often mood swings. This is usually affected by any
developments. But some individuals may have such changes.
for no apparent reason. Mental Disorder, Clinically
manifested in the form of affective mood disorders, called
bipolar disorder. Symptoms of the disease can alternate in
depending on the stages.
French psychiatrists J. Falret and J. Bayarzhe first described
bipolarity in 1854. Independent nosological unit
the disorder was recognized only in 1896 when the works were published
Crepelin, who studied in detail this pathology.
the disease was given the name “manic-depressive psychosis.” Bipolar
Affective disorder began to be called her since 1993, when she
included in ICD-10. This is due to the fact that psychosis with the disease
did not always occur.
Исследователи признаков биполярного frustration используют
different evaluation criteria, so accurate distribution data
there is no disease. In the 90s of the 20th century, Russian researchers in the field of
psychology claimed that about 0.45% was affected by pathology
population of the planet. Foreign psychiatrists tended to other data
and considered that 0.8% of people are affected. Today
experts tend to believe that the disorder is observed in 1%
population, while every third patient suffers from severe
психотической формой frustration.
Bipolar mental disorder occurs mainly in people.
25-45 years. Middle-aged patients most often suffer
unipolar form of the disease, and young people – bipolar. First episode
pathology is observed in 20% of patients over the age of 50 years.
Depressive phases occur more frequently in this case. Repeated
seizures occur in 85% of people, and after some time about 40% of
they cease to be able-bodied and become disabled.
Description of the disease
Для биполярного frustration характерна частая смена настроения,
at the same time, the patient’s condition does not change from bad to good.
Depression and despondency are replaced by euphoria and the feeling that the patient
able to do bold deeds. Strong mood swings
always visible to others.
disorder is most often seen in women
floor. In men, this disease occurs 1.5 times less frequently.
Treat the pathology is easy, if you choose the right therapy. WITH
using drugs and psychotherapeutic techniques
a person can keep his emotions under control. Problem
is to make a correct diagnosis, because the change
mood can be a symptom of various diseases. In addition,
women’s emotional state is more unstable than men, and in
a period of premenstrual syndrome, they have an influx of emotions
and fatigue, which imperceptibly replace each other.
Because of this, bipolar affective disorder is often
diagnosed in a patient only a few years after the appearance
first symptoms. When a person and the people around him realize that
something is wrong with him, and the manifestation of signs can no longer be attributed to
bad temper, you need to seek help from
Bipolarity can make anyone sick. While doctors can not
Name the exact causes of the disease. But there is
factors that increase the risk of developing this disease:
- Disruption of work
neurotransmitters and some cells in the brain.
Neurotransmitters are active chemicals with which
nerve impulses are transmitted between the cells of the brain
the brain. If the number of these intermediaries decreases, then it will decrease.
movement of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine.
- WITHтресс. It cannot be called an absolutely negative event, but
if in life there are often stressful situations, the brain with them is not
copes, because of what a person begins to use often
alcohol, and disrupted day regimen leads to sleep deprivation.
- Heredity. Mental расстройство нельзя назвать
genetic, but this factor can cause it to appear.
The genes that regulate neurotransmitter activity can lead to
mental disorders. If the family has a relative with it
disease, it is likely that they will suffer
children. It happens that the disease appears in foster children.
WITHпециалисты полагают, что на это влияет определённый стиль
education. Identical twins can hurt together disorder
in 76% of cases.
Some people have a predisposition to the disease,
because each person may have mental disorders. But
usually this factor is combined with another, for example, with
Bipolarity is characterized by two types. First view
characterized by severe symptoms. With this, the diagnosis of mental
diseases put with full confidence. If a person with such
типом frustration не будет серьёзно относиться к лечению, тогда он
may be in the intensive care unit. WITHправиться с болезнью
it is not his own work out.
ATторой вид frustration встречается чаще, чем первый. With him
the symptoms are not so pronounced, so even the patient can
It is difficult to understand that he needs the help of a doctor. If not on time
go to the hospital, then the symptoms will progress, and
the person will become depressed or euphoric and will inadequately start himself
Кроме этого, различают несколько типов психического
- Unipolar. Mania or depression alternate with “light”
by intervals – euthymia. This form is called periodic mania or
- Correctly intermittent. Manic and depressive phases
replace each other at certain intervals.
- Incorrectly intermittent. After the depressive period again
may come depressive. The same thing happens if
there is mania.
- Double. This form is characterized by a change of depression and mania, after
what is the interphase (rest). When changing depressive and manic
Forms are not “light” intervals.
During the manic phase, the patient feels great.
by man. His self-esteem is too high. He is constantly
is in euphoria, besides, he has a lot of energy.
During depression, the world of man seems gray and boring. Him
nothing pleases, since he cannot find anything good in him.
The patient considers himself unnecessary, moreover, he is sure that he is
problem for others. During the depressive period, internal
personality problems with a disorder. Often this state
mistakenly considered schizophrenia.
Episodes of depression and mania can last at different times. Average
one phase has 6–12 months. But иногда эпизод не превышает
even two weeks, and in some cases it may take several
years old. Even “light” gaps (euthymia) are sometimes measured.
десятками years old.
WITHимптомы биполярного аффективного frustration при
episode. На состояние больного влияет интенсивность frustration.
For mania is characterized by an elevated emotional background, gradually
developing into an unstable mood in which one observes
irritability and depression. The patient can not sleep properly
because of the mass of thoughts and ideas in my head. Mania greatness makes it
too talkative and hyperactive at the hypomania stage. WITHо
over time, a person loses a sense of self-preservation.
- Depression phase. When a patient is depressed
reduced emotional background. Some children may exercise
aggression. A person is not interested in what is happening around him.
It loses weight, but it can eat a lot. Patient torments
insomnia, but sometimes he sleeps all day. Depressive episode
characterized by a breakdown, exacerbation of a baseless feeling
guilt, absent-mindedness and even suicidal tendencies.
WITHмешанное состояние, которое преобладает у 50% больных, сочетает
in itself signs of both phases. He is usually subject to people whom
treated with psychoactive drugs, as well as those who have the disease
nervous system. The disease is severe.
One of the main
симптомов биполярного frustration личности в депрессивный период —
it is slow thinking, motion retardation, decrease
libido. In mild form, the mood of patients fluctuates over
all day In the evening it gets better, and in the morning
signs reach maximum severity.
With bipolar affective disorder, depression can
manifest in several forms. Simple depressive state
characterized by depressed mood, lack of motivation to
actions and reduced intellectual functions. With hypochondria
form of the patient believes that he has a serious, deadly and
an incurable disease or a disease unknown to modern
Delusional depression with rapid cyclical associated with delirium
charges with which patients agree and share it.
Agitated form differs speech motor arousal. With
anesthetic form of depression to the patient, it seems that he
lost the ability to feel.
Diagnosis of the disease
Initially, the patient must contact a psychotherapist,
which he will have to go through a conversation, testing and inspection. Doctor
prescribes blood tests and brain tests to
eliminate severe injuries that may be caused
hemorrhage or neoplasm.
finds out not only the patient’s case history, but his
relatives. This is necessary in order not to confuse
bipolarity with major depression. With второй болезни не бывает
mania, so a specialist should talk with relatives
To make the doctor an accurate diagnosis, the patient is observed at least
two weeks. If during this period he has not repeated
less than two episodes of affective disorders, one of which
must be manic or hypomanic, then he
diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
With диагностике манию легко спутать с возбуждением, которое
happens after taking psychoactive drugs. Depressive phase often
take for psychogenic depression. It is very important to distinguish
affective disorder from neurosis, schizophrenia and other diseases
If you start to treat the disorder immediately after the first
manic episode, then you can expect better results than
with therapy started later.
Treatment of the disease
uneasy. Him главной задачей выступает прерывание фазы мании или
depressed at least for a while. Aggressive psychotherapy in
In this case, do not apply, because the psyche of the patient can
stop responding to treatments. Patient first
prescribe small doses of drugs that
gradually increase to effective.
Under the influence of drugs, phase inversion may occur,
there it changes to the exact opposite. This is pretty disturbing.
a sign, therefore during treatment it is necessary to monitor the condition
Initiated therapy should not be interrupted. Every day the doctor watches
изменениями психики и настроения the patient. If after some
means side effects are observed, then change the dosage
drugs or replace them with others. People suffering affective
расстройством, выписывают следующие препараты:
- WITHтабилизаторы настроения. These funds are prescribed if the person
becomes hyperactive, talkative and nervous. Lithium preparations,
valproic acid and carbamazepine are able to level
- Antidepressants. Their
used if the patient has lethargy, depression and
other signs of depression. Antidepressants are uplifting, but
they must be taken strictly according to the scheme drawn up by the doctor, since
they can increase the manifestations of the disease.
- Antipsychotics. They are necessary if among
symptoms found delusions and hallucinations. Selection of medicinal
drugs that improve the condition of the patient with bipolar
The disorder is huge, but the treatment will be long and difficult.
Electroconvulsive therapy is prescribed only as a last resort.
when from other means there was no necessary effect. Therapy
carried out under light anesthesia. Before it, the patient is given a muscular
relaxant, so he will not feel pain and discomfort. Pulse
served within 30-60 seconds. This technique normalizes the condition.
patient on average for 10-15 minutes. He can leave the hospital at
Since electroconvulsive therapy has many
contraindications, it is rarely prescribed. After the procedure,
a person may experience temporary problems with consciousness, memory and
orientation in space, but they quickly pass.
Gestation and lactation period
A woman planning children should first be consulted.
with a doctor about the possibility of conception, if she is manic-depressive
psychosis. She definitely needs to visit a psychiatrist, a therapist and
If a woman becomes pregnant, then you need to cancel all
psychotropic drugs because they negatively affect the development
fetus. WITHхему по постепенной отмене лекарств разрабатывает врач.
If you immediately stop taking drugs, mental state
patients will get worse.
During gestation, a relapse of the disease may occur. AT
this situation, apply aggressive treatments using
normetik. Therapy проводят только в больнице.
With необходимости пациентке выписывают препараты лития, но с
great care as they adversely affect
формировании сердечно-сосудистой системы у fetus. If a woman is
lactation period prescribed these funds, then it can not be fed
baby’s breasts. After birth, the patient’s condition is characterized by
тяжёлым возвратом frustration.
Doctorи не могут дать стопроцентных прогнозов лечения психического
frustration. If you ask for help at the initial stage
development of the disease, then the person will be able to get out of it
Когда причинами появления frustration были психические болезни
and heredity, then bipolarity will not get rid of
completely. ATсе будет зависеть от больного, который должен
engage in your treatment. People with manic and
depressive states do not move away from society, although
their work and personal relationships suffer.
Only mentally ill individuals may be limited in
capacity Some of them are contained in psychiatric
hospitals. Often the disorder is combined with drug addiction or
alcoholism, because of what the disease and prognosis
If a person starts a disease and does not ask for help
doctors, he will have many family and financial problems in
of life. The patient will not be able to study or work normally. He will start
abuse alcohol or drugs. On late
stages of the disease, many patients isolate themselves from society.
Some of them may try to commit suicide.
To avoid the sad consequences, a person suffering
manic-depressive psychosis, you need to keep a healthy way
of life. Symptoms are controlled and reduced in this way.
Psychotherapy and Medications
perform the main work but the man should himself apply
effort to cure. He needs to learn more about his
diseases to make the right decisions. The patient must be
be patient and drink drugs according to the scheme suggested
a doctor. He needs to determine what situations cause him
manic or depressive episodes. From bad habits should
get rid of. Yoga and other methods will help to avoid stress.
For a person with a mental disorder, social is important.
support. He needs to build relationships with family and friends,
who should support him in a difficult moment and help
survive difficult periods.