Chronic bronchitis in adults – symptoms andtreatment, causes, complications

Хронический бронхит – диффузный прогрессирующий
inflammatory process in the bronchi, leading to morphological
restructuring of the bronchial wall and peribronchial tissue. how
and any other chronic disease, bronchitis suffer
adults (up to 10% of the population). Since the disease is associated with
slowly progressive changes in the bronchial wall and
tissue, most often, this diagnosis is made to people after 40
years old.

how лечить заболевание, а также какие симптомы, признаки и
possible complications will be discussed later in the article.

Features of chronic bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is called a long sluggish or
progressive inflammation in the bronchi. You have to talk about him in
when the central symptom of the disease is cough
place in a patient over a three-month period (total for
year or simultaneously), at least 2 years in a row.

Bronchitis in the chronic stage is a pathology in which
bronchial mucosa undergoes functional and irreversible

  • The mechanism of secretion of bronchial mucus is damaged;
  • the mechanism of cleaning bronchial mucus is deformed;
  • immunity of the bronchi is suppressed;
  • bronchial walls become inflamed, thickened and sclerotized.

The development of the disease occurs very quickly if the mucous membranes
are constantly affected by microbes or viruses that are in
the air. The disease begins to develop when a person is constantly
located in damp and cold room. If the bronchi are damaged
dust, smoke, it gives a “push” to the increase and separation of sputum and
cough begins to increase.

Signs of chronic bronchitis in patients are exacerbated late
fall or early spring amid dramatic changes in weather

The reasons

According to WHO (World Health Organization)
chronic bronchitis is the second most frequent, after
bronchial asthma, nonspecific bronchopulmonary disease
systems in adults with which they are treated in medical institutions.

The cause of chronic bronchitis can be:

  • Repeated acute respiratory viral infections
  • bad habits, smoking causes special harm,
  • prolonged exposure to dry hot or cold
  • hypothermia of the whole body,
  • weakened immune system
  • prolonged contact of the bronchi with harmful chemicals
    (chlorine, dust, acids),
  • genetic predisposition
  • Industrial production pollutants (pollutants). Protracted
    inflammation in the bronchi occurs in people who
    work in industrial enterprises or live on
    polluted terrain.

The trigger mechanism of the chronic inflammatory process in the wall
bronchus rather complicated. You can not select only one
the factor that first realizes it. The exceptions are cases
professional and chronic bronchitis smokers.

The following conditions predispose to bronchitis:

  • chronic pathology of the upper respiratory tract;
  • chronic foci of infection in the body
    (например, кариесили хронический пиелонефрит);
  • disturbed nasal breathing for various reasons (polyps in
    nose, broken nasal septum);
  • застой в легких (например, из-за сердечной
  • alcoholism;
  • chronic renal failure.


Depending on the causes of chronic bronchitis
is an:

  • independent – develops without the influence of others
    inflammatory processes in the body;
  • secondary – is a complication of other diseases,
    среди которых пневмония и туберкулёз, которые могут
    to become not only the cause of the disease, but also his
    the consequences.

According to the degree of involvement of bronchopulmonary tissue in the pathological
process is isolated

  • obstructive, in which the lumen of the bronchi narrows,
  • non-obstructive, when the width of the bronchi does not change.

By the nature of sputum determine the type of disease.

  • Catarrhal – slimy, without purulent component in
    transparent detachable.
  • Catarrhal-purulent and purulent bronchitis are determined by
    opaque inclusions in sputum.

There are obstructive and non-obstructive forms of the disease.
Exacerbations may be frequent, rare or there may be
latent course of the disease.

Symptoms of chronic bronchitis in an adult

In addition to the main symptom of the disease – cough with sputum,
Patients may experience the following symptoms of chronic

  • shortness of breath even when doing a little physical exertion or
  • nausea;
  • increased sweating;
  • general weakness of the body;
  • wheezing when breathing;
  • The blue tip of the nose and ears, fingers and toes;
  • sleep disturbance;
  • lowering the level of performance;
  • dizziness;
  • increased pulse rate in the patient’s calm state;
  • severe headaches.

Хронический бронхит

Attention! If the cough does not pass more than a month, it is worth
be examined by a laryngologist and clarify for what reason
irritated respiratory tract. itт процесс, если его не лечить, в
individual cases leads to bronchial asthma.

Cough Cough при бронхите может иметь как сухой, так и влажный
character he accompanied by obligatory coughing up sputum,
the amount of which varies. Its volume is from several
milliliters up to 150 grams per day. The phlegm can be different:

  • watery and transparent,
  • mucous,
  • mixed with blood and pus, purulent.
Sputum The progression of the disease or its aggravation is marked
expectoration of mucopurulent or purulent sputum. is heа отличается
greenish tint and high viscosity. The appearance of such sputum
talks about the activation of the microbial flora and requires an appropriate
drug correction.
Dyspnea Difficulty in breathing initially accompanies dry cough with
bronchial obstruction or gradually develop in frequently ill
cold people and smokers. In any case, shortness of breath means
insolvency of the small bronchi, which leads to respiratory
insufficiency and general hypoxia of the body.

Initially, only dyspnea during physical exertion
progresses rapidly and may even appear at rest.

Wheezing Even during the course of inflammation in the bronchi, wheezing often occurs,
due to the fact that the lumens of the organs get clogged up with phlegm. By the way, by
the nature of this manifestation can determine which part
bronchial tree inflamed and what character is it

The disease in remission is not contagious, even if catarrhal
phenomena (cough, sputum) occur.

In the period of exacerbation of bronchitis, the patient is a carrier of viral
or bacterial infection to the same extent as a person with any
other acute respiratory illness
(фарингитом, тонзиллитом, ринитом).

With a severe course of the disease during a medical examination
signs of severe respiratory failure are detected,
swelling of the veins in the neck, acrocyanosis, swelling of the legs. With
physical examination reveals a strengthening or weakening
breathing, wheezing, hard breathing.

The severity of the disease is assessed by severity.
symptoms and indicators of external respiration (volume of forced


Complications хронического бронхита делятся на две основные группы.
The first is due to infections. This type includes pneumonia,
bronchiectasis, asthmatic and bronchospastic components. The second
the group is due to the progression of the underlying disease.

The development of the following complications is possible:

  • emphysema;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • pulmonary heart;
  • cardiopulmonary insufficiency;
  • pneumonia;
  • bronchial asthma.


Diagnostics бронхита в основном основана на данных клинической
pictures, as well as a survey of the patient. As a result of the survey, you can
figure out the predisposing factors that will help put the right

Since some manifestations of chronic bronchitis in adults,
such as:

  • low-grade fever
  • dyspnea,
  • chest pain,
  • cough,
  • blood present in sputum

may occur with more severe, sometimes irreversible
bronchopulmonary diseases (bronchial asthma, tuberculosis,
pulmonary emphysema, COPD, lung cancer tumors),
its diagnosis is quite complicated and multistage.


  • крови — общий и биохимический (для
    detection of inflammatory processes);
  • urine;
  • laboratory studies of expectorated sputum.

Also, the doctor will refer the patient to do:

  • Radiographic examination of the chest – this
    research method is carried out in two projections, allows you to identify
    The picture shows the lesions and the degree of their defeat. X-ray
    the study allows to exclude another pathology (tuberculosis,
    focal pneumonia, bronchiectasis).
  • Spirography – this method will help determine the function of the external
    respiration in patients with chronic bronchitis.
  • Fibrobronchoscopy (FBS) – one of the most informative methods
    laboratory diagnosis, as it allows to identify and objectively
    see the real picture of the disease, time to identify or
    exclude cancer or tuberculosis pathology.

Recurrent bronchitis requires mandatory
X-ray examination. First of all do FLG
(fluorography) or radiography. The most informative method
X-ray examination – computed tomography.

Treatment of chronic bronchitis in adults

Therapy has several goals:

  • remove aggravation;
  • improve the quality of life;
  • increase resistance to physical stress;
  • extend remission.

Before curing chronic bronchitis, you should determine
cause of prolonged inflammation.

In the acute phase, therapy should be aimed at eliminating
inflammation of the bronchi, improvement of bronchial
patency, restoration of impaired general and local
immunological reactivity.

With подозрении на вирусную этиологию (причину развития) бронхита
– it is necessary to supplement the treatment with antiviral drugs. The most
available broad-spectrum drugs are viferon,
Genferon, Kipferon. Dosages depend on the age of the patient.
Duration of use not less than 10 days.

For treatment can be used:

  • Antibacterial agents;
  • Expectorants;
  • Bronchodilators;
  • Anti-inflammatory and antihistamine drugs;
  • Inhalation therapy;
  • Physiotherapy methods (halotherapy);
  • Normalization of lifestyle.


Antibacterial therapy is carried out in the period of exacerbation.
chronic purulent bronchitis within 7-10 days (sometimes with
severe and prolonged exacerbation within 14 days). Besides,
antibiotic therapy is prescribed for the development of acute pneumonia
against the background of chronic bronchitis.

The doctor prescribes semi-synthetic devices:

  • penicillins (Amoxicillin, Augmentin),
  • cephalosporins (ceftriaxone),
  • macrolides (Sumamed, Azithromycin),
  • fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin).

The choice of drug is determined by the sensitivity of pathogenic flora,
determined when sowing sputum.

Antibiotics обладают быстрым лечебным эффектом, но помимо
pathogenic microflora they kill and the beneficial intestinal microflora,
for the restoration of which you need to take probiotic drugs
(laktovit, bifiform, linex).

Expectorant drugs for chronic bronchitis

Appointed in all cases of this disease. Use two
groups of drugs: sputum disintegrant and examiners.

  • The first, contribute to the transformation of viscous sputum into a liquid,
  • the second – improve mucociliary clearance.

In sum, they get relief from coughing up sputum.
Used ACC, Lasolvan, flavamed, Bromgesin.

Drugs that reduce the viscosity of sputum

Mucolytics and muco-regulatory agents. To mucoregulators
относится Бромгексин, Амброксол. Drugs of this group
disrupts the synthesis of sialomus proteins, which entails
reduction of viscosity of bronchial mucus.

Chronic mucolytics
бронхите: Ацетилцистеин, Карбоцистеин — разрушают
mucoproteins, which also leads to a decrease in the viscosity of sputum.


Bronchodilator drugs are prescribed for severe
bronchospasm and airflow reduction before the onset of dyspnea,
wheezing when you exhale.

Commonly used bronchodilators:

  • Euphyllinum;
  • Theophylline;
  • Salbutamol (also in combination with theophylline).

Additional therapy

Additionally, doctors may prescribe the following methods.


One of the most modern methods of dealing with chronic
bronchitis – halotherapy. Procedures are carried out in specially
equipped chambers where optimum moisture conditions are created
and temperature indicators, and the air is thoroughly cleaned and
saturated with salt solutions.

Moreover, such treatment can cure light forms forever.
bronchopulmonary diseases, and during the severe stages will become more
loyal, so you will need fewer
drug preparations.

Breathing exercises

Breathing exercises – основная физиотерапевтическая
a procedure shown to help permanently cure chronic
bronchitis. It can consist not only of passive respiratory
exercise, but also involve the whole body.

Spa treatment

Spa treatment повышает неспецифическую
body resistance, has an immunocorrective action,
improves respiratory function and bronchial drainage.


Massage входит в комплексную терапию хронического бронхита. is he
promotes sputum discharge, has a broncho-relaxing
action. Used classic, segmental, point
massage. The latter type of massage can cause significant
bronchodynamic effect.

Timely complex treatment allows to increase
the duration of the remission period, reduce the frequency and severity
exacerbations, however, does not provide a lasting cure. HB Prediction
burdened with the accession of bronchial obstruction, respiratory
недостаточности и легочной гипертензии.

What to do during an exacerbation?

During the exacerbation of chronic bronchitis to enhance the therapeutic
effect of drug intake is useful to combine with other
methods of getting rid of the disease:

  • Various physiotherapy that help quickly cope with
    chronic bronchitis, not complicated by obstruction.
  • The complex of physical therapy, which is allowed to use
    only in the treatment of exacerbations of non-obstructive bronchitis.
  • Reception of vitamin preparations, in particular And, groups B and C, and
    also various biostimulants such as aloe juice, sea buckthorn oil
    and propolis.

How to cure chronic bronchitis folk remedies

We will not consider all the recipes with which you can
cure chronic bronchitis (folk remedies are extremely
varied), and we give only the most common ones.

  1. A decoction of apricot pits. Eating apricots, not
    throw away the bones. Remove the nucleoli from them, pour 20 g of them into
    enamelware glass of boiling water, bring to a boil and
    boil for 5 minutes on low heat. Remove from heat, after 2 hours
    strain and drink ¼ cup broth 3-4 times a day, and
    kernels eat.
  2. Reduce the viscosity of mucus folk remedies on the basis of leaves
    plantain, licorice root, with the addition of butter.
    It facilitates sputum discharge and tea with mountain thyme, as well as
    inhalations with alkaline mineral waters, which are held at
    help of the nebulizer.
  3. Medicinal fees (herbal) will help treat chronic
    bronchitis. They make a mixture of herbs: oregano, coltsfoot, plantain,
    licorice, thyme. Then, one tablespoon of the mixture is poured
    half a liter of boiling water. Insist three hours. Drink ten days one by one
    thirds cup
  4. Horseradish 150 g, lemon – 3 pieces, scroll in a meat grinder,
    mix. Gruel taken in the morning on an empty stomach and before bedtime. it 
    средство  лечения оказывает очень хороший
    anti-inflammatory and expectorant effect.
  5. And when the sputum is very abundant, add 1-2 plants to the collection,
    reducing its production. it – корни любистка и девясила, трава
    Potentilla goose and hypericum. At the same time it will be useful to use
    beet and carrot juices, pomegranate and cherries with honey.


Chronic bronchitis has a favorable prognosis for this disease.
treats well with preventive measures
can reduce the number of relapses.

  • First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the effects of provoking
    factors. Treatment of chronic diseases of the nasal cavity and
    paranasal sinuses, stopping smoking and working in harmful conditions
    dust, chemical production significantly improve the condition
    many patients.
  • Useful will be brisk walking, swimming, running.
  • In chronic bronchitis, you should forever abandon harmful
    habits: smoking, alcoholism.
  • Exacerbation of the disease contributes to a weakened immune system,
    hypothermia and neurosis.
  • To increase the overall resistance of the body use
    hardening technique and sports exercises.

Chronic bronchitis is a serious disease, and
frivolous attitude towards his treatment is unacceptable. Mandatory steps
therapies – consultation with a physician, therapist or pulmonologist.
Sputum smear test. Follow all instructions
the doctors.

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