Chlamydia – what is it, causes, how are transmitted,symptoms and treatment, signs of chlamydia in the body

Chlamydia is one of the most common infectious
diseases transmitted sexually. Causative agents of the disease
are special microorganisms – chlamydia. According to information
World Health Organization incidence rate with
every year it grows and today almost 30% of the population
the globe is infected with chlamydia.

This disease can affect the mucous membranes of the body, and
provoke many unpleasant and dangerous symptoms. Due to
of this, it is necessary to know the main transmission routes of chlamydia to
prevent infection.

What is chlamydia?

хламидиоз

Chlamydia is a group of acute and chronic infections.
nature caused by human intracellular parasites –
Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia
pneumoniae). It is one of the most common
sexually transmitted diseases. With этом заболевании
possible damage to the urethra (urethra), direct
guts, vagina, cervix and eyes.

Хламидии — это микроорганизмы, которые долгое время не
идентифицировались и не причислялись ни к вирусам, ни к
bacteria, because of its specific structure. Getting into the body
человека, хламидии могут долгое время себя не проявлять или же
сразу, внедрившись в клетки, начинают их разрушать, провоцируя
serious diseases of the urinary organs, heart, lungs, brain and
eye.

Once in the body, chlamydia sneaks into the cell and there are several
reborn in pathogenic form. In this form, these microorganisms
выдерживают пребывание вне organism. This process lasts from two
up to three days.

Duration процесса варьируется от того, насколько сильное
resistance is exerted by the body, the activity of chlamydia. Cells
those who gave shelter to these microorganisms are also their food and
time die off. Due to the fact that chlamydia feed content
cells, they can only develop there. But outside the data
microorganisms are able to exist for some time.

Withчины

Basically, the cause of chlamydia disease are parasitic
Chlamydia microorganisms that are introduced deep into healthy cells,
hitting them and breeding inside. Currently known
several major strains of this parasite that can affect
различные ткани в организме, от гениталий до eye.

хламидии на фото

Among the genus of chlamydia, there are more than a dozen species that
parasitic in humans and in many animals.
The most common and harmful person cause 2 main types
Chlamydia:

  • Chlamidiya trachomatis – urogenital chlamydia
  • Chlamidiya pneumoniae – Chlamydia pneumonia, bronchitis,
    asthma.

It has been scientifically established that women are most often infected.
But not necessarily household or sexual contact with the patient
означает 100% заражение — как показывает статистика,
из четырех человек, имевших контакт с переносчиком
инфекции, заражается один.

Sometimes, in more rare cases, due to infection with chlamydia
damage to the joints, conjunctiva of the eyes occurs, and may also
suffer other organs. In this case, the person has
so-called Reiter’s disease.

Also about chlamydia can be said that they are about 85%
cases are companions of other infections, the transmission of which
sexually produced (ie, STIs). As such infections
can be distinguished, again, syphilis, as well as thrush, gonorrhea,
ureaplasmosis, mycoplasmosis, trichomoniasis and others.

This type of combination causes gain
pathogenicity of each microbe which has appeared in such association, for
this also complicates the treatment of the underlying disease, in
which serves chlamydia.

Stages

To date, the pathogenesis of chlamydia is not fully understood,
but, nevertheless, in clinical practice it is customary to single out five
stages of the disease:

  • The defeat of the mucous membranes.
  • Target cell damage (primary regional
    infection).
  • The defeat of a large number of epithelial cells and
    the occurrence of clinical signs of disease.
  • The formation of the immune response (immunopathological
    reactions).
  • Residual phase, accompanied by morphological and
    functional changes in various organs and tissues (with
    the absence of the pathogen in the body)

In practical work in order to conveniently select an adequate
treatment, many doctors distinguish urogenital chlamydia:

  • Lower urogenital system.
  • Upper genitourinary system.
  • Persistent (long sluggish or asymptomatic)
    or recurrent (with exacerbations).

How chlamydia is transmitted: the main ways of transmission of chlamydia

How are chlamydia transmitted to humans? Urogenital infection
Chlamydia occurs:

  1. Mostly sexually. Among the infections transmitted
    sexually, Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common
    common bacterial pathogens (after trichomoniasis).
  2. Vertical (intrauterine).
  3. Contact-household (very rare).

After one unprotected sex, the risk of infection for
women 35-50% for men 50-75%. However, not everyone gets sick, but
only a quarter of those infected.

Domestic infection is unlikely. This is because:

  • chlamydia dies quickly outside the human body;
  • for infection it is necessary that the body gets enough
    number of chlamydia. Domestic way of infection can not provide
    getting the right amount of chlamydia. Therefore, the cause of infection
    toilet seats, swimming pools, baths, general
    dishes and towels.

Duration инкубационного периода хламидиоза
составляет от 5 дней до месяца и дольше. Course of the disease
usually chronic, lethargic with periods of exacerbations. In some cases
pathology proceeds without manifestation of chlamydia, and people without knowing about
that are infected, contribute to the spread of infection.

The life of chlamydia is divided into two stages: infectious and
reticular.

  1. With первом цикле микроорганизм прикрепляется к клетке,
    penetrates into it and begins to grow, transforming into reticular
    body. Withмечательно, что в одной клетке могут поселиться несколько
    bacteria at the same time.
  2. In the second stage, chlamydia parasitizes inside the cell, begins
    division and as soon as it reaches maturity, and this after 48 hours in
    on average, breaks through the envelope, and a new colony of bacteria goes into
    организм для поражения следующих cells.

Chlamydia resistant in the environment 36-48 hours, die when
boiling for 1 minute and after treatment with antiseptics
(alcohol, high concentration of chlorine solutions, peroxide solutions
hydrogen and potassium permanganate).

Chlamydia symptoms

The first symptoms of chlamydia often go away after two weeks,
after which the infected person stays in
confidence that is in full health. However, he
becomes not only a peddler of infection that infects its genitals
partners, but also endangers those people who live in
close proximity with him (children, relatives).

симптомы у людей при хламидиозе

Первые недели после заражения хламидии не проявляют
активности и определить их по симптоматике и даже при
carrying out various analyzes is difficult enough. After the lapse of
этого времени появляются первые признаки хламидиоза, которые
могут включать целый спектр различных симптомов:

  • temperature rise
  • purulent discharge from the genitals, their itching, soreness, and
    sometimes small amounts of blood in urine or semen
  • intoxication
  • lower back pain
  • frequent urination
  • bronchitis, pneumonia
  • conjunctivitis
  • miscarriage during pregnancy
  • weakness
  • unpleasant smell of discharge
  • headache.

Asymptomatic chlamydia occurs in 67% of women and 46
% of men, which often makes it difficult to diagnose and treat
increases the risk of complications. Even with hidden flow
chlamydia a sick person is potentially dangerous and can infect
your sexual partner. Usually the first clinical manifestations
Chlamydia occurs within 7-14 days after sexual infection.

Chlamydia Symptoms
Among women

With инфицировании хламидиями женщина может заметить:

  • discharge of white or yellowish color with an unpleasant smell from
    genitals;
  • discomfort in the groin area – burning, slight pain,
    itching;
  • painful menstruation and pains preceding them (is
    symptom, provided that previously there were no such phenomena
    noticed);
  • minor bleeding in the middle of the cycle; weakness, повышение
    temperatures;
  • pain during intercourse and after it.
In men
  • during urination, cramps and burning in the urethra appear;
  • The first drop of urine can be very turbid –
    one gets the feeling that it is “thick”;
  • during ejaculation may appear mild
    bleeding;
  • in some cases, hyperthermia appears
    температуры тела) и общая weakness.

The treatment is aimed at the destruction of the pathogen, elimination
inflammation, prevention and control of chlamydia complications.

Complications

Possible complications of urogenital chlamydial infection:

  • male and female infertility;
  • chronic diseases of the pelvic organs (prostatitis,
    vesiculitis, endometritis, adnexitis, adhesive disease);
  • risk of ectopic pregnancy;
  • Reiter’s syndrome;
  • miscarriage;
  • having a child with developmental disabilities;
  • stricture (narrowing) of the urethra;
  • postpartum purulent-septic diseases;
  • cervical cancer.

Despite the difficulty of treating chlamydia, the prognosis for life
sick is favorable.

Diagnostics

In the event of symptoms that may indicate
chlamydia, you need to contact your gynecologist or
to the venereologist.

Chlamydia is a parasitic intracellular microorganism, therefore
it is difficult to identify it with the help of ordinary tests. As
material for the diagnosis of chlamydia use urine, blood, semen
in men, discharge from the genitals, scraping the cells of the affected
body.

Chlamydia Analysis

  1. Мини-тест – простой и дешевый вариант, его можно купить в
    pharmacy and conduct analysis on chlamydia at home. Minus
    mini-test – its accuracy is not more than 20%.
  2. Общий мазок (микроскопический анализ) – при этом способе
    the analysis is taken from men from the urethra, from women at the same time from the neck
    uterus, vagina and urethra.
  3. ELISA based on detection in blood or
    smears specific lipopolysaccharide that appears in
    an organism for chlamydia; sensitivity of the method is from 60
    up to 95%;
  4. RIF analysis. Immunofluorescence method is the study of scraping
    from the urethra stained with special dyes using
    fluorescent microscope. In this case, the detectability
    The pathogen is 70 out of 100.
  5. Polymerase chain reaction – PCR.  PCR analysis is based on
    studying the DNA molecule. PCR for chlamydia detection is performed in
    1-2 days and has 100% accuracy.
  6. Классический культуральный метод (посев материала на
    nutrient media, isolation of chlamydia colonies and test
    sensitivity to antibiotics) takes time, results
    Available in 7-10 days. Material – scraping from the mouth of the urethra (in
    men), cervix, vestibule of the vagina and urethra (in
    women).

Given the lack of complete reliability of any of the following
techniques for accurate diagnosis and performance monitoring
treatment, you need a combined study using no
less than two techniques carried out simultaneously.

Control tests are taken immediately, but 2-3 weeks after
therapy.

Chlamydia treatment

Chlamydia treatment осуществляется при соблюдении трех основных
principles:

  • Antibacterial therapy;
  • Normalization of the protective functions of the immune system
    (immunomodulation);
  • Restoration of normal vaginal microflora.

It is very important that chlamydia is treated in both
sexual partners. It is important to use a different treatment approach.
chronic and fresh ailment.

So, if we are talking about fresh forms of chlamydia, it should
produce its treatment taking into account where is localized
defeat. If there is a chronic form of the disease, then
mandatory patient is prescribed immunostimulatory
drugs.

Antibacterial drugs

As with the treatment of any bacterial infection, with chlamydia
используются антибактериальные drugs. Since the pathogen
Chlamydia chlamidia trachomatis is parasitic
intracellular microorganism, then the choice of antibiotics
limited to those drugs that penetrate inside
cells.

These drugs include antibiotics:

  • macrolides
  • tetracyclines,
  • fluoroquinolones.

The selection of antibiotics takes into account the presence of a mixed infection.
(mycoplasmas, gardnerella, ureaplasmas) for their simultaneous
treatment.

The abolition of antibacterial drugs for chlamydia occurs on
grounds:

  • lack of clinical presentation;
  • no signs of inflammation during examination;
  • negative results of polymerase chain reaction.

Next, the patient is monitored a week after the cancellation.
drugs for chlamydia, and then another two weeks. With
negative test results the patient is considered healthy.

Immunomodulatory Therapy

  • генферон, виферон – можно применить в виде
    свеч вагинально или ректально (при лечении мужчин);
  • полиоксидоний – противовоспалительный
    и иммуномодулирующий препарат.

Vitamins

Multivitamins are also a remedy for chlamydia. Such
drugs strengthen the immune system, increase resistance
organism. To kill chlamydia, the patient is prescribed.
antioxidants and synergists. Their action is aimed at increasing
immune response against infection. In the fight against chlamydia use
The following synergists and antioxidants:

  • Vitamin E is available in capsule form;
  • Glutamic acid;
  • Vitamin C.

Probiotics and Enzymes

Treatment of chlamydia also requires the use of enzyme preparations
adaptogens, proteolytic agents, probiotics, vitamins.

Doctors may recommend the following medications:

  • probiotics: Lactobacterin, Bifidumbacterin, Hilak Forte and
    others;
  • hepatoprotectors (they protect the liver from toxin damage
    substances): Phosphogliv and Essentiale Forte;
  • enzyme preparations (normalize the process of digestion): Mezim,
    Фестал, Крион и others;
  • bacteriophages: Proteus, Kolifag, Intestitis bacteriophage.

Physiotherapy

Withменяются разнообразные методы физиотерапевтического
Impact:

  • ultrasound exposure;
  • a magnetic field;
  • quantum therapy;
  • infrared radiation;
  • electrophoresis;
  • currents with variable frequency;
  • ionophoresis of various medicinal substances.

Selection of individual treatment regimens for each patient and
compliance with the rules for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy
urogenital chlamydia provide the possibility of a complete cure of acute
and chronic forms of the disease even when the causative agent is resistant to
common antibacterial drugs.

It is necessary to treat chlamydia in everyone who was with the patient or
infected by sexual contact. Efficiency control: repeat
ПЦР через 6-8 недель после окончания курса treatment. With
recovery analysis of PCR is negative.

The treatment of chronic chlamydia:

  1. Basic therapy. На протяжении 5-7 дней показан
    taking antibacterial drugs, immunomodulators,
    мультивитаминных комплексов и антиоксидантов. Beginning
    с 6-8 дня в схему лечения reception is added
    противогрибковых и ферментных препаратов. Duration
    базисного лечения 14 дней.
  2. Recovery. The patient is indicated the appointment of hepatoprotectors.
    There is a positive effect of physiotherapy (laser, magnetic
    or ultrasound exposure). В дополнение можно
    использовать микроклизмы, ванночки с раствором
    chlorhexidine.

Diet

It is forbidden to use dairy products, it is necessary to exclude
from the diet all that contains fermented milk bacteria and cottage cheese, cheese,
kefir, ice cream, butter, yogurt. Many doctors do not warn about
This is most likely because they have not yet proved them
negative effects on the body.

But still it is better not to use them, because due to bacteria,
who live in dairy products, weakens the effects of drugs and
Chlamydia get used to the antibiotic, may also appear
dysbacteriosis.

The ration should be made in such a way that it constantly
there were vegetables and fruits. Especially those with a lot of vitamins.
C, D and E, as well as calcium. In addition to “plant” food in the diet
should be lean fish, meat, cereals and cereals. Good help for
recovery of immunity fresh berries:

  • strawberries
  • strawberries
  • cherry
  • blueberries,
  • cowberries,
  • black currant.

Prevention

To prevent the first infection, or re-
infection of the body after treatment, competent is very important
Chlamydia prophylaxis. Preventive measures are practically not
different from the prevention of any other genital infections. Follow
precautions are very important due to the high prevalence
diseases.

Чтобы не заразиться хламидиозом и другими половыми
инфекциями, полезно знать и выполнять основные
preventive measures:

  • сузить круг половых партнеров — в идеале
    до одного постоянного;
  • обязательно использовать презервативы со всеми партнерами,
    которые не проверились на половые инфекции с помощью
    laboratory tests;
  • использовать презервативы правильно: по инструкции,
    на протяжении всего полового контакта, при любых видах секса,
    а также важно их правильно снимать.

Лучший способ профилактики хламидиоза, равно как и других
ИППП, — это изменение сексуального поведения. It means that
необходимо чрезвычайно разборчиво относиться к выбору половых
партнеров, не допускать случайных связей и пользоваться
презервативом, если есть хотя бы малейшая неуверенность
в здоровье партнера.

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