Chronic rhinitis: signs and featurestreatment of different forms

Chronic rhinitis is a disease characterized by recurring
symptoms of acute rhinitis – difficulty inhalation
air through the nose, heavy discharge of different consistency,
decrease in the severity of smell.

Next, we consider what causes the development of the disease, what
there are types, as well as symptoms and methods of treatment of the chronic form in
adults.

What is chronic rhinitis?

хронический ринит

Chronic rhinitis (runny nose) is a chronic inflammatory
процесс, протекающий в слизистой оболочке the nose.

In general, chronic rhinitis is undertreated rhinitis.
acute nature after infectious inflammations suffered,
which were caused by various microbes. Huge role in
The body plays the immune system. After all, when weakened
immunity occurs dysfunction of cells and tissues,
which leads to a protracted cold.

  • Согласно МКБ 10 хронический ринит носит код J31.0.

Most often, teenagers and adults suffer from the disease. Chronic
the form can be triggered by improper treatment,
curved nasal septum, blood circulation.

Classification

In adults, chronic rhinitis can occur in the following
forms:

Chronic vasomotor rhinitis

It is caused by disorders in the regulation of blood circulation.
сосудов, лежащих в слизистой полости the nose. This type is not worth it
treat folk remedies, but you must always contact
a specialist.

Allergic form

The basis of this type of chronic rhinitis is a shift in the immune system.
reaction, manifested at the local level. As a result of this reason
nasal mucosa begins to give an allergic reaction when
exposure to various allergens. Treat this type of rhinitis
It is necessary to begin with the detection of the exact allergen, without
worth hoping for folk remedies.

Катаральная форма

This form of the disease is characterized by mucositis.
shell of the nose, and constant abundant secretions. Chronic
catarrhal rhinitis is the most common complication
classic acute rhinitis.

Hypertrophic

This form of chronic rhinitis is characterized by proliferation.
tissue structures (mucosa, periosteum, bone) in
полости носа, особенно в области turbinates.

Atrophic

Chronic атрофический ринит делится на первичный (причины
development of which is not exactly known) and secondary (provoked
constant exposure to adverse industrial factors:
chemicals, dust, abnormally high or low temperature,
radiation).

The reasons

The main reasons for the formation of chronic rhinitis
are considered:

  • ingestion of allergic substances;
  • constant use of nasal drops, which are very often
    addictive and after that become absolutely not
    effective;
  • a drop in the level of hormones in the body due to pregnancy
    malfunctioning or removing one of the parts of the thyroid
    glands;
  • alcohol abuse and nicotine;
  • eating spicy foods;
  • pathology of the structure of the nasal septum and sinus;
  • inhaling air with a high content of dust or gas that leads
    irritation of the nasal mucosa;
  • effects of plastic surgery during which there was
    the shape of the concha is changed;
  • inflammation of the adenoids;
  • various diseases of the body of a chronic nature;
  • weakened immunity;
  • other inflammatory processes in the nasal cavity;
  • genetic predisposition.

Risk factors:

  • Stay in a room where they constantly smoke; smoking.
  • Air pollution by gases.
  • Work with a hot stove in dry air.
  • Occupational hazards.
  • Sudden change of temperature.
  • Diseases that contribute to a decrease in the immune system.
  • Acquired or congenital disease related to the violation
    the anatomical structure of the nasal bones.
  • Therapy with sedative, hormonal drugs; reception
    contraceptives, certain drugs used in
    treatment of hypertension.
  • Genetic predisposition.

Symptoms of chronic rhinitis

Symptoms of chronic rhinitis, regardless of the form
diseases include:

  • nasal discharge;
  • dry nasal mucosa;
  • difficulty in nasal breathing;
  • reduced sense of smell;
  • nasal voices;
  • sensation of itching in the nasal cavity;
  • sore throat;
  • sneezing (especially in the morning);
  • reflex cough;
  • snore;
  • persistent headaches.

These symptoms in patients with chronic rhinitis may have
varying degrees of severity and manifest themselves in different
combinations.

Chronic форма Symptoms
Catarrhal When a catarrhal patient may complain of:

  • Foreign body sensation in the pharynx;
  • Deterioration of smell;
  • Deterioration of taste receptors;
  • Non-intensive headaches
Atrophic Symptoms хронического атрофического ринита значительно
different from other forms of the disease. In particular, instead of permanent
flow from the nose is observed:

  • Drying of the mucous membranes;
  • The appearance of yellow or gray crusts;
  • Sensation of viscous contents in the nasopharynx.
Hypertrophic With chronic hypertrophic rhinitis other than
nasal congestion and nasal discharge appear:

  • headaches;
  • nasally in the voice;
  • mucous membrane changes color to bright red or
    purple
  • the inner surface of the shell becomes bumpy.

The disease develops after a long course of catarrhal
kind of rhinitis.

Vasomotor When vasomotor rhinitis picture is somewhat different. This kind
characterized by the following symptoms:

  • frequent urge to sneeze;
  • nasal congestion in the morning;
  • pale swollen mucous.

The discharge of mucus in a patient is watery. In the nose is celebrated
the appearance of cyanotic spots.

Atrophic In this form of the disease atrophy and ceases
function the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity. If this
happens on small separate sites, talk about local
atrophic rhinitis. If large areas of the mucous membrane are affected – o
diffuse.

Depending on the causes of the disease emit
Its following forms:

  • primary atrophic rhinitis or ozena;
  • secondary atrophic.

Complications

The consequences of chronic catarrhal rhinitis are:

  • ear inflammation;
  • the appearance of caries;
  • conjunctivitis;
  • pharyngitis;
  • bronchitis.

Late treatment of allergic rhinitis may result in
is the formation of bronchial asthma.

Frequent inhalation of cold air leads to
inflammation of the tonsils, persistent unpleasant smell from the mouth
cavities, various diseases of the lungs and bronchi.

Diagnostics

For the diagnosis of chronic rhinitis use data
received as a result of the collection of complaints, an objective examination,
rhinoscopy. Anterior rhinoscopy is usually found.
slight hyperemia and swelling of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity
(mainly in the area of ​​the lower and middle turbinates),
pastoznost.

  1. Laboratory diagnosis. Among laboratory studies can
    note the following:

    • general blood analysis;
    • blood chemistry;
    • general urine analysis;
    • examination of nasal discharge for bacterial flora
      allows you to determine the composition of microflora;
    • histological examination.
  2. Instrumental studies. Among the survey data you can
    highlight:

    • endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity;
    • radiographs of the paranasal sinuses;
    • computed tomography.

How to treat chronic rhinitis

Chronic runny nose in adults will be treated comprehensively.
most effective. An integrated approach to treatment combines
several techniques:

  • Drug therapy.
  • Surgical intervention.
  • Physiotherapy procedures (non-drug
    treatment).

Non-drug treatment

It involves the elimination of the harmful factors
which could contribute to the development of chronic rhinitis.

These include:

  • sanitation of diseases of the nasopharynx, sinuses;
  • treatment of common diseases (cardiovascular, obesity,
    kidney disease);
  • improvement of working and living conditions (elimination of gas pollution and
    air dustiness).

Drugs for adults

Drug treatment is the use of:

  1. vasoconstrictor drops, ointments that have
    anti-inflammatory and antiseptic, as well as astringent
    drugs.
  2. If the patient has a fever, the doctor
    may prescribe antiviral and antipyretic drugs.
  3. When hard crusts appear, softening drops can be applied.
    and sprays. As a rule, they are developed on salt or oil
    basis.
  4. A specialist can also prescribe antibiotics, but it depends
    from the clinical picture.

The success of treatment depends on the possibility of elimination.
adverse factors causing the development of chronic rhinitis.
Useful stay in a dry warm climate, hydrotherapy and
balneotherapy

It is necessary to treat common diseases associated with chronic
rhinitis, as well as the elimination of intranasal pathology (deformity,
sinusitis, adenoid vegetation).

Topical treatment is the use of antibacterial and
astringent drugs in the form of 3 – 5% solution of protargol (collargol),
0,25-0,5% zinc sulfate solution, 2% salicylic ointment, etc.
Assign to the area of ​​the nose UHF, endonasal ultraviolet irradiation (tube quartz).
The prognosis is usually favorable.

If the patient was diagnosed with vasomotor rhinitis, then
prescribed hormones, antihistamines and
procaine blockades are carried out. In some situations, rhinitis is treated.
laser irradiation or photodestruction. In severe cases
the patient is undergoing surgery.

When rhinitis allergic nature prescribe antihistamines.
funds for general and local use. Useful procedures
are exposure to cold, breathing exercises, inhalation and
reception of sorbents.

If a patient has atrophic rhinitis, then therapy
is as follows.

  • In the washing of the nasal passages.
  • In carrying out inhalation.
  • Lubrication of the nose with iodine solution on glycerin.
  • Apply rosehip oil and local aloe juice
    destination.

In chronic hypertrophic rhinitis in the absence of
positive effect of conservative therapy is shown
surgical treatment which is to deleting excessively
overgrown mucous membrane of the nasal cavity.

In most cases, the intervention is minimally invasive.
method:

  • electrocoagulation,
  • radio wave surgery,
  • cryodestruction,
  • ultrasound or laser methods.

In some cases, with minor hypertrophy is carried out
submucous vasotomy during which the dissection is performed
vascular connections between the mucosa and periosteum
turbinates.

Operative intervention

Often, chronic rhinitis can only be saved by
operations. Today’s medicine offers quite a lot
list of interventions:

  • ultrasonic disintegration;
  • radio wave disintegration;
  • cryodestruction;
  • laser destruction;
  • cauterization with an electrode;
  • removal of the rear ends of the lower nose conchs;
  • burning of shells with tri-chloro-acetic acid.

In chronic rhinitis, surgery is aimed at
reduction in the size of the nasal conchas, which should facilitate the patient
possibility of breathing.

Surgical treatment of vasomotor rhinitis is performed during
remission of the disease. It is shown in cases where there are
factors contributing to the progression of the disease, namely:

  • disruption of the normal anatomy of the nasal cavity (curvature
    partitions, spikes, etc.), causing difficulty breathing through
    nose;
  • hyperplasia (volume increase) of the concha;
  • purulent polypous processes in the paranasal sinuses and in the cavity
    the nose.

Folk remedies

Before using folk remedies, we recommend turning to
to your doctor, because many ENT diseases have a similar
symptomatology, therefore, treatment prescription is individual
character and only under the supervision of a specialist.

  1. Garlic drops. Grind the average clove of garlic, pour it
    heated in a water bath sunflower oil. Then insist
    the resulting mixture for 4-5 hours, strain thoroughly and
    bury two drops in the nasal passages up to 4 times a day;
  2. Aloe drops. For the preparation of these drops will need leaves
    aloe, from which it is necessary to squeeze out the juice and mix with water,
    observing proportions 1: 1. Instilled solution five times each
    nose drops three times a day;
  3. Laurel drops. Laurel help to cure chronic rhinitis
    sheets, which should be mixed with half a teaspoon of salt, honey
    and pour boiling water over it. Carefully place the infusion and cool to
    temperature 23 degrees. It is recommended to dig in up to 4 times
    three drops a day;
  4. Sea salt. One of the indispensable components for treatment
    runny nose Sea salt can be bought in a regular store, from it
    very easy to prepare a solution for washing. Proportion:
    coffee spoon in a glass.
  5. Iodine. This tool has a pronounced antiseptic
    impact, therefore kills pathogens perfectly
    microorganisms penetrated into the nasopharynx. To make the right one
    composition, you need to dissolve 15 drops of iodine in a glass of water, and add
    half a teaspoon of sea salt.

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: