psychiatric practice, paranoia is regarded as mental
pathology, the main features of which are excessive
suspicion, persecution and the tendency to see evil
intent in a casual set of circumstances. Not always succeed
notice the disorder from the side because the behavioral model
sometimes the patient seems quite sensible to those around him
causes a late appeal for medical help.
The foundation for the development of mental disorder is mainly
become neurotransmitter disorders in certain areas
brain. Также на формирование paranoia влияют особенности
temperament personality, developed from childhood
stereotypical behaviors, habitual ways of responding to
stressful situations, adverse life circumstances.
Patients who are delivered
disappointing diagnosis, from an early age is difficult to cope with
various troubles. Paranoia often overtakes cyclothymes and
synton individuals. They often have high self-esteem, with any
opportunities they show their discontent, are not able to forgive,
react too aggressively to questions concerning their rights.
With paranoia, own negative impulses are attributed
others, only in another, transformed beyond recognition
the form. AT патологическом процессе принимают участие такие защитные
reactions like negation, reactive formation and projection.
For example, the paranoid is in love, but in every way he tries to deny this
A paranoid patient cannot escape from
a kind of vicious circle. By his behavior he provokes
other people to respond, and then perceives the reactions of others
as a fact that once again confirms his distorted vision
of the world. With age, the patient’s condition only worsens, he
becomes suspicious, aggressive and vindictive.
As a rule, paranoia caused by other pathological
impaired, develops in adulthood. Often trigger
механизмом психического расстройства становятся следующие
- Alzheimer’s disease;
- Huntington’s syndrome;
- Parkinson’s disease;
- atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels;
- chronic alcoholism;
- taking certain medications;
- genetic predisposition;
- various metabolic disorders;
- damage to the brain structures of any origin.
As the progression of the main pathology of human nature
becoming increasingly unbearable. Течение paranoia усугубляется
the influence of negative life situations like death
relative, parting with your loved one, financial
A paranoid person is deeply convinced that he is right, not
able to take criticism and trust even close
to people. AT голове параноика, как правило, возникает некая бредовая,
an obsession that serves as the guiding vector of his actions. AT
связи с этим специалисты в области психиатрии выделяют
следующие разновидности paranoia:
- Persecutory. It seems to man that he is constantly being persecuted.
- Alcoholic. Pathological process
formed on the background of alcohol abuse and
different extreme degree of jealousy.
- Hypochondriacal. Paranoid firmly convinced of his presence
severe and incurable disease.
- Paranoia of conscience. For the disorder is characteristic too
critical attitude toward self.
- Zealous A form of mental disorder, accompanied by
obsessive thoughts about adultery.
- Senial Degenerative causes
brain changes and mental disorders occurring in
- Megalomaniac The patient is obsessed with delusions of grandeur. He is visited
crazy ideas of invention or discovery. Also paranoid
may seek to make radical changes in public
- Involutionary. Develops in acute form. Symptoms and signs
такой paranoia у женщин нередко наблюдаются в преддверии
- Religious. The man unknowingly tries on the role
preacher or deity.
- Suggestive-crazy. Personality is incredible.
charming and attractive to everyone around.
- Kverulyantnaya. A type of disease in which it is pathologically aggravated
sense of justice. Paranoid constantly lodges complaints
various instances trying to hold accountable those who
refers to it in an allegedly inappropriate way.
- Erotic. Man can’t get rid
from delusional thoughts of a sexual nature.
- Expansive. The patient is convinced that he is a genius
a writer, artist or actor.
- Sensitive. ATозникает из-за травмы brain.
Manifested unbridled desire to provoke a conflict
- Spicy Crazy ideas arise suddenly, without any weighty reason.
Stages of Paranoid Disorder
At the initial stage of mental illness in humans
an overvalued idea is being formed. Even though it is tight
wedged into the stream consciousness, persuade the poor fellow using
logical reasons, it is still possible. AT некоторых случаях дальнейшее
disease progression stops at the first stage.
Over time, obsessive
thoughts are transformed into delusional ones that are not amenable to any
correction. The person leads a habitual way of life, works, communicates
with friends however he is becoming more incredulous and
suspicious. He catches himself thinking that all people began to relate to
him differently, as a result of which begins to splash out aggression on
The patient begins to make plans concerning the defense of his personal
space. AT этот период окружение еще не подозревает о его
obvious mental problems. Only a few months later
obvious changes in character are visible to the naked
with a look.
Then the disorder enters the next stage – delusional.
Now the paranoid is developing a self-defense plan in more detail. it
may last for many years. The patient comes up with ridiculous ideas
related mostly to surveillance: spies are seen everywhere,
threatening him and forcing him to act against his will.
The current situation takes away vital energy and often leads
to suicidal thoughts. Caught in a bind, paranoid
becomes conflict and embittered by the whole world man.
Being a chronic disease, paranoia proceeds with periods
exacerbations and remissions. The first alarm bells appear in
adulthood in the form of manic inclinations, excessive
suspicion, jealousy, persecution mania. Man is holy
believes that any random event has to him
The key element in the psychopathological process is
supervaluable idea, on the basis of which they line up as it seems
paranoid, logically related chains. The patient is in
constant search for conspiracy against yourself.
By sharing his delusional ideas with others, he doesn’t
meets understanding on their part, because of what conflicts erupt.
At the early stage of the disease, everyday scandals, paranoid
regularly makes a complaint to the second half. Sometimes he
suspects neighbors that they want to put him on the street and
deliberately build him all sorts of machinations. After some time the patient
can start writing complaints to public bodies. AT письмах он
sets out the essence of his requirements, but, not having received an answer, even more
breaks down on close people.
The paranoid cannot forgive, he is always plagued by strange conjectures.
Over time, he becomes self-contained and confines himself to social
contacts, distancing even from the closest people. Such a person
able to subtly feel the emotional state of the interlocutor, but
interprets it completely wrong.
Very often even insignificant
the detail is of paramount importance to the patient and sometimes takes on
negative coloration. To fulfill labor obligations and home
Affairs paranoid fit with full responsibility, but constantly
displeased with something.
There is a paradox when a person is critical
relates to the surrounding reality, but at the same time
makes even the slightest remark in his side. In his opinion, he
over the years forced to languish in a hostile environment, all burn
the desire to trample it in the dirt. The angry person may even
get a weapon in order to deal with the main
the instigators of the conspiracy. Среди симптомов и признаков paranoia у мужчин
and women in the terminal stage of the disease should be reduced
physical and emotional activity, cognitive impairment
Experienced psychiatrists know that primarily paranoid
personality disorder must be differentiated from schizophrenia.
Patient paranoid, unlike a person suffering from endogenous
polymorphic mental illness does not interfere with
hallucinations and bouts of emotional instability.
The schizophrenic does not express strange ideas, and for his behavior is not
inherent elements of pretentiousness. To understand what is causing
девиантного поведения больного, специалист проводит ряд
- Face to face conversation. ATо время консультации врач пытается выяснить,
did the patient really develop a mental
- Psychometric diagnosis. To determine the symptoms
paranoid state the psychotherapist uses specially
developed questionnaires and test items.
- Laboratory screening. The study includes several
blood tests (general, hormonal).
- Instrumental diagnostics. The method is based on
using special equipment. The patient is prescribed CT and
MRI of the brain, electroencephalogram, angiogram.
A sick person cannot adequately assess his condition,
therefore, family members should bring him to the doctor’s office. Than
раньше будет начата терапия paranoia, тем быстрее пациент вернется
to normal life. Heal by his own efforts categorically
prohibited. This should be remembered by those who want to stop
unpleasant symptoms without visiting a medical facility.
ATыявить причину paranoia, значит, сделать первый шаг на пути к
cure of chronic mental illness. If the pathology was
provoked by the use of potent drugs or unlimited
drinking alcohol, eliminating this situation should lead
to get rid of heavy delusional experiences. Persons suffering
other neurodegenerative diseases feel much
better after primary pathology therapy. With лечении paranoia
Special attention is paid to basic areas.
- Cognitive behavioral
therapy. A widespread complex form of psychotherapy,
designed to teach the patient to manage their emotions. After
multiple sessions the patient is reduced aggression against other
people, control over mental process improves,
- Гештальт-therapy. Allows you to cope with auto-aggression and
helps paranoid find itself in society.
- Семейная therapy. Work aimed at eliminating
emotional and behavioral disorders are not only conducted with
patient, but also with his relatives.
AT особо запущенных случаях не обойтись без медикаментозного
interventions. Чаще всего больному назначают следующие
- Traditional Neuroleptics
(Chlorpromazine, Fluphenazine, Haloperidol). Called to block
dopamine receptors in the brain. According to scientists, namely
dopamine hormone is responsible for the appearance of paranoid thoughts.
- Atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine, lurazidone, clozapine).
Both dopamine and serotonin are inhibited.
- Antidepressants (Prozac, Lerivon, Auroriks). Normalize
mood with severe symptoms of depression.
- Tranquilizers (Truksal, Elenium, Seduxen). Help
deal with fear and anxiety.
- Natural sedatives (Persen, Valerian extract,
Novo-Passit). Help снять стресс и нервное напряжение.
Prognosis and preventive measures
A whole complex of factors is important in predicting outcomes.
mental illness. For example, temperament plays an important role.
and the nature of the patient, his lifestyle, as well as the form of delusional
psychosis. If the patient resists in every way when they try to
help, then, of course, the chances of recovery are small. With
history of any psychosomatic illness
therapeutic measures will have to be carried out throughout
The state of paranoiac may somewhat improve in the period
remission. Exacerbation is usually observed under various stress
The paranoid state is a danger to both
the patient, and for his environment. With отсутствии должной терапии
The likelihood of developing the following disorders is high:
- visual and auditory
- neurotic fit;
- panic attacks;
- severe depression;
The results of treatment depend largely on joint efforts.
health workers, the patient and his relatives. From the very
больного требуется обязательное выполнение следующих
- adherence to work and rest;
- regular exercise;
- good nutrition enriched with vitamins and minerals;
- minimizing stressful situations;
- complete abandonment of pernicious habits.
ATажно понимать, что такой диагноз — вовсе не приговор. The medicine
does not stand still, every day new medicinal
drugs and techniques that help smooth out the symptoms of mental
disorders Noticing a close person, even the most distant
hints of paranoia, do not immediately give up. Maximum
support and a favorable family environment are key to success