Cervical dysplasia – what is it?signs, symptoms and treatment of uterine dysplasia

Под дисплазией шейки матки понимают атипические
changes in the epithelium in its vaginal part, related to
precancerous processes. Most often this diagnosis
confirmed in women who are in childbearing
age No matter what a condition like this is considered
precancerous, in the early stages of development it is reversible.

With dysplasia, pathological changes are
directly cellular tissue structures. The sooner will
обнаружена дисплазия, тем меньше риск transitionа процесса в раковый.
Forecast всегда в данном случае зависит от степени дисплазии шейки
uterus.

What is this disease, what are the causes and symptoms in women, and
also the main methods of treatment – we will look at this article.

Cervical dysplasia: what is it?

Dysplasia шейки матки

Dysplasia шейки матки (цервикальная дисплазия) – это
the condition of the cervical epithelium, which
characterized by a change in the number of layers and the structure of its constituents
cells.

Translated, this term refers to the phenomenon of
�”Disordered growth.” At the same time in the cell membranes occurs
changing their upper layers, which may cause
cell transformation into malignant tumors resulting in
к раку шейки uterus.

Another name for cervical dysplasia is cervical.
intraepithelial neoplasia, or CIN (English CIN).

Стадии заболевания зависят от глубины проникновения больных
cells into tissue. Therefore, it can occur in mild, moderate and
pronounced forms. Any of them amenable to timely
treatment.

Dysplasia of the cervix falls mainly on
age 25-35 years old and is 1.5 cases per 1000 women. AT
отличие от эрозии шейки матки, дисплазия захватывает не только
superficial layers of the epithelium, but also deep.

The disease has no early symptoms. Most common dysplasia
cervical epithelium is detected at a routine examination or at
visiting a gynecologist about another (or concomitant)
pathology. Companions of dysplasia are often background processes in
cervix, sexually transmitted diseases
infections.

The reasons

The epithelium of the mucous consists of several layers: the basal,
intermediate and functional, or superficial. Dysplasia
cervical epithelium disrupts the structure of the layers, their normal
functioning becomes impossible.

Специалисты на 98% уверены  том, что причина данной
pathology is long
пребывание папилломовируса (онкогенного типа 16 и 18) в
слизистой шейки uterus. 12-18 months is enough to virus
provoked dysplasia.

The main causes of cervical dysplasia are hormonal and
metabolic disorders in combination with exposure to infectious
agent.

Predisposing risk factors in the development of dysplasia may
to be:

  • ранний половой дебют и ранние роды;
  • smoking;
  • immunodeficiency states;
  • chronic gynecological diseases;
  • disturbances in the hormonal regulation system;
  • specific (venereal) infections of the genital tract;
  • traumatic injuries of the cervix (multiple births,
    abortion, surgical and diagnostic procedures, etc.);
  • дефицит витаминов А, AT и С;
  • frequent change of sexual partners;
  • the presence of cancer pathology of the cervix at the next
    relatives;
  • prolonged use of combined oral
    contraceptives (COCs).

Dysplasia шейки матки часто протекает вместе с такими
diseases like genital warts of the vagina, vulva,
anus, chlamydia, gonorrhea.

Degrees

Pathological changes that initially hit the basal layer
begin to spread gradually to the adjacent epithelial
layers.

AT зависимости от расположения и распространенности
pathological changes, there are 3 degrees (type) of dysplasia
cervical epithelium:

  • дисплазия шейки матки 1 степени — слабая.
    It is characterized by minor changes affecting the lower
    third of the epithelial layer;
  • Grade 2 – moderate, progressive stage of the disease,
    leading to morphological changes of 2/3 of the thickness of the epithelial
    lining;
  • Grade 3 is a serious illness that can lead to
    собой ампутацию шейки uterus. This is explained by the fact that the whole
    the mucous layer of the vagina is strewn with atypical cells that
    still continue to spread, do not remove their
    activity.

The degree of cervical dysplasia determines the nature of the flow
diseases, it is taken into account when choosing a treatment program for patients
depends on the prognosis of the disease.

Any degree of dysplasia can be called a precancerous condition.
Однако только в 40-64 %, по статистике, она transitionит в
preinvasive tumor. It must be emphasized that women
which revealed cervical dysplasia or erosion, in mandatory
The order should be monitored constantly by a gynecologist.

How to treat cervical dysplasia should be determined only by a doctor,
and only – after a comprehensive survey.

Symptoms of cervical dysplasia

Pathology can develop over a long period of time.
asymptomatic, but about structural disorders of the squamous epithelium woman
learns by chance, for example, at a scheduled medical examination.

A patient with cervical dysplasia may present the following
complaints:

  • whether they are excreted (abundant with an unpleasant odor);
  • vaginitis;
  • pain on the background of adnexitis;
  • spotting (often contact, that is, after sexual
    act, gynecological examination);
  • itching;
  • burning sensation;
  • pain that occurs during intercourse.

There is no pain in cervical dysplasia, but some
patients still complain of the lower abdomen pulling sensations,
for example, as in the case of PMS. The appearance of the female genitals is not
changes, so the disease is more often diagnosed at a late period
course of the inflammatory process.

Untreated, in about 40% of patients within 3 years of dysplasia
from a lighter stage goes into a more severe, and then into cancer
necks.

Cervical dysplasia and pregnancy

Cervical dysplasia does not apply to contraindications to
bearing a fetus in women who were first diagnosed
during pregnancy. The presence of this pathological process is not
affects the development of the unborn child, does not inhibit the function of the placenta.
At the same time, pregnancy itself does not affect in any way.
cervical dysplasia does not worsen its course and does not contribute to
transition to a more severe form.

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Before becoming pregnant, a woman should:

  • to undergo another examination for all existing diagnostics
    dysplasia areas;
  • get rid of associated pathologies, especially HPV (the same
    need to do and her partner);
  • determine your own hormonal status.

Complications

Cervical dysplasia is fraught with the following complications, which,
usually occur after surgical treatment:

  • bleeding during or after destruction (associated with
    vascular damage and scab rejection if not observed
    recommendations);
  • development of anomalies of generic forces, due to the deformation
    cervical scarring and stenosis of the cervical canal;
  • infertility due to obstruction of the cervical canal
    (stenosis) or as a result of an ascending infection (chronic
    salpingitis and endometritis);
  • violation of the menstrual cycle (hormonal problems); transition
    in cervical cancer.

Diagnostics

Screening for cervical dysplasia includes a number of
instrumental and laboratory studies that give
opportunity to confirm or refute the diagnosis.

Visit a gynecologist unplanned should be in the presence of the following
symptoms:

  • pelvic pain;
  • intermenstrual bloody discharge;
  • turbid discharge with an unpleasant odor;
  • too abundant periods;
  • bleeding after intercourse;
  • chronic constipation that is not treated with laxatives
    funds;
  • constant swelling of the legs.

For the diagnosis needed:

  • gynecological examination of the uterine cervix in the mirrors – whitish
    plaques that hardly change color when stained with a solution
    Lugol (tested by Schiller);
  • colposcopy – pale discoloration of the dysplastic focus, enhancement
    blood pattern;
  • cytology (PAP test) – detection of abnormal cells
    (sensitivity increases with severe neoplasia) and
    HPV markers targeted biopsy and histology taken
    material;
  • PCR-method (polymerase chain reaction) – is the most
    reliable method of determining HPV in any body fluid (in
    blood, urine, mucus).

It is necessary to regularly diagnose the condition of the affected
mucous epithelium – this will allow for adequate treatment and
prevent disease progression with development
malignant tumor.

Treatment of cervical dysplasia

The choice of treatment for cervical dysplasia is determined
the degree of dysplasia, the age of the woman, the size of the affected area,
concomitant diseases, the patient’s intentions to keep
childbearing function.

Principles of treatment of cervical dysplasia:

  • Normalization of the immune system.
  • Rejection of bad habits, especially smoking.
  • Correction of identified hormonal disorders.
  • Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the female genital tract
    and concomitant somatic pathology.
  • When sexually transmitted infections are detected,
    the pathogen is fully eliminated. Compulsory
    is the examination and full therapy of the sexual partner even
    in the absence of clear signs of infection.
  • Surgical treatments that aim to remove
    atypically afflicted cervical epithelium (local
    destruction).

There are certain cases when with cervical dysplasia
treatment is not advisable to:

  • young age of the woman (less than 20 years);
  • отсутствие папилломовирусной инфекции в организме;
  • dysplasia without spreading to the cervical canal;
  • lesion of dysplasia of the cervical epithelium on the point type.

Лечение дисплазии шейки матки умеренной и тяжёлой
degree is carried out in two directions:

  1. Иммуностимулирующая терапия — показана при обширно
    распространённой рецидивирующей дисплазии. It includes
    themselves receiving various immunomodulators that boost the immune
    answer;
  2. Surgical intervention is performed in the first phase.
    menstrual cycle in the absence of inflammatory
    processes. Before the operation, the patient is prescribed tests for STIs,
    cytological smear, as well as a smear illustrating the degree of purity
    vagina.

Medications

The choice of drugs should be based on individual
features of the disease, should also be repelled by
age of the patient and her desire to continue to have children.

As a drug therapy prescribed:

  • anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • agents for the correction of hormonal disorders;
  • body immunostimulation (interferons,
    immunomodulators).

Operation

Conservative therapy does not always have a positive effect.
Indications for surgical treatment are:

  • poor results of colposcopy and cytology
    smears when monitoring a patient for a year;
  • cervical cancer in the first stage;
  • third degree of dysplasia.

Surgical treatment of uterine dysplasia is carried out in the first phase.
menstrual cycle (6-10 day) and in the absence of inflammation.

Required tests before surgery:

  • cytological smear (not more than 6 months),
  • smear on the purity of the vagina (no more than 10 days)
  • sexually transmitted infection tests
    (хламидиоз, уреаплазмоз, микоплазмоз).

For surgical removal of diseased areas
The following methods are used:

  1. cauterization current (electrocoagulation). There is a big minus
    этого метода  — после операции прижигания шейки методом
    diaetermokoagulyatsii there is a big risk of developing endometriosis in
    women.
  2. freezing with liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy). However in the case of
    severe dysplasia and the manifestation of a malignant process
    freezing is not applied. The disadvantages of this technique is considered
    the inability to accurately regulate the depth of freezing, as well as
    long-term manifestation of discharge after the procedure.
  3. destruction of atypical cells by a laser beam. Operations with
    using a laser allows you to accurately influence the areas
    who were defeated.
  4. radio wave clipping of damaged epithelium. Refers to
    to relatively new methods, it is based on the removal of the hearth
    dysplasia under the influence of high frequency waves.

Before applying any of these remedies
affected cells are necessarily treated with concomitant
diseases.

Possible complications after surgical treatment

Postoperative complications:

  • cervical deformity scars;
  • violation of the menstrual cycle;
  • infertility;
  • exacerbation of existing chronic reproductive diseases
    organs;
  • recurrent dysplasia.

What should be done after the operation?

After surgery, a woman should adhere to
Some medical recommendations:

  • rejection of sexual activity for 1-1.5 months;
  • do not lift weights;
  • do not perform douching;
  • do not use tampons;
  • Do not go to the sauna and bath.

The rehabilitation period on average lasts up to 6 weeks. Besides
this, patients after the operation experience discomfort:

  • heavy discharge with unpleasant odor (4
    weeks);
  • pain in the lower abdomen, whining character (5 days);
  • bleeding or fever at which you need to
    Seek medical attention immediately.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of surgical treatment
held in 3 – 4 months. If there are no signs of the disease,
further observation is carried out in the mode of annual
preventive examinations.

Folk methods

Folk remedies treat this disease if
mild to moderate degree diagnosed. Herbal tea for
douching or tampons moistened in the infusion show a good
cure rate of cervical dysplasia.

  1. The branches of viburnum with fruit pour 500 ml of water and boil for
    15 minutes, then 30 minutes to insist, then strain and
    use for douching, the course lasts for
    of the month.
  2. Effectively treatment with sea buckthorn oil, which need
    soak a tampon and paste overnight. Duration of treatment
    from 2 to 3 months. With the same purpose, you can use aloe juice, but
    применять тампоны нужно уже 2 раза в день на протяжении of the month.
    The time spent by each tampon in the vagina is 4–5 hours.
  3. Для тампонов можно также использовать прополис. For this
    10 g. Propolis mixed with 200 g. Rustic melted
    butter, boil a little (15 min) on a very weak
    on fire
  4. Ointment from calendula and vegetable oil (sunflower or
    olive). The mixture is placed in a dark dish and held for 10 days.
    Plants require 20 g, oil – 200 ml. Before use
    the tool should be filtered. A tampon is dipped into it, which
    then should stay in the vagina for 3 – 4 hours. The course is 30 days.
  5. Scarlet leaf rinse well and chop. Squeeze the juice and
    soak them with a tampon, and then mark the vagina for 10 minutes.
    Repeat the procedure in the morning and evening for two or three
    weeks.

Forecast

With the timely treatment of cervical dysplasia is not dangerous to
life and for health. However, even after removing
damaged cervical foci remain a risk of recurrence
(re-development of dysplasia).

Cervical dysplasia recurs most often due to
активации инфекции в организме women. Unfortunately,
The use of treatments such as cauterization does not guarantee
full recovery from the disease.

In addition, the main culprit of this pathology is the papillomavirus.
человека – может сохраняться в эпителиальных клетках матки
long time and activated, for example, when
снижении иммунитета.

In order not to miss a possible relapse, all women
after treatment of dysplasia, you must regularly visit a gynecologist and
pass the necessary tests

Prevention

For the prevention of cervical dysplasia and its recurrence
recommended:

  • inclusion in the diet of all trace elements and vitamins in
    especially vitamins A, group B, selenium;
  • timely rehabilitation of all foci of infections;
  • tobacco cessation;
  • use of barrier contraception (for random sex
    contacts);
  • регулярное наблюдение гинеколога (1-2 раза в год) с
    a study of cytological scraping from the cervix.

Now, you know what cervical dysplasia is and how
properly treat it. Precisely in time to take
measures required annual visit to the gynecologist.

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