Astigmatism is pretty
common eye pathology characterized by impairment
cornea. In this disease, the patient sees a line of some objects.
blurred, and others – clear. The most effective way
Astigmatism treatment is a laser correction. Achieve correction
Vision can be made using contact lenses and glasses. Early
diagnosis of the disease helps to stop the development
Concept and causes
Translated from the Latin language astigmatism means the absence
focus. In medicine, it is a congenital or acquired pathology.
eyes in which the falling rays of light are not collected in one, but
different points. Because of this, the image does not focus on the retina.
(as it should be in a normal state), and in various
places near her. All this leads to the fact that a person stops
clearly see the image, it appears blurred and
distortion of the picture, in some cases, the manifestation is possible
double vision and prolonged discomfort in the eyes.
The disease is very difficult to fix, all due to the fact that the rays
wrong focus at different points and not at the same as this
occurs when myopia or hyperopia. Therefore some
виды астигматизма невозможно вылечить, просто нося
Do astigmatism causes it
классифицируют на врождённые (нарушение происходит ещё во
внутриутробном периоде) и приобретённые (проявляется от
exposure to external factors).
The most common factor in the occurrence of astigmatism
является его передача по наследству. This is due to
the fact that one of the parents already has this disease and therefore
transferred to the child. This disease is most often manifested even in
early childhood and is due to a violation of the genetic code.
Another reason for the occurrence of astigmatism,
является медицинское вмешательство. This is due to
the fact that during the operation on the eyes were violated
different conditions for its implementation (for example, incorrectly imposed and
removed the seams). Также патология может появиться из-за полученных
травм. These include contusions, stitching or other.
damage due to which the cornea is deformed.
Ophthalmologists distinguish 2 forms of the disease: correct and
wrong. The first type of astigmatism successfully treats with
using contact lenses or glasses. The second form of pathology
develops due to surgical interventions, corneal inflammation and
injuries. It can be cured with a laser.
There are different types of astigmatism depending on the location
optical tricks. These include:
In the first case, in one eye the long-sighted and
myopic refraction. When hypermetropic form of the disease rays
concentrated behind the retina, and with myopic – in front of it.
The listed species are divided into the following
- простой миопический — в горизонтальном меридиане
refraction is normal, and in vertical – increased. Because of this
rays are concentrated in front of the retina, and blurring appears
- сложный миопический — в основных меридианах
refractive power increases. Patient begins to see poorly
In the distance, and there is a blurred image;
- простой гиперметропический — в одном из меридианов
refraction weakened. Rays focus behind the retina and the other
part on it;
- сложный гиперметропический — рефракция ослабляется в
varying degrees in the main meridians. Because of this возникает
fuzzy vision of surrounding objects.
There are different types of pathology depending on the location
meridians in the eye astigmatics.
- обратный — преломление лучей происходит не в
vertical, and in the horizontal meridian;
- прямой — наиболее распространённый тип заболевания.
The rays are refracted in the vertical meridian of the eye;
- с косыми осями — меридианы имеют косую
The degree of pathology determines the difference between the refractive power
main meridians. It is usually expressed in diopters. The higher
degree, the stronger the disease.
- слабая — менее 3 дптр;
- средняя — промежуток между 3−6 дптр;
- высокая — более 6 дптр.
If the degree of pathology is less than 0.5 diopters, then it does not need to be treated. AT
In this case, the patient does not feel discomfort.
Contact lenses or glasses are recommended to be worn when
due to illness it becomes difficult to work and significantly
life of the patient is deteriorating.
Symptoms and diagnosis
The development of the disease can be determined by the characteristic
- deterioration of visibility;
- distortion of objects;
- constant squinting;
- rapid eyestrain.
With any form of astigmatism, a person’s eyesight deteriorates, this
is due to the fact that the image is focused in various
parts of the retina.
Looking at one subject and turning the head, the image will be
distorted in its various planes. Thanks to squinting
patient improves or even becomes perfect vision. But when
he ceases to squint, then everything comes back and sight again
Due to the fact that the eyes are in constant tension, they
may experience discomfort. The patient has various
боли в глазах, голове, и изображение, которое до этого
it was already blurry, becoming even more blurry and fuzzy. With
астигматизме мигрень может переходить в затылочную
area observed in the forehead area. Painful sensations arise
after a long visual load.
With этом заболевании болевой синдром характеризуется
ATыявить астигматию можно, заметив один из выше перечисленных
symptoms. But for accurate determination of the disease is not enough
only these signs.
The patient is advised to immediately contact
an ophthalmologist who can check the cornea of the eyes and
need to assign additional studies that
will help determine the type, degree and cause of the disease.
Often to determine the pathology of the ophthalmologist
- various meters of visual acuity;
- computer diagnostics of vision;
- checks intraocular pressure.
Therapy and Correction
For the appointment of the correct therapy and correction of the disease
it is necessary to find out what type and degree of illness the patient has. After
this is prescribed treatment. To improve the patient’s condition
write out glasses, contact lenses. If they can’t fix
положение, то назначают хирургическое astigmatism treatment.
The use of glasses has an impact on visual acuity, but
not on the course of the disease.
ATыписать правильный рецепт на них может только обладающий
certain knowledge of the ophthalmologist and only after
will make all the necessary research.
To correct the disease, the doctor may
assign two types of points:
Their difference lies in the principle of action. The first type does not refract
light beam in parallel directivity relative to the axis
cylinder, he does it only in the perpendicular direction. ATторой
the view refracts the light beam in two directions. It is prescribed for
коррекции лёгкой формы патологии. Most often they are used
in conjunction with the cylindrical type of glasses.
Withнцип действия линз идентичен очкам. They only correct
sight, but do not relieve the disease. AT отличие от очков, линзы
have a number of advantages.
- Better efficiency is achieved due to the fact that between
lens points and cornea of the eye there is a distance. U contact
lenses this distance is missing, resulting in focusing
occurs directly on the cornea of the eye.
- Constant distance to the retina. ATо время использования
The glasses are constantly shifting, which is why the focus moves.
With использовании линз такая проблема отсутствует, благодаря тому,
that they are constantly in the same position.
- Invisibility to others. Many people do not want to use
nights, fearing that they will look ugly in them. Contact
lenses are invisible and not felt. This is a great replacement for
For those people who have developed an acute form of the disease
(which is practically not treated with the help of glasses and contact
lenses), or those people who cannot wear lenses
(intolerance of the foreign body in the eye) should be resorted to
surgical treatment. However, this method does not guarantee 100%
that astigmatism will not appear again. At the moment, allocate
несколько видов операций, благодаря которым можно
deal with the pathology.
- lens implantation;
Also effective surgical intervention is considered
замена хрусталика. This operation is performed only if
the cause of the disease was deformity or unnatural development
the eye lens. The procedure itself is that for
The patient has a specially manufactured intraocular lens, which
after removing the lens is placed in its place.
ATсе это происходит с использованием обезболивающего вещества,
which experts bring to the patient’s eyes, thanks to which he
remains conscious but does not feel anything. After
surgery the patient needs every week
observed by an ophthalmologist, and when painful
sensations are advised to immediately seek advice from
a doctor to prevent the possible occurrence of postoperative
Other surgical interventions include correction with
using laser exposure. It is similar to the replacement procedure.
lens, but differs in that instead of introducing intraocular
lenses here remove parts of the cornea using
special laser. AT послеоперационный период у пациента возможно
the occurrence of pain in the eye. This is a normal reaction.
организма, которая связана с заживлением cornea.
Among the complications that
arise after surgery emit:
- corneal clouding;
- reduced vision;
- discomfort and puffiness;
- inflammatory development process.
Surgical interventions that are performed to treat
astigmatism have limitations. They are contraindicated in
- thinning of the cornea;
- minor age;
- lactation and gestation of the child.
Prevention of astigmatism
For the prevention of disease, adults and children should do
exercise, eat properly and balanced exercise
ATылечить астигматический синдром специальной гимнастикой
impossible, since astigmatism affects the structure of the eye. But at
правильном применении упражнений, можно замедлить развитие
болезни. The eye is subject to high loads, which
arise when trying to concentrate and see any
an object due to which various pains and discomfort appear in
Gymnastics also helps to relax the muscles and give them rest, and
also improve blood circulation. Due to this,
positive effect. ATыполнять упражнения рекомендуется дважды
в день, а при усиленных нагрузках на глаза (например, работа
at the computer) – every 40 minutes. With the help of pneumomassage and
color therapy can improve blood flow and remove visual
voltage. A good effect can be achieved when performing massage.
воротниковой зоны позвоночника. Must be timely
treat eye inflammation and prevent injury to them.
Не нужно напрягать зрение при уровне освещения ниже 60 ATт.
It is recommended not to use fluorescent lamps. By
возможности необходимо отрегулировать яркость
экрана телефона, ноутбука или компьютера. Not worth it
forget about visiting an ophthalmologist. Thanks to the timely
detection of pathology, it will be possible to save money and time on
With этом заболевании не запрещается вести обычный образ жизни.
You can engage in power loads, watch TV, work
at the computer, read and drive a car. For childbirth and
Pregnancy astigmatism is not considered a contraindication.
If you do not treat the disease, it can lead to a decrease in
visual acuity and impaired focus on the retina. Byявляется
It causes the following unpleasant symptoms:
- because of the frequent desire to squint, small ones appear
- деформация и размытость Pictures;
- constant fatigue.
The most serious consequences are the development of strabismus and
The first disease develops due to the fact that the brain does not
perceives an organ with poor eyesight as an information source.
The pupil moves to the temple or to the nose. This pathology can be identified
using binocular vision and visual examination
the patient. With амблиопии мозг больше не способен соединять
Eye information together. Diagnosis is carried out by
biomicroscopy, refraction test, test
refraction and visual inspection.
Quite often, the patient does not know that he has astigmatism.
By этой причине он постоянно консультируется с неврологом из-за
ATо взрослом возрасте заболевание понижает работоспособность. Have
children astigmatism of the right or left eye can lead to
the emergence of functional blindness. This is due to the fact that the retina
no longer involved in image processing. Quality and
visual acuity decreases.
Have детей патология становится причиной
development of the following states:
- feeling of irritability;
- development slowdown;
- low academic performance.
Treatment of the disease in adulthood is longer and
harder than children.
Traditional medicine with this pathology is able to remove for a while
unpleasant symptoms. If you start treatment in a timely manner, you will
forget about bad vision forever and restore eye function.