Что входит в Ultrasound брюшной полости: какprepare how to do that you can eat the day before

Update: October 2018

Возможности ультразвукового research очень широки. Special
информативно Ultrasound брюшной полости, в которой локализованы жизненно
important human organs – abdominal aorta, liver, spleen, gall
bladder, pancreas, etc.

Thanks to a routine check-up recommended 1
once a year, the probability of diagnosing and preventing
further development of the disease at an early stage.

Как правило, пациенты соглашаются на этот вид research,
since it is painless and does not bear health risks. Ultrasound
allows you to determine the dimensions, shape,
localization and structure of abdominal organs, vascular condition
and ducts.

Образования очагового характера легко визуализируются Ultrasound, такие
like pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, metastasis of tumors,
cysts, abscesses, hematomas, adenomas, concrements. But confirmation
diagnosis, especially oncopathology, is possible only after
гистологического research ткани. Even small in volume
the amount of free fluid (from 100 ml) in the abdominal cavity
диагностируются Ultrasound. О том, что входит в Ultrasound брюшной полости, как
prepare for it correctly and how we do research
we will tell in our article.

Симптомы, при которых показано Ultrasound брюшной полости

  • bitterness in the mouth, hypersalivation
  • heaviness in the right hypochondrium
  • arching and pulling pains in epigastria after eating
  • pain in the abdomen of a different nature
  • increased gas generation

Заболевания, при которых необходимо Ultrasound БП

Ultrasound показано при наличии или подозрении на следующие
diseases:

  • pancreatitis
  • hepatitis
  • cholecystitis
  • cirrhosis of the liver
  • cysts in the organs of BP
  • kidney stones and gallbladder
  • neoplasms of BP organs

Подготовка к Ultrasound брюшной полости – подробные рекомендации

Если вам назначено Ultrasound брюшной полости подготовка является не
less important than the study itself, because it directly affects
on the information content of the procedure.

За 3 дня до Ultrasound:

Вечер накануне Ultrasound:

День проведения Ultrasound:

Eating a small amount of food every 3-4 hours, about 4-5 times a
day. Withем жидкости около полутора литров ежесуточно.
A light dinner is allowed, which should be eaten before 20.00. If research is done in the morning, breakfast is excluded.
From the diet completely excluded foods that enhance
gassing: black bread, muffins, fruits and vegetables, fatty meats and
fish, alcohol, soda, milk, juice, legumes, etc.
Do not include meat and fish products in dinner, even
dietary.
If the study is scheduled after 3:00 pm, lightweight is allowed.
breakfast, which should be eaten before 11 o’clock.
  • Allowed products: cereals (buckwheat, flax, oats on
    water, barley), fast-meat poultry, beef, lean fish, lean
    cheese, soft-boiled egg (1 per day).
  • Methods for cooking permitted foods: boiling,
    roasting, steamed.
  • With склонности к запорам назначается слабительное внутрь,
    which needs to be taken around 4 pm: senadexin, senade (see
    list of laxatives for constipation).
  • За 1 день до research врач может назначить 3 раза в день по
    2 capsules (or 2 teaspoons) simethicone, Espumisan analogs,
    Displate, Meteospasmil.
За 2 часа до Ultrasound принять 5 – 10 таблеток активированного угля
or simethicone (2 capsules or 2 tsp emulsion)
Can be назначены адсорбенты, если у пациента существует
tendency to flatulence: activated carbon, enterosgel,
espumizan and others
If laxatives are poorly tolerated, it is recommended
enter the Besacodil candle into the rectum (see candles for constipation).
 With склонности к метеоризму может быть назначена
cleansing enema in the morning, before the procedure.
Can be назначены ферментные препараты, чтобы улучшить
digestion and prevent gas formation: mezim, festal,
Pancreatin, Creon, etc.
With неэффективности слабительных за 12 часов до Ultrasound назначается
cleansing enema.
Перед Ultrasound нельзя жевать резинку, рассасывать леденцы, курить,
take antispasmodics.

  Ultrasound брюшной полости — подготовка ребенка

  • Infants up to 1 year old – recommended not to feed for 2-4 hours and not
    поить около 1 часа до Ultrasound.
  • Children 1-3 years old – do not feed for 4 hours and do not water 1 hour before
    Ultrasound,
  • Дети старше 3 лет — подготовка перед Ultrasound более строгая, нельзя
    eat about 6-8 hours and drink liquid 1 hour before
    research.

Когда не следует проводить Ultrasound

  • After fluoroscopy of the gastrointestinal tract with the use of contrast (irrigoscopy,
    gastrography).
  • After endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract (fibrogastroduodenoscopy,
    colonoscopy).
  • After laparoscopy and pneumoperitoneum.

In the first and second case, a delay of 2 days is done, in the last
– 3-5 days. Preparation of an abdominal ultrasound in these cases is
same as described above.

Как проводится Ultrasound

Ultrasound БП, как правило, включает обязательное исследование желчного
bladder, liver, retroperitoneal space, spleen, pancreas
glands and vessels. The remaining organs are optional for
research и обследуются по показаниям.

Стандартный протокол research включает:

  • localization definition and size of organs
  • study of the structure of organs
  • determination of free fluid in the abdominal space (more precisely,
    confirmation of the absence thereof)
  • exception formations, cysts, stones, etc.

Description of the procedure

How to do an abdominal ultrasound? The procedure itself is on average
takes 15-20 minutes. The ultrasound is performed by an ultrasound doctor who is assisted by
nurse filling out study protocol. None
there are no painful or uncomfortable sensations during the procedure. On
The contact sensor applies a special conductive gel.

The survey is carried out in the supine position on the back, with
if necessary, the doctor may request that he roll over on his side, as well as
hold your breath for a few seconds. Using a sensor
connected to the monitor of the ultrasound machine, the doctor moves over the skin
anterior abdominal wall, falling down and sideways. During
procedures the doctor will call numbers, medical terms that
the nurse makes a record. Immediately after the ultrasound, you can eat and
lead a normal life without restrictions.

What is included in the survey – the studied organs and opportunities
Ultrasound

  • Liver. Looks first. Can be
    Hepatoses, cirrhosis, cysts, tumors were diagnosed.
  • Gall bladder and ducts. Estimated patency of the ducts
    presence of polyps, gallstones, wall condition
    body.
  • Stomach. Looks at the time of exclusion of formations.
  • Pancreas. If possible, all shares are valued.
    Pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis can be detected.
  • Spleen. Оцениваются структура, расположение и размер body.
    Neoplasms, cysts, inflammations are excluded.
  • Intestines. Most often only the large intestine is examined. With
    detection of lesions and polyps, the patient is sent to a narrow
    examination.
  • Kidney. Localization and interposition, sizes are estimated.
    Can be обнаружены воспалительные изменения, конгломераты,
    tumors and cysts.
  • Bladder. Evaluated the shape, size, condition of the walls,
    content.
  • Vessels. Be sure to evaluate the abdominal aorta and large vessels,
    feeding organs. Determined by the blood flow and the state of the vascular
    walls.
  • The lymph nodes. Their size is estimated (increase
    characteristic of oncopathology).
  • The uterus in women and the prostate gland in men. These bodies
    are in the pelvis, however, can be inspected. Can
    detect tumors and inflammatory processes.

Specialсти Ultrasound брюшной полости у детей

Особый интерес представляет Ultrasound у грудничка, поскольку у детей
от года и старше Ultrasound фактически не отличается от такового у
adults. Маленькие дети направляются на Ultrasound брюшной полости
with:

  • presence of congenital abnormalities;
  • abdominal injuries;
  • pain in the abdomen and fever of unknown origin;
  • planned screening, which is mandatory in the period
    newborn.

Ultrasound позволяет оценить состояние пищеварительной и выделительной
systems, namely: liver, bladder and ureters, kidneys,
gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, intestines.
Be sure to look at the retroperitoneal space, adrenal glands,
arteries, veins and nerve plexuses.

The procedure is carried out on the same principle as the examination.
adult, but in the presence of a parent who helps
hold baby.

This study is necessary for exclusion (or
confirmation) congenital abnormalities, confirmation of normal
state and functioning of organs according to age norms.

Ultrasound может выявить:

  • congenital abnormalities of organs
  • organ tumors, cysts and polyps
  • reactive pancreatitis
  • excesses and constriction of the gallbladder
  • hyperplasia, cirrhosis and hepatitis
  • enlarged spleen
  • enlarged regional lymph nodes
  • blood flow disorders

Ultrasound брюшной полости  — как оценить результаты
research

Как правило, врач-узист в конце research выносит краткое
a summary understandable to the patient, which may sound like “You have everything
good ”is the most anticipated and soothing phrase. But maybe
another conclusion, for example: “You need to see a gastroenterologist
(urologist, etc.) for consultation. ” But it should not
to frighten, any, even the most serious pathologies are treatable,
the main thing is not to delay it.

On руки выдается протокол research, в котором имеются
standard graphs describing each organ, as well as the conclusion
the doctor. In conclusion, all identified pathologies are indicated either
suspicions of them. If the patient is healthy, the conclusion will sound
something like this: Abdominal organs without features.

Ultrasound-признаки некоторых заболеваний

Disease

Withзнак по Ultrasound

Fatty degeneration of the liver
  • Strengthening liver echostructure (frequent and large echoes)
  • Increased body size
  • An increase of more than 45 ° lower angle of the left lobe of the liver
  • Non-visualized collar vein
Cirrhosis of the liver Direct signs:

  • Increased body size
  • Echo gain (frequent and large echoes)
  • Jagged contours
  • Rounded lower edge of the liver
  • Reduced elasticity
  • Reduced sound transmission
Indirect signs:

  • The expansion of the portal vein more than 15 mm
  • The expansion of the splenic vein more than 10 mm
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Ascites (echo-negative structure)
Congestive circulatory failure of the liver
  • Enlarged liver
  • Rounding the edges of the liver
  • Extended inferior vena cava
  • Branch at an angle of about 90 hepatic veins
  • No narrowing of the inferior vena cava during breathing
Focal liver disease: Cysts, abscess, tumor necrosis site, hematoma Plot devoid of echoes
Cancer metastases (poorly differentiated), hepatocellular
cancer, malignant lymphoma, sarcoma, adenoma, hemangioma,
hematoma, abscess
Plot with reduced echo structure
Cancer metastases (highly differentiated), adenoma, hepatoma,
hemangioma, scars, foci of calcination
Plot with enhanced echoes
Malignant tumor of the liver Strengthening the echostructure in the center of the plot and reducing the echo structure
on the edge of the mass education
Acute cholecystitis
  • Thickening of the gallbladder wall by 4 mm or more
  • Reduction of the echo structure along the internal contour
  • Vagueness of internal and external contours
Chronic cholecystitis
  • Thickening and compaction of the organ wall (reinforcement
    echo structures)
  • Clear contours
  • Reshaping the gallbladder
Cholelithiasis Direct signs:

  • Enhanced echo in the lumen of the bubble
  • Echonegative structure of bile
  • Stone displacement when changing position
  • Shadow path around a conglomerate more than 4 mm in diameter
Indirect signs:

  • Bladder wall thickening
  • Contour roughness
  • Increased body size: более 5 см поперечный размер, более
    10 cm length
  • The expansion of the duct proximal to the place of obturation fine
    a stone
Acute pancreatitis Significant reduction in echo structure
Chronic pancreatitis
  • Strengthening the echo structure
  • Contour roughness
Pancreatic tumor
  • Strengthening and heterogeneity of the echo structure
  • Contour roughness
  • Segmental increase in organ size

Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог

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