Update: October 2018
Chlorhexidine is a popular local drug.
antiseptic that is successfully used as a universal
disinfectant and antimicrobial agent, and is especially popular in
countries of the former Soviet Union.
The chemical compound chlorhexidine has been discovered in the UK
in 1950, and already in 1954 the first skin antiseptic appeared on
base of this substance. In the future, the substance began to be added to
urological lubricants, impregnate catheters, implants,
overalls of medical personnel. Included in the series
mouthwashes and toothpastes. Widely applied in
It is noteworthy that for the period of commercial use and
numerous studies of chlorhexidine not confirmed
the possibility of the formation of chlorhexidine-resistant microorganisms.
However, the use of Chlorhexidine can cause
bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The drug belongs to
group of budget drugs remains available for
broad masses of the population.
Фармгруппа: антисептик для местного применения.
Composition, physico-chemical properties, price
The drug is present in the pharmaceutical market in several drugs.
forms, each of which is characterized by its scope.
In addition to the products described below, registered in Russia,
there are creams, gels, ointments with the same acting
Solution 0,05 %
(aqueous solution of chlorhexidine)
(Commercial name – hexicon)
0.5 mg of chlorhexidine digluconate in 1 ml of solution
|25 mg of chlorhexidine solution 20% in 1 bottle||16 mg of chlorhexidine digluconate in 1 supp.|
Purified water to the desired volume
|Ethyl alcohol 95% – 718.5 ml; purified water, to obtain
solution volume 1 l
|Polyethylene oxide 400, polyethylene oxide 1500|
Liquid, clear solution
|Colorless, transparent sometimes slightly opalescent liquid with
|Vaginal suppositories of white or yellowish color,
torpedo-shaped, the surface is slightly marble.
Available in various types of packaging (plastic, glass
Price: 0.05% solution 100 ml: 10-15 rubles.
On 70 and 100 ml in bottles / bottles with a nozzle or a cap with
Price 100 ml: 98 rubles.
1 or 5 supp. In the cell contour packaging. 1, 2 each
Price: №10 – 270-280 rubles.
The instructions for use of chlorhexidine indicated that the drug
has a local antiseptic effect, to a greater extent
bactericidal. Changes the properties and composition of cell membranes
microorganisms. Cations formed during the dissociation of salts
active ingredient, begin to react with the shell
bacterial cells having a negative charge. Lipophilic
antiseptic groups promote membrane disaggregation
microorganisms that have a lipoprotein structure, and lead to
imbalance of osmotic balance, loss of phosphorus and potassium from
bacteria cells. The destruction of the cytoplasmic membrane in the end
leads to the death of bacteria.
Solution хлоргексидина биглюконата эффективен в отношении
a wide range of microorganisms: Trichomonas vaginalis,
Bacteroides fragilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gardnerella vaginalis,
Chlamidia spp., Treponema pallidum, Ureaplasma spp. Moderate
It affects individual strains of Pseudomonas spp. and Proteus
spp. Viruses (except herpes virus) and fungal spores are resistant to
the action of the drug.
It has a long antibacterial effect, can be used
for antiseptic treatment of the surgical field and the surgeon’s hands,
since after treatment the active substance remains some
time on the skin. Preserves antimicrobial activity in purulent
environment, blood, but at the same time efficiency decreases a little.
Local application has no systemic effect – the drug does not
absorbed into the bloodstream.
Application in gynecology:
- trichomonas colpitis;
- itching of the vulva;
- cervical erosion;
- prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, trichomoniasis,
syphilis, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis.
In dentistry and ENT practice:
- disinfection of prostheses (partially removable, removable);
- postoperative hygiene in dental and
As a local antiseptic for:
- обработки ран, в т.h, ожоговых поверхностей;
- дезинфекция кожи, в т.h, операционного поля;
- treatment of hands of medical staff, surgeon;
Also used for дезинфекции рабочих поверхностей,
equipment, instruments, thermometers that do not allow
- Hygienic treatment of the hands of the surgeon and other medical staff in
institutions of different profiles;
- Treatment of the skin area of injection, surgical fields,
elbow bends (skin) in donors;
- Disinfection of small-area surfaces of medical products
(for example, ENT, dental instruments) for infections
different etiology (bacterial, fungal, viral) in
- Hygienic treatment of the skin of the hands of catering workers, food
- Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: syphilis,
chlamydia, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis, gonorrhea, genital
- Prevention of infectious-inflammatory complications
in gynecology and obstetrics (before childbirth, abortion,
surgical treatment, before and after the installation of the spiral intrauterine,
before and after diathermocoagulation (cauterization) of the cervix, before
performing an intrauterine examination;
- Treatment of bacterial vaginosis;
- Therapy of colpitis (including mixed, trichomonas,
- Hypersensitivity to existing or auxiliary
- Dermatitis, allergic reactions at the site of application.
Not contraindicated in lactation and pregnancy.
It is prescribed with caution for the treatment of children. At random
ingesting any form of chlorhexidine – produce immediately
washing the stomach with plenty of water, then take
Spray can not be applied to the mucous membranes and wounds. Solution and
spray is not allowed for contact with the auditory nerve and the brain
shells. At random попадании на данные участки следует
rinse the preparation thoroughly under running water. If spray got into
eyes – also wash with water and drip albutside.
The drug is incompatible with alkalis, soap and other anionic
compounds (gum arabic, colloids, carboxymethylcellulose, sodium
lauryl sulfate, saponins). Does not apply simultaneously with other
Do not forget that chlorhexidine is a medicinal
drug, not a means of hygiene, so use it to
daily rinsing of the mouth and teeth, as well as douching
can not. There are strict indications for which such a procedure
appropriate and necessary, and should be followed. If a
use chlorhexidine uncontrollably is fraught with violation
microflora balance, the development of dysbacteriosis and allergic
- Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Used no later than
2 hours after breaking the condom, unprotected intercourse.
About 2-3 ml are injected into the urethra
funds for women – 2-3 ml in the urethra and 5-10 ml –
additionally in the vagina (chlorhexidine in the form of douching).
The skin around the genitals is also necessarily processed.
Urination can be carried out no earlier than 2 hours after
- In gynecology. Used as a douching
relevant evidence. Carry out in a horizontal position
squeezing a few drops of the drug into the vagina from the bottle. After
procedures need to lie down for 5-10 minutes.
- In inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract in men and
women. In the urethra injected 2-3 ml of the solution once or twice in
day 10 days in a row.
- For the treatment of skin injuries, wounds, burns, the solution will be applied.
in the form of an application, which is left for 1-3 minutes.
- For gargling with sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis.
Recommendations for rinsing – before the procedure
rinse mouth with warm water. Then take 10-15 ml of solution
and thoroughly gargle them for about 30 seconds. Within 60 min
after the procedure can not eat and drink. Dilute chlorhexidine not
necessary – 0.05% solution is suitable for the procedure.
- In dentistry. To rinse teeth, to rinse
periodontal canal, fistula, abscess. Also used for
treatment of the gums after the periodontal flap surgery.
- For hygienic processing of medical staff brushes ~ 5 ml spray
spread on the hands and rubbed for 2 minutes.
- To handle the surgeon’s hands, first carefully wash the hands with warm
running water and soap for at least 2 minutes, dried with sterile
gauze cloth. Already on dry skin apply a means of 5 ml
at least 2 times, rubbed for 3 minutes.
- For the treatment of the elbow bends (skin areas) or
surgical field, the skin is rubbed twice, sequentially, with
using sterile gauze pads moistened abundantly
drug. After окончания обработки следует обождать 2 минуты.
Before surgery, the patient takes a shower, changing clothes. During
processing field of the skin in one direction wipe
sterile swab, irrigated spray. After окончания обработки
need to wait 1 min.
- For disinfection of small surfaces (tables, armrests
chairs, equipment) they are wiped with a sterile cloth moistened with
means. Норма расхода – 100 мл на 1 м2.
- Disinfection tools. Before machining
remove visible eye contamination by wiping wipes,
rinsing under running water with a ruff in compliance
antiepidemic regime. They are then immersed in a container with
with a solution to completely fill the cavities and channels, with
exposure depending on the specifics of treatment. Solution для
disinfection under conditions Storage under cover is valid for 3
- For the prevention of STIs – 1 suppository once in the vagina.
A prerequisite – after intercourse should pass no more than 2
- For the treatment of vaginosis, colpitis – 1 suppository twice each.
day, 7-10 days in a row.
Itching and some allergic reactions are possible.
reactions that take place after drug withdrawal.
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог