, the more often the better.
    Relieves inflammation and speeds recovery.
  6. Agave is also widely used against allergic
    conjunctivitis in complex treatment, but is made from a plant
    капли: Выдавливают сок с крупного листа. Mixed with water in
    proportions 1:10. Apply 1 time per day, 2 drops.
  7. How to treat conjunctivitis bay leaf? Need to take two dry
    лавровых листа, залить кипятком на 30 minutes Then cool the broth and
    make lotions based on it. If the facility is used for
    treating children, the decoction is used only for washing
    eye.

Prevention

To prevent conjunctivitis, specialists
Recommend to adhere to the following rules of prevention:

  • Washing hands with soap before touching face and eyes;
  • Individual towels;
  • For allergic conjunctivitis – do not be close to
    allergen to exclude its hit on the mucous membrane.
  • With the professional version – wearing glasses, respirators and
    other means of protection.

People of different ages encounter conjunctivitis, and
for each patient, the disease proceeds individually. Therefore very
It is important, at the first sign, to contact an ophthalmologist for
making an accurate diagnosis.

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