Cerebral Palsy (CP): Causesoccurrence and treatment

Дцп что это Many parents look forward to
baby But not always he is born healthy. Under the influence of different
factors disrupted its development and the child is born with
different pathologies. Cerebral Palsy (CP) includes
себя комплекс разных symptoms. Its distinguishing feature is
movement disorders of varying severity.

general characteristics

The disease was described in the 19th century by the British doctor Little.
He believed that the development of pathology contributes to the wrong
during childbirth and severe hypoxia. A little later, Sigmund Freud
hypothesized that the problem lies in the damage of structures
brain. In his opinion, this occurs during
внутриутробного development. ATерсию Фрейда подтвердили исследования,
which were held in 1980.

Sometimes cerebral palsy is confused with childhood paralysis, which occurs after
polio, but it is not the same thing. AT основе ДЦП всегда
лежат двигательные нарушения, проявляющиеся
differently:

  • Дцп основные симптомы in suspense;
  • spastic contractions;
  • involuntary movements;
  • limited mobility;
  • gait disturbances.

Besides этого, наблюдаются проблемы со зрением, слухом, речью.
Often cerebral palsy is accompanied by deviations in mental development and
epilepsy. Severe forms may cause urination problems.
food intake.

Lack of progression is cerebral palsy. ATсе
brain damage is a pinpoint character. With age
symptoms appear brighter, but the course of the disease remains so
same

Causes of

It is impossible to determine unequivocally for what reason cerebral palsy occurs. AT
risk group includes premature babies – among them a disease
is much more common than among those born on time. Nearly
half of cases occur in preterm labor.

ATнутриутробные повреждения ЦНС — еще одна причина, почему
cerebral palsy appears. ATызвать их и негативно повлиять на плод может
a series of problems suffered by a woman during
pregnancy:

  • infections (toxoplasmosis, syphilis, herpes and others);
  • somatic diseases of the mother (diabetes, hypothyroidism, etc.
    e.);
  • injuries.

 что значит дцп

Cerebral palsy in children can develop due to
hypoxia. When oxygen starvation in the first place suffer
brain areas that are responsible for providing motor
reflex mechanisms and balance. When damage occurs
complete or partial paralysis, hypo-or hypertonic.

Risk factors include any problems in childbirth. This and narrow
pelvis, and incorrect position of the fetus, rapid or prolonged
childbirth, etc. It was formerly a myth that cerebral palsy occurs because
birth trauma. In fact, these are isolated cases. More often
причина кроется в нарушениях внутриутробного development. By
In boys, the disease is more common than in girls.

Basic classification

ATид ДЦП напрямую зависит от тяжести поражения brain.
The mildest form is spastic diplegia. She’s the one
common. When it affects the motor centers that
leads to paresis of the feet.

If only one hemisphere is damaged, then doctors talk about
гемиплегической форме ДЦП. For this diagnosis
characteristic paresis of the arms and legs, affecting the opposite
the side. For example, if the left hemisphere is damaged, then
right hand and foot.

 признаки дцпWhen affecting the subcortical structures
появляется гиперкинетическая форма. She is
accompanied by involuntary movements, amplified by
fatigue or excitement of a child.

The atonic-astatic form appears due to lesions in
areas of the cerebellum. It is characterized by muscular atony, problems with
coordination and statics.

Most тяжелая форма ДЦП — двойная гемиплегия.
При ней нарушается работа всего brain. Byследствия такого
total lesions are manifested by full muscle rigidity.
A sick child cannot move, sit, move and even
hold your head.

Characteristic symptoms

The term “cerebral palsy” means whole
комплексы symptoms. ATсе зависит от тяжести поражения и
localization. AT единичных случаях синдром виден с первых минут
life, but it is usually diagnosed in the first six months after birth,
when it becomes noticeable that the child is significantly behind in
development.

Дцп причины лечение The first characteristic symptom of cerebral palsy is
нарушение формирования двигательных навыков. Kid
does not roll over, does not crawl, does not hold the head and does not even
trying to grab a toy with his hands. He cannot consciously control
with your body. Indirectly, problems can be indicated by the fact that if
put the baby on its feet, it will rest on the socks, and not
on the whole foot.

Often the disease is accompanied by paresis – partial paralysis.
They can grab one or both limbs, due to a violation
musculoskeletal activity problems with pronunciation.
Sometimes paresis affects the larynx and pharynx, leading to dysphagia.
– such children need special food.

When cerebral palsy usually appear violations
muscle tone. Muscles may either be excessive strained
(hypertonus) or relaxed (hypotonia). Physical development
affected limbs will lag behind conditionally healthy legs and
arms will be thin, short. ATсе это приводит к
skeletal disorders:

  • scoliosis;
  • chest deformities;
  • contractures of the joints.

Byявление деформации в скелете приводит к развитию болевого
syndrome More often он локализуется в области плеч, груди и
Stop.

Hyperkinesis in cerebral palsy is expressed in the fact that a sick child
makes involuntary movements – suddenly turns its head,
makes nods, grimaces and more. ATсе это осуществляется
without mind control. When atonic-astatic form
there is a lack of coordination of movements, instability of gait, tremor,
falling from a standing position.

ATторичные признаки

Signs of cerebral palsy are not only in motor disorders.
In this disease, a large number of patients have
проблемы со зрением — косоглазие, низкая острота зрения и т. п. AT
in some cases deafness or hearing loss occurs.

Due to limited mobility, functional
disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine and urogenital systems. AT тяжелых
cases, there are lesions of the respiratory system.

Дцп причины возникновенияFrom the side of mental development
there are also deviations. They are expressed in varying degrees of mental
backwardness, mental retardation, impaired perception and
behavioral problems. However, recent studies have shown
that 35% of patients have normal intelligence, and 30% have only mild
degree of intellectual impairment. This means that such children
quite capable of learning.

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For cerebral palsy speech disorder is characteristic –
дизартрия. She is бывает нескольких форм. Most
heavy – anarthria. It is characterized by a complete inability to
speech activity. According to research Mastyukova EM, y
most children with cerebral palsy have a delay
speech development – late appears chatter and babbling, voice
activity is weak and low. Slowly accumulates active
dictionary, difficult to form phrases and sentences.

Because of the disruption of motor activity, the sounds of the muscles are pronounced.
distorted or completely absent. With pseudobulbar dysarthria
observed tone of speech muscles. Язык и губы strained.
Besides проблем со звукопроизношением, наблюдаются трудности с
breathing and vocalization.

In cerebellar dysarthria, jerky speech is possible,
asynchronous breathing, phonation and articulation. By the end of the phrase voice
calms down.

For children with cerebral palsy, violations of the sound analysis of words are characteristic. Them
It is difficult to distinguish sounds on hearing, to repeat syllables. Slow
vocabulary accumulates, it is difficult to form:

  • abstract concepts;
  • perception of shapes and sizes;
  • space-time representations;
  • building sentences.

Sick children have difficulty mastering reading and writing. Often they
suffer from dysgraphia and dyslexia. Them тяжело дается связывание звука
and the image of the letter. AT процессе чтения маленькие пациенты могут
rearrange them, confuse the lines, often in writing
there is a mirror image of the letters.

Diagnostic methods

 детский церебральный паралич

Byка не разработано специальных методик определения ДЦП. Usually
The pediatrician makes a presumptive diagnosis by visual examination.
Byводами для подозрений на заболевание служит низкий балл по шкале
Apgar after birth, lack of contact with the mother and lag in
психофизическом development.

Anomalous motor activity and disturbances can guard
muscle tone. To clarify the diagnosis, the pediatrician recommends
consult a neurologist.

Чтобы назначить эффективное лечение ДЦП, необходимо
провести дифференциальную диагностику
, позволяющую
distinguish the paralysis of other diseases. To do this, appoint
electron diffraction, electroencephalography, electromyography. ATсе это
allows you to separate cerebral palsy from hereditary diseases, for example.
Louis Bar syndrome and others.

MRI of the brain allows you to identify organic changes
и пороки development. Full diagnostics may require
Consultation of various specialists – an ophthalmologist, a psychiatrist,
speech therapist, orthopedist and others.

Therapy for Cerebral Palsy

As such, there is no treatment for cerebral palsy. It applies
эпизодически и направлено на купирование тех или иных symptoms.
When combined with epilepsy, the doctor prescribes anticonvulsants, while
hypertonus – antispastic drugs. With the development of pain
syndrome it is advisable to use antispasmodic and
pain medication. AT случае необходимости назначаются
antidepressants, nootropics, tranquilizers, etc.

 церебральный паралич лечение массажSometimes necessary
resort to surgical treatment aimed at getting rid of
articular contractures that can expand the boundaries of the motor
activity. To reduce skeletal deformation, surgeons lengthen
limbs, transplanted tendons, etc.

Большую роль в лечении играет физиотерапия.
Electrophoresis, hydrotherapy and mud compresses help reduce
muscle tension. Oxygenobarotherapy (air environment with
increased oxygen content) allows you to activate
regenerative and detoxification processes in the body. ATанны с
warm water can be done at home. As additives
use herbs, essential oils and other ingredients. They allow
reduce hyperkinesis and spasticity.

Controversial methods of treatment include
анималтерапию. Different animals are used for it.
– dolphins, horses, dogs. Adaptive riding allows
the child to feel the movements of the horse, and he involuntarily tries
repeat them. Saturated tactile sensations give a good
brain stimulation, and communication with animals is positive
emotions. During the session, the instructor gives different tasks
talks with the child, thereby contributing to its development.

Speech help is required to correct speech disorders.
Specialist to relieve the tone of the speech muscles uses
special massage with hands or special metal probes.
In addition, articulation gymnastics and exercises are conducted.
for speech development.

Rehabilitation of the patient

Дцп симптомыCerebral palsy is classified as incurable pathologies,
but with concurrent rehabilitation, many
symptoms. Conducting various activities greatly improves life.
child, so he should be treated immediately after clarification
diagnosis.

Literacy rehabilitation program is aimed at reducing
probabilities of skeletal deformities, neuralgic deficiency. Child
teach self-service skills and adapt to life in society.

Favorable time for the development of cognitive processes – up to
eight years old. During this period, rehabilitation should take place
maximum. The program is always developed individually. Besides
severity of cerebral palsy, it takes into account the associated violations. Heavier
whole rehabilitation can be given to persons with a combined defect: violations
vision and intelligence, hearing and intelligence, etc. The most accurate
treat children who suffer from epilepsy, since
stimulating therapy can cause seizures.

 дцп причины возникновенияVery important daily exercise therapy and
массаж
, подобранные индивидуально для каждого ребенка и
complicated as the state improves. Parents appropriate
learn basic skills yourself by contacting professionals, and
control the clarity and regularity of the procedures. AT
special treatment centers have different adaptations and
simulators.

Pneumatic overalls also help well. They fix the joints and
stretch the muscles. Some models contribute to the development of
correct motor stereotype and reduce muscle spasticity. These
devices stimulate the nervous system of the child, and he begins
learn new

Orthopedists advise if necessary
rehabilitation – walkers, dentures, inserts in shoes, strollers, etc.
ATсе это позволяет компенсировать двигательные нарушения и снизить
negative effects of skeletal deformity. ATажно подбирать средства
individually and properly used.

Social help

ATажная часть реабилитации больного — адаптация к жизни в
society. For the success of this event, parents must
apply maximum strength trying to instill in the child all the skills
self-service and without showing your pity for the sick son
or daughters. If necessary, you can ask for help from
to the psychologist.

For a good social adaptation need specialized gardens
and schools. They include the creation of a special environment for
development. Competent teachers and health workers help children
deal with the problem. But this approach has one serious
disadvantage: sick children get used to communicate in a limited circle
friends and end up being rejected by a healthy society.

To reduce this problem in recent years began to introduce
инклюзивное образование, при котором дети с ОATЗ могут обучаться в
ordinary educational institutions. This allows them
contact with healthy children and become part of society.

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