Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatmentmeningitis

Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment meningitisDisease,
characterized by inflammation of the meninges,
called meningitis. Running forms of this pathology can
lead to the development of toxic shock, epilepsy, deafness or
lethal. That is why the disease requires timely and
quality treatment in the hospital under the control of an infectious disease specialist,
neurologist and related professionals.

Causes of disease

Основная причина meningitis — проникновение инфекции в оболочки
human brain. Pathogens can
become:

  • bacterial microflora (streptococci, Klebsiella,
    tuberculosis bacillus, staphylococcus, meningococci);
  • herpes viruses, mumps, coxsackie and others;
  • Toxoplasma, amoebas and other protozoa;
  • fungi (candida, cryptococcus, etc.).

The infection can penetrate the nidus of the disease by fecal-oral,
by aerosol, lymphogenous or hematogenous route. When offensive
favorable conditions pathogens provoke the occurrence
purulent or serous inflammation of the meninges and adjacent to
him tissues.

After a few hours or days in the affected area
edema develops, microcirculation is disturbed, slows down
resorption of cerebrospinal fluid and its secretion is accelerated. Have
больного человека развивается гидроцефалия и существенно
increases intracranial pressure. Have некоторых пациентов
the inflammatory process extends to the substance of the brain, the roots
spinal and cranial nerves.

There are many factors that increase the risk of
meningitis. So, болезнь может возникать на
background:

  • Causes of disease менингитом fasting, respect too
    strict diets;
  • regular hypothermia;
  • HIV infection;
  • diabetes;
  • любых хронических diseases.

In addition, adults and children with
congenital underdevelopment of immunity.

Forms of pathology

Depending on the type of inflammatory process secrete 2
разновидности meningitis: серозную и гнойную. First one
characterized by the fact that lymphocytes predominate in the patient’s liquor.
As a result, the inflammation of the meninges is not accompanied
the formation of purulent masses in the lesion. And, on the contrary, when
purulent meningitis in the cerebrospinal fluid of the patient prevail
neutrophils, therefore, an active
pus formation.

In clinical practice, meningitis is very often classified by
origin. There are 2 forms of the disease:

  • primary, arising as an independent disease with
    the absence of an infectious focus in the patient;
  • secondary, developing against the background of other pathologies.

The reason for the classification of meningitis may be
the prevalence of the inflammatory process. In particular,
The following types of disease are distinguished:

  • basal – the focus of infection is localized mainly in the lower
    parts of the brain;
  • convexital – the inflammatory process affects mainly
    convex (upper) part of the organ;
  • spinal – pathology extends to the membranes of the spinal
    the brain.

Разновидности meningitisDepending on the speed of development
diseases secrete fulminant, acute and chronic meningitis.
The first of them affects a person with lightning speed and leads to death.
patient within a few hours after the appearance of the first
signs of illness. Acute inflammation of the meninges develops
quickly, within 2 or 3 days. With chronic meningitis disease
progresses very slowly.

It is often difficult for patients to remember when they appeared.
first signs of pathology.

Clinical picture

The duration of the incubation period for meningitis depends
on the type of pathogen. So, при заболевании, спровоцированном
meningococci, it lasts an average of 4 days. With serous inflammation
of the meninges caused by enterovirus, the duration of this
stage increases to 7 days.

In the early stages, meningitis is manifested by a worsening of the overall
states. В дальнейшем у заболевшего человека появляется
Symptoms characteristic of this pathology:

  • Clinical picture meningitis bursting headache
    permanent, localized in the nape area and
    radiating to the neck;
  • painful reaction to bright light, loud noises,
    touch;
  • sharp increase in body temperature, chills;
  • increased breathing;
  • activation of tendon reflexes;
  • change in heart rate (in the initial stages
    pathology in a patient there is tachycardia, and in the latter –
    bradycardia);
  • severe muscle pain;
  • repeated vomiting, not associated with food intake (most often
    the seizure begins after a change in body position or when strengthening
    headache);
  • nausea;
  • excessive tension of the occipital muscles, forcing the patient
    lying with head thrown back;
  • increased sweating;
  • Диагностика meningitisuncontrollable contractions of the muscles of the body and
    limbs that may be accompanied by involuntary
    urination or fainting;
  • excessive sleepiness;
  • loss of ability to respond quickly to environmental change
    furnishings;
  • mental disturbances (aggressive behavior, frightening
    hallucinations, total apathy, etc.);
  • prodromal symptoms (rhinitis, abdominal pain).

For всех типов meningitis характерна болезненность черепа при
knocking (percussion) and increased skin sensitivity
covers to any irritants.

With the involvement in the pathological process of the substance of the brain in patients
paresis and paralysis develop. Severe Disease
often accompanied by:

  • a disorder of vision characterized by bifurcation of objects
    who sees the patient (diplopia);
  • dilated pupils;
  • squint.

In old age, meningeal syndrome manifests itself
not typical. Patients complain of pronounced tremor
extremities and impaired consciousness may demonstrate complete
indifference to what is happening around them. At the same time, headaches
most of them are missing.

Diagnostic measures

Основным методом диагностики meningitis является люмбальная
puncture. As part of this procedure, the doctor:

  • Люмбальная пункцияperforms with a special needle
    puncture of the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord;
  • takes 1-2 ml of cerebrospinal fluid;
  • examines liquor in order to detect markers in it,
    indicating the development of the inflammatory process (the presence of purulent
    impurities, increasing protein concentration, reducing glucose levels,
    prevalence of neutrophils or lymphocytes, etc.).

Along with the lumbar puncture, the specialist conducts
neurological examination, allowing to evaluate the patient’s response to
hail or pain stimuli as well as detect signs
irritation of the meninges (photophobia, painful
noise response). If necessary, the doctor sends
patient on the passage of additional research:

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  • Компьютерная томография magnetic resonance and computer
    tomography, allowing to study the structure of the brain and
    detect indirect symptoms of inflammation of its membranes (expansion
    cerebral ventricles, reduction of subarachnoid crevices);
  • blood test to help detect standard signs
    development of the inflammatory process in the body (increase
    plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen concentrations, increasing
    sedimentation rate of red blood cells);
  • polymerase chain reaction to identify
    pathogens.

In addition, the specialist carefully studies the patient’s history.
fixing all the factors that could trigger the occurrence
pathology.

Treatment methods

Cure meningitis at home is impossible, therefore, when
manifestation of the first signs of the disease the patient is hospitalized.
Lumbar puncture at the prehospital stage is not performed.

В основе лечения meningitis, протекающего в гнойной форме, лежит
administration of antibacterial agents (penicillin) or
sulfonamides. In complicated cases intralumbus allowed
administering Benzylpenicillin to the patient. In cases where the treatment
according to the described scheme for 3 days does not give a result,
The patient is prescribed semi-synthetic therapy.
antibacterial drugs. Simultaneously with this patient
recommend taking gentamicin, monomitsin and nitrofurans.

Treatment methods meningitis

A similar combination of antibiotics is used until
pathogens and determine their sensitivity to
drugs. After that, the patient is transferred to
monotherapy. Criteria for recovery are normalization.
body temperature, regression of meningeal syndrome and cerebral
manifestations of the disease.

In cases where the patient found characteristic of
туберкулёзного meningitis симптомы, лечение сводится к непрерывному
administration of bacteriostatic doses of various antibiotics (which
the combination to choose is determined by the infectious disease specialist). When you appear
patient complaints of nausea, hearing loss, vestibular
disorders or other side effects from using a similar
therapeutic scheme doctor:

  • reduces the dosage of drugs used;
  • prescribes desensitizing agents;
  • recommends that the patient undergo a course of therapy using
    Ftivazida or other anti-tuberculosis drugs.

The criteria for recovery are sanitation liquor,
disappearance of symptoms of the disease and improvement of the general condition
the patient.

For meningitis with viral etiology, treatment
limited to the use of tonic and symptomatic
means. The patient is prescribed:

  • glucose;
  • methyluracil;
  • ascorbic acid;
  • metamizole sodium;
  • B vitamins.

In cases where the disease occurs in a complicated form,
The treatment regimen is supplemented with diuretic and corticosteroid drugs.
drugs. If necessary, the patient is prescribed a second
lumbar puncture, which allows to reduce the pressure of CSF in
spinal canal.

Meningitis diet

Persons who have been diagnosed with inflammation of the membranes
brain, it is very important to follow a sparing diet.
It is strictly forbidden to include in the diet:

  • animal fats that can trigger a violation
    acid-base balance (metabolic acidosis);
  • canned foods;
  • sweets and other foods rich in easily digestible
    carbohydrates;
  • smoked meat;
  • fatty, salty and dried fish;
  • ice cream;
  • radishes, radishes, turnips and other vegetables rich in coarse
    fiber;
  • hot spices;
  • fatty sauces;
  • salty foods;
  • fruits and berries, containing many hard grains (gooseberry,
    figs, etc.);
  • Meningitis diet marinated mushrooms;
  • fresh bread from wheat or coarse rye flour, rich
    pastries, puff pastry, pancakes;
  • dishes from legumes;
  • whole milk;
  • barley and buckwheat cereals.

Patients must carefully observe the drinking regime – drink
at least 2 liters of fluid per day. In the diet you need to include
The following drinks, foods and dishes:

  • lean meat and fish, boiled or cooked on
    a couple;
  • boiled eggs;
  • Что необходимо употреблять в пищу при менингите rubbed
    berries, fruits and vegetables with a minimum amount of coarse food
    fibers;
  • steam omelets;
  • low-fat broths;
  • fermented milk products (sour cream, yogurt, kefir,
    ryazhenka);
  • boiled macaroni;
  • rubbed или вязкие каши;
  • crackers made from wheat bread;
  • natural fruit juices diluted with boiled water;
  • mineral water;
  • lean pastries;
  • decoction of rosehips;
  • compotes, jellies, fruit drinks;
  • dry biscuits or biscuits.

Food for meningitis should be fractional: food is necessary
take in small portions up to 6 times per day. The right approach to
the formulation of the diet allows patients to weaken the intoxication
symptoms, activate metabolic processes, normalize
water-salt balance, to provide the body with an adequate amount
proteins, vitamins and other nutrients.

Folk remedies

There are many unconventional techniques that allow
accelerate recovery for meningitis. Experts recommend
people who have been diagnosed with inflammation of the lining of the brain,
use the following recipes:

  1. Pound a large handful of poppy seeds in a mortar. Shift
    the resulting mass in a thermos and pour a liter brought to a boil
    milk After 12 hours, strain the solution and give it completely
    cool down Take the medicine before breakfast, lunch and dinner at 70
    ml.
  2. Pour ½ cup of dry leaves of sagebrush 600 ml
    boiling water and leave to infuse for 7 hours. Filtered infusion
    принимать перед едой по 40 ml.
  3. Folk remedies против meningitis Prepare the medicinal
    collection of primrose and valerian roots, lavender flowers, leaves
    peppermint and rosemary (all the ingredients for it to take in equal
    quantities). A small handful of the mixture pour boiling water (400-450 ml) and
    insist 2 hours. Drink the resulting liquid during the day.
  4. Pour 200 g of pine needles into the pan, pour 3 liters
    water and boil the mixture for 25 minutes. Based on filtered
    broth to prepare a healing bath.
  5. Prepare a mixture of lemon balm leaves, peppermint herbs and
    coriander fruit (1: 1: 1). A handful of collection pour alcohol (70%) and
    insist 48 hours. Dampen in a tincture of gauze patches and attach them
    to temples and nape. Perform the procedure every time you amplify
    headaches.
  6. Pour ¼ cup of dry lime blossom with a liter of boiling water and
    insist 25 minutes. Strain the liquid to drink during the day.
  7. Fall asleep in a thermos of 2 tbsp. spoons of cranberry leaves and berries, pour
    boiling water (550 ml). After 4 hours, strain the infusion through folded
    double gauze Take 60 ml each time before
    a meal.
  8. Народная медицина против meningitis Grind a big handful
    fresh rose hips together with seeds in a mortar. Pour in
    berries in a thermos and pour boiling water over them (750 ml). After a day, strain
    infusion and take it for 2 sips per hour.
  9. Pour 2 tsp of dry herb Veronica with a glass of boiling water. Through
    40 минут процедить настой и дать ему полностью cool down To divide
    liquid for 2 equal portions and drink one of them before
    breakfast and another after dinner.

It is important to understand that folk remedies can not replace
drug therapy for meningitis. Therefore, they can
use only as a supplement to the main treatment,
prescribed by a doctor.

Preventive measures

It is much more difficult to cure meningitis than to prevent
development of the pathological process. That is why doctors
developed a whole range of measures to reduce the risk
inflammatory lesions of the brain membranes. So,
for the prevention of the disease it is necessary:

  • Preventive measures meningitis harden the body;
  • refuse to visit places with large concentrations of people in
    periods of epidemics;
  • avoid hypothermia, dress for the weather;
  • take multivitamin complexes in autumn and winter
    time;
  • limit travel to countries where there is a chance
    contract meningitis through insect bites;
  • timely vaccination against infectious
    diseases.

It is important to remember that meningitis is a dangerous pathology,
capable of causing the most adverse consequences for
patient (up to death). Therefore, its issues
prevention, timely diagnosis and treatment
pay heightened attention. If any symptoms appear, right
or indirectly indicating the development of the inflammatory process in
brain membranes, you must give up self-medication and
consult a doctor as soon as possible.

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